Wireless technology has been used by many establishments and organizations nowadays. Back in the old days, it has been really hard to imagine that wireless technology existed. Computers must be connected to a telephone connection or a telephone line to stay connected in the internet or the network. Now, there is no need for telephone cables because of the existence of the wireless technology. Cisco (2008) had documented that there have been eighteen major types of wireless technologies exist, that contain a large range of technology which exist from ATM protocol to a Wireless Local Area Network.
Wireless Technology works by the transmission of radio waves which are propagated through the air. The amount of data carried, the immunity to interference from any source, and a host of other characteristics varies from technology to technology exists. The wireless technologies are characterized according to Protocol which is also known as ATM or IP, connection type which can be classified as point to point or multipoint connections and spectrum. II. Applications of Wireless Technology The University of Tennesse (2007) had shown that there are different applications for the wireless technology.
These are voice and messaging, hand-held and other internet-enabled devices and lastly, data networking. Voice and messaging includes cellular phones, pagers and two-way business radios. Hand-held and other Internet enabled devices include Internet-enabled cellular phones and personal Digital Assistants that can connect to the internet across a wireless network. Data networking examples include Wireless Local Area Networks, Broadband wireless and Bluetooth Technology. This would be discussed later in the next paragraph a. Types of Wireless Networks There are many types of Wireless Network that has been developed.
Cisco (2007) has stated three in its article, these include the WLAN, Broadband Wireless and the Bluetooth technology First is the Wireless Local Area Network. This type of network is used as an extension to wired local area networks in the building. . The connectivity between the wired network and the mobile user is established through this network. Second is Broadband Wireless Networks. Broadband wireless networks is a promising wireless technology that permits the wireless delivery of voice, data and video. This network is a technology that competes with the Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).
There are two types of Broadband Wireless Technology. These are Local multi-point distribution service (LMDS) and Multi-channel, multi-point distribution service. The types of Broadband wireless technology vary based on the frequency bandwidth. Third type of wireless network is the Bluetooth. This particular type of network uses a small form-factor, low-cost as compared to the other networks, short-range wireless links for mobile phones, laptops and portable handheld devices and connects to the internet. Additional wireless networks that are available according to electronics. om (2008) are WIbree, Zigbee, Wimax, Ultra-Wide Band, Near Field Communications, DECT Phone Systems and HomeRF Swap. Wibree can be classified as a short-range wireless standard. This is a wireless standard developed by Nokia to work like Bluetooth. The difference between Wibree and Bluetooth is that the power usage of the batter would be lower than that of the Bluetooth. Zigbee is another type of wireless standard developed which is aimed at remote controls and sensor applications that is suitable for operations in harsh radio environements. WiMax is another wireless standard that offers high data rate communications in a wide area.
Ultra Wide Band is a type of wireless standard which requires a very high data transmission rate which is beyond that of the exisiting wireless standard. The transmission of data is in Gigahertz. Another network that has not been included in the wireless networks in Crisco is the Near Field Communications technology. This particular standard uses the local magnetic fields to communicate over short distances. DECT wireless technology is mostly used in wireless phones for the house. This system is usually used for residential, and business cordless phone communication.
Lastly, electronics. com had described the last wireless network is the HomeRF Swap. This particular network is designed for home applications and aimed at consumer devices, This was used before for the consumer devices used at home and in business. However, because of the low market share in the industry, this had been disbanded in 2003. Tabona (2004), had only classified four types of Wireless Networks. These are Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN), Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN), Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANS) and Wireles Wide Area Networks (WWAN).
WLAN is described by Tabona as a network in a local area such as schools, companies or library. WPAN is described as personal area networks that had been used by consumers. Tabona (2004) had renamed two particular examples, these are infra red and the Bluetooth. WMANS is described as a network that allows the connection of multiple networks in a metropolitan area. Lastly, WWAN is a technology that is maintained over large areas such as cities or countries via the satellite systems or antenna sites looked up by the ISP or the Internet Service Provider.
b. Infrastructure of Wireless Systems. The University of Tennessee (2008) had discussed in its article the infrastructure of Wireless Area network. There are two basic components for the infrastructure configuration. These are access points and Wireless Client Adaptor. Access Points connects the local area network by an Ethernet Cable. The access points receive, buffer, and transport data between the WLAN and the wired network infrastructure. It has been further discussed that a single access point supports on average twenty users and covers an area of 20 meters in areas with obstacles and 100 meters in areas that has none.
