Turkish and American Relations During the Cold War
Analysis of Turkish – American Relations from the Cyprus issue
Turkish – American relations began with the
establishment of the United States in the 19th century. Moreover, these
relations developed after the established of Republic of Turkey and then these
relations generally based on economical factors. There was some conflict between the two
countries with the beginning of the Cold War. The conflicts that started in
1964 and which continued until 1980 could be explained by some concepts.
A ) Concepts
of Power: In International Relations an equilibrium of power sufficient
to discourage or present one nation or prevent one nation from imposing its
will on or interfering with the interests of another. Balance of Power, theory
and policy of international relations that asserts that the most effective
check on the power of a state is the power of other states. In international
relations, the term state refers to a country with a government and a
population. The term balance of power refers to the distribution of power
capabilities of rival states or alliance.1
Especially US used to balance of power
during this period. US, in the Cyprus problem between Turkey and Greece have
continued to maintain the balance of policy. On the other hand, Turkey used to
balance of power with the US during the cold – war period.
Self – Defence : Self – Defence issue includes in Agreement
of United Nations. Article 51 organize the self defence in 3 titles; Armed
Attack, Natural Right Situation, Role of Security Council. According to
article, the main reason of usage of self – defence term is Armed Attack. But
also, the article includes the uncertanity because article does not define the
absolute “arm” mean.
According to Article 51, the country that
use self – defence term against the attacker, until Security council interfere
article 51 says that, all countries which is the member of UN, has naturally
right about defend itself. According this, a country, get an attack by another
country’s armed forces, has a self – defence right against the attacker
Concept of self – defence
used by Turkish government during the Cyprus crisis. Turkey wanted to secure
own your citizens and this reason Turkey has deployed troops to the island of
A) Ismet Inonu: In 1964
he was doing as prime minister in the coalition government in Turkey. So, when
the Johnson crisis was realized, Ismet Inonu was at the head of the government.
In the beginning, Ismet Inonu considers military intervention, this process is
extended by the intervention of the American.
B) Bulent Ecevit: He was
the head of government in 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation and this reason he is
very crucial politicians for the Cyprus issue and Turkey – US relations because
other hand he gave the importance foreign policy.
B. Johnson : He was the
36th president of the United States. After the assassination of Kennedy in 1963
he came to the presidency. After the Cyprus crisis, he wrote a letter for
Turkey and this letter had a very strict provisions therefore Turkish-American
relations have changed profoundly.
2Agreement of UN, https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/komisyon/insanhaklari/pdf01/3-30.pdf
C) Richard Nixon :
Nixon was a Republican congressman who served as vice president under Dwight D.
Eisenhower. Nixon ran for president in 1960 but lost to charismatic
Massachusetts senator John F. Kennedy. Undeterred, Nixon returned to the race
eight years later and won the White House by a solid margin. In 1974, he
resigned rather than be impeached for covering up illegal activities of party
members in the Watergate affair.3
Turkey – US relations have continued with important events during Richard
Nixon. One of the most important event is Opium crisis, this crisis occured
after the Vietnam War. This crisis, which has been going on for many years,
after has been resolved. Richard
Nixon was one of the greatest actors of his time in the Turkish-American relations
until his resignation.
D) Henry Kissinger : Henry Alfred Kissinger was the 56th
Secretary of State of the United States from 1973 to 1977, continuing to hold
the position of Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs which
he first assumed in 1969 until 1975. After leaving government service, he
founded Kissinger Associates, an international consulting firm, of which he is
chairman.4 Kissinger on US – Turkey
relations during nearly 20 years was one of the most important actors. It
can be said that there are many advantages especially in solving the Cyprus
Review of Literature
As the history of the Cyprus problem is
known, it is based on very old ones and in this study helping to understand
some point of topic. This problem has been examined from different perspectives
on the basis of different periods. On the other hand there are important
articles and books written in this subject. Firstly, a few examples of
important articles ; Müge Vatansever “K?br?s Sorununun Tarihi Geli?imi” Dokuz
Eylül Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi Cilt: 12, Özel Say?, 2010, sayfa 1487-1530
(Bas?m Y?l?: 2012) and another important article about Cyprus issue ; Ahmet
Gülen “?nönü Hükümetleri’nin K?br?s Politikas?” Ankara Üniversitesi Türk ?nk?lâp
Tarihi Enstitüsü Atatürk Yolu Dergisi S 50, Güz 2012, s. 389-428.
articles shed light on the Cyprus problem and help us to research.
According to Müge Vatansever, “The
fact that there are many parties in the Cyprus problem is one of the biggest
reasons for not providing a solution. Turks and Greeks living outside the
island, Greece, Turkey, UK, USA and EU countries are also side location is the
problem. Recently, in the southern Mediterranean countries like Israel, the
continental scenery, exclusive economic zone, oil – gas exploration activities such
as the issues, have been involved in the problem.” Moreover, the writer
considers the full solution of the Cyprus problem as follows; The main issue in
Cyprus is that two communities it is the creation of an environment in which
the two communities can coexist together in harmony, not by forcing a state
together. This can be achieved by solving the problems between the states
located on both sides of the Aegean in the long run and by getting closer to
the Turkish-Greek peoples. A good Cyprus state and society can not be created
with an intervention from the outside.
