A moral issue is an issue that is not black and white. A person must make a decision depending on their own personal values and act according to these values to make the right decision. An action must involve the person evaluating in what they believe in and ask themselves why they believe this. In order to make the proper decision in a moral issue, a person must be ethically fit to make the right choice. The resolution to this situation will almost never be completely agreed upon by everyone.
Kant said that people make their decisions based upon their personal influences and that they will choose the resolution which will benefit them the most. The universal point of view is where the person puts their personal benefits to the side and looks towards the greatest possible outcome for the entire group. This must be used when making the decision to ensure that they are considering all people involved in the situation equally including themselves. If two people do not agree with a certain situation, they must both look at the universal point of view in order to make the most equal decision.
If both people properly look towards the universal point of view, then they will be able to come to a compromise for a resolution. This will only work if both members put the good of the group over their own personal gain and benefit. Both people will have admitted that their original point of view was not the best overall solution for both members of the party. This is because both people will realize that their original opinion was based upon what they personally believed in where it would become a greater satisfaction for the individual rather than the group.
Ethics involving equality for all people in a certain situation. Equal rights can only be achieved if the person evaluates what they believe in and determine whether or not their resolution is biased towards themselves, or is for the good of the group. Equality of interests is complicated to agree upon because everyone has a different individual opinion towards what they think is right and equal. In determining equality of interests, a diminishing marginal utility can be considered based upon the amount of happiness that it brings, regardless of whose happiness it is.
The Utilitarian point of view is that you must favor the side which provides a greater amount of happiness because it will create the more significant amount of good to that person, compared to the other person who does not benefit as much from it. In my opinion, the moral judgment to be made in this situation is who really needs to be benefited more? If you have $1,000, a person on welfare will receive greater happiness from this amount of money compared to a millionaire who will not benefit as much from this.
Although the principle of being equal regardless of other factors that may apply to each person, the person who will receive the greatest amount of happiness from the same item is the deserving person. One argument that can be made to make a moral judgment on equality of the well-being of a person is when you tax the wealthy over people that are in poverty. The wealthier person is giving up more money for the tax’s, which is unequal. However, taxing the rich and poor the same amount of money will affect the happiness of the two people differently.
The money saved from the tax on a poor person may be used to pay the rest of the rent on their apartment for the month, whereas, a rich person might only be giving up playing golf on Sunday afternoons. The equality of well-being can mainly be determined by the justification to which party will receive the greatest happiness and will be better off from the same situation. A moral issue can always be decided when a person observes both possible outcomes of a certain situation.
Usually in these situations, one party will end up being favored over the other, but the reasoning behind this must be justified. The person must look at the situation and think to themselves which possible outcome will create the greatest amount of good for the most people? After analyzing the situation and making an ethically fit observation of the possible resolutions, a morally correct decision will involve a Utilitarian approach. This is by making the most honest choice which will create the greatest happiness possible for the greatest number of people.