Second important component for the infrastructure of Wireless networks is the Wireless Client Adapter. The Wireless Client Adapter connects the users via an access point to the rest of the LAN. A wireless adapter can be a PC Card, an ISA or a PCI adapter. c. Security Systems for Wireless Networks Tabona (2004) had stated three methods of security for Wireless Networks. These are Wired Equivalent Policy (WEP), Service Set Identifier (SSID) and Media Access Control. WEP is a method planned to prevent the interception of radio frequency signals by users that are not authorized to use the network.
This is usually suitable for small networks. This method has no key management protocol thus, each key must be entered manually in the clients computer. WEP works by having all clients and Access Point configured with the same key for Encryption and Decryption. The second method is the Service Set Identifier. This particular method operates like a password by allowing a WLAN Network to be split up into different networks with a unique identifier each. The identifiers would then be programmed to the access points.
For a client to be included in the network, the client computer must be programmed with a corresponding SSID for the network. Lastly, is the Media Acces Control address filtering. A list of MAC addresses belonging to the client computers can be encoded into an Access Points and the computers who had been included in the access points are assigned to allow the client’s access. When a computer makes a request, its MAC address is compared to that of the MAC address of the client and if it matches, then the client is allowed entry to the network.
US-CERT (2006) had shown several methods on how to protect the security of wireless technologies. The user must use a virtual private Network, avoid using passwords and providing personal information to web sites, the files of the user must be encrypted to stop alteration of any files in the computer. When using a public access point, the user must be aware of who sees you in the network. The user that would like to use the network must also disable File Sharing to prevent any hacking of the files.
III. Importance of Wireless Technology in the US. Wireless Technology is deemed as very important for the company’s according to a survey report from Accenture (2007). It has been stated in the report that most of the Chief Information Officers (CIO) or three fourths of the CIO believe that wireless technology improves ability and collaboration. Half of the surveyed CIO say that the wireless technology helps the company reallocate its resources quickly. Having access or communication with the real time customer is very important to the business as per the CIOs because this would automatically determine what immediate action must the company take in order to serve the client better.
Since the technology is seen as very important for their company, some CIO from the large to the mid-size companies plan to spend $5 Million or more on wireless technologies over the next two years. More than 70 percent of the surveyed companies are curremtly using WiMax or Wi-Fi Networks. Furthermore, according to the survey, the revenue generating market such as sales, marketing and customer service are very dependent in this technologies because they are transacting businesses in the internet. IV. Fast Development of Wireless Technology The development of Wireless technology in each country is different.
However, it is very evident that technology progresses most faster in developing countries. This is further verified in an article from World Bank (2008). It has been stated in the article that the technological progress for developing countries is twice as fast as the richer ones. Newer technologies ranging from mobile phones, computers and internet spreads fast in developing countries. It has been further stated in the article that low-income countries have progressed technologically twice as fast as high-income countries since the early 90s.
Among the developed countries, Japan is ranked as the number one country that has fast development when it comes to technology progress as per the report from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. It is stated in their report in the year 2002 that Japan has started the implementation of the WLAN in February 2002. Korea is another country that can also be considered as one who had implemented the use of WLAN in Feb 2002. Switzerland is another country that has pioneered the use of WLAN last 2001. Actually it is the first country that had implemented the WLAN.
United Kingdom is also a pioneer that had introduece the use of WLAN to the public in 2001. V. The Continual Expansion of Wireless Technology Wireless Technology is being developed ever since it was introduced as per safecomprogram. gov (2007). Koprowski (2006) had shown that the wireless network has a large growth because of the 3G Networks. It had been stated from Boston Analysts that there is more than 100 million people around the globe who are using the 3G technology. Koprowski added that Western Europe had become the leader for 3G in the first half of 2006.
