Traffic load balancing over multi-path networks has been an active research area in recent years. The existing prototypes can be classified into flow-based and packet-based. The flow-based load distribution models solve the problem by assigning packets of the same flow to the same path. Although the risk of packet reordering decreases, queuing packets over the same path causes the end-to-end delay to increase. Flowlet Aware Routing Engine (FLARE) 14 proposed to group packets into small subsets of packets called flowlets, and to use these flowlets as the scheduling module. Flare defines a threshold time that assists to remove packet re-arrangement. One disadvantage of FLARE is that it does not consider packet loss. Packet loss is important when transmitting TCP traffic because FLARE may re-transmit packets in saturated path. Another approach was presented in 15. In 15 the authors investigate the challenge of splitting a traffic flow over the worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) and the local area wireless computer networking technology (Wi-Fi) links and proposed an airtime-balance method. This method maps the traffic load to an airtime cost function and uses it to split traffic. The idea is to send packets to radio nodes so that the airtime cost is balanced. However, this solution does not deal with packet re-arrangement. Adaptive Load Balancing Algorithm (ALBAM) 16 focused on the TCP drawbacks found in FLARE and suggested an algorithm that schedules traffic only when the packet inter-arrival time is able to neutralize the path delay difference. Despite the fact that accurate delay estimations must be available, ALBAN does not evaluate the overall end-to-end delay.The packet-based load balancing models manage to reduce the overall end-to-end delay, by using packets as the basic allocation unit. This strategy reduces their ability to maintain low levels of packet reordering. Effective Delay Controlled Load Distribution (E-DCLD) 19 realized that inefficient load balancing can degrade the network performance and tackles the problem by developing an optimization problem that balances the end-to-end delay among all the available paths. One of the main concerns of E-DCLD is the low convergence time. Sub-Packet Multipath Load Distribution (SPMLD) 22 proposed to formulate the problem as a constrained optimization problem that minimizes the end-to-end delay. Its main idea is to reduce packet reordering by grouping multiple paths into a single virtual path. One of the main concerns of SPMLD is its complexity, since it proposes two distributed algorithms that have to be implemented in the source and the destination nodes.
Traffic reordering decreases, queuing packets over the
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Safety And Health Importance Training In Petroleum Sector Construction EssaySafety And Health Importance Training In Petroleum Sector Construction Essay
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