Followed up by the United States. The article from safecomprogram. gov shows that the researchers are currently developing 4G which is a different type of network for the mobile phone. This is designed to be a switched network with all digital work elements. This technology is not yet being used as of the moment. However, researchers say that this particular technology could operate at around the year 2011. 4G systems are seen as a network deployed with software defined radios. This will allow the equipment to be upgraded to new protocols and services via software upgrades.
This particular technology is seen to have brought the promise of world wide roaming for handheld devices which includes the mobile phones and laptop computers. All networks had been expected to embrace Internet Protocol Technology. From these, 4G would build the seond phase of 3G. It had been further stated in safecomprogram. gov that 4G will represent a large improvement in mobile Internet speeds and picture quality. Ericsson, a well known mobile phone manufacturer confirms that 4G could bring connection speeds of up to 50 times faster than 3G networks.
The technology also aims to offer three-dimensional visual experiences for the first time. VI. Wireless Saturation Alice Cuneo (2007) had shown in her article that the use of mobile phones which is included as a wireless technology is near saturation. Based on her report, Verizon, a US company had tallied a total of 63. 7 wireless customers where 1. 8 million customers are new. Statistics further show that in September 2006 to April 2007, the percentage of people living in the United States with one or more cellular phones exceed the number of people living in households with landlines which can be translated into 86. % against that of 84. 5%. There is a big percentage of homes that are wireless and the homes that uses landlines. Rob Enderle, the principal analyst of Enderle group had stated that the market is near its saturation. Enderle had stated that it can be seen on the trend that there is a decline of purchases of cellular phones and that markets that are untapped is the teens and the elderly. This maybe the case, however, looking at what is happening in the market. Mobile phone manufacturers have been trying to introduce other kinds of model with different features.
This is what drives people from looking forward for the new models that would be released by mobile phone manufacturers. This is what keeps the industry competitive because new features is being added to cellular phones recently, although there is still room for growth, there is a big chance that the mobile phones are already near the saturation stage. VII. Advantages and Disadvantages of Wireless Technology Every technology used has its own advantages and disadvantages. Wireless Technology has its own good and bad side.
Some may treat wireless technologies as something that is beneficial however, some may think otherwise. Advantages of wireless technologies according to Crisco (2004) are as follows: First, wireless technology helps complete the access technology portfolio. Wireless technology enables a complete access technology portfolio to work with the existing dial, cable and DSL technologies. Second, wireless technology goes where cable and fiber cannot. Before a computer needs to be placed in a strategic place where a telephone cable or Ethernet cable is present, even if it is not comfortable.
However, for wireless technology, one can choose to sit anywhere as long as it is within the range of the wireless network. Third, wireless technology involves reduced time to revenue. Since there are already wireless solutions, a wireless system can be done and brought online in 2 to 3 hours. Fourth, wireless technology provides broadband access extension. This technology extends the reach of the table or room The University of Tennesee had enumerated several disadvantages of wireless technology. First is that there is an existence of multiple standards in the wireless telephony .
Asia and Europe uses GSM to as a standard however the USA have multiple standards. The United States has lagged in the deployment of wireless networks because of this. Another disadvantage is the strength of coverage of wireless technology. As stated by the University of Tennessee, the coverage of the wireless technology may lessen if there is an obstacle and circumstances as stated. A very important issue is the data security of the network. Safety precautions must be implemented in order to prevent any viruses or unwanted guests in the network.
VIII. Conclusion The use of wireless technology had changed the people in many ways. Some had become dependent to it, others have tried to use it as a means to hack a particular network and some just use it for research and academics. The development of Wireless technology had took the consumer market by storm. Wireless Technology must be explained to the users to maintain order and cleanliness of the files. This maybe in its saturation stage however, more and more new models and technology comes out from the market.