Secondly, one of the main thought in
the “?nönü Hükümetleri’nin K?br?s Politikas?” ; The Cyprus Problem, which
constitutes one of the important phases of the Turkish Foreign Policy, passed
through a very difficult phase at the beginning of 1960s. In the period after
the military intervention on May 27, 1960, the efforts of the Turkish Democracy
to rediscover from the other side continued and the bloody events in Cyprus had
been busy for a long time.
Other important article is Metin
?lhan “K?br?s Sorunun Türk – Amerika ?li?kilerine Yans?mas?” Türkiyat Mecmuas?,
C. 25/Güz, 2015, s. 255-28. In 1958, the US got involved in the Cyprus issue
for the first time. Cyprus issue was significant because, in 1964, it
profoundly damaged the Turkish-American relations which had been tried to be
built since 1945. Turkish intention to take action against the massacres and
atrocities perpetrated by Greeks was nullified by a letter send by the US
President Johnson. This drew a considerable reaction in Turkey against the US
and led to the questioning of and a historical break in the Turkish-American
relations. Moreover, which gained significant momentum with the end of the 2nd
World War, Turkey – US relations quite shook the Cyprus issue. Relations have
suffered a great wound, perhaps the first time by the Turkish statesmen
subjected to a great questioning. that the United States remained neutral on
the Cyprus issue, the perception that the Turkish Cypriots and Turkey have
settled to the public cared about. This situation is also a break in Turkish
foreign policy. The relations between the two countries have suffered a great
loss of confidence.
Turkey-US relations were severed in one
direction during the 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation. Relevance in excess of the
predictions accelerated the repairs process, a significant threshold over time
in the sense of recovery, and relations with the 1980 Military Intervention
improved again. For the Turkish Cypriots, which are the most important
cornerstone in the course of relations with the US, the loss process was
entered in the later periods.
Another contribution is the books. Füsun
Türkmen, “Türkiye – Abd ?li?kileri” it is not just a book that touches and
helps many topics, but it also gives us different perspectives. The aim of this
book is to analyze the transformation of one of the strategic alliances that
can be considered as the determinant of the international system since the
middle of the 20th century and the dynamics that triggered it, at a time when
both Turkish and American foreign policies underwent profound changes and they
coincided. Thus, it was sought to identify the new profile and positive or
negative potentials of the Turkish – American relations and to find clues that
could make it easier to make future forecasts.
When we look at the research, it is
clear that the Cyprus problem has an important place in Turkish-American
relations. It can be said that in the articles touching on this problem,
American is in balance policy in Turkish-Greek relations. American, draw a
passive policy over the Cyprus issue, Turkey has made moves to restrict. As
seen in these sources, Turkey has made several attempts to resolve a peaceful
manner in this process, but did not agree with the Greece side.
1959 London Treaty established the Federal Republic of Cyprus. In the 1960s,
the Greek Cypriots were constantly under pressure to link Cyprus to Greece and
remove the Turks from the island. They have plundered the Turkish peasants.
Turkey, using its right of guarantor in this situation to ensure peace and
Greeks against the Turks in order to stop the attacks that landed on the island
in 1974. After the attack on Greek Cyprus Peace Operation barriers European
states and the US has used military and economic embargo on Turkey.
Turkish – American relations entered
into the period of declination in 1964. This process has led to serious
problems in Turkey. There are two basic elements that mark Turkish American
relations in this period: The Cyprus problems and the rise of Turkish
left-view. The first of these emerged through crises that erupted
in 1964 and 1974, while the second resulted in a violent convulsion that led to
the 1980 military intervention, progressing slowly from the beginning of the
1960s, and both processes shook bilateral relations for different reasons. Starting with the 1964 period increased
enmity of America and the Turkey was declared America’s arch-enemy.
Turkish-Greek relations, which have been
aggravated since 1960, have now become armed conflicts and moved to
international arenas. US did not want to make a decision against Greece during
the Cyprus issues because then the American elections was approaching and U.S
President Johnson was thinking about Greek lobby in the America. Therefore, US
did not support Turkey in Cyprus problem. Thus, US President Johnson wrote a
letter to Turkey on June 5, 1964 and was very strict provisions in this letter.
Therefore, the bilateral relations have been tense for a long time together
with this event. Another consequence of the 1964 crisis was that the Greek and
Greek Cypriots had begun to see Enosis in the courage they had received from
To begin primary purpose of this study, ranging
from bilateral relations in the period starting with the Cyprus problem between
Turkey and America. These relations have been very decisive within the two
countries and have been an important experience in subsequent processes.
Other purpose of study is the Cyprus issue
ensured that Turkish-American relations were re-examined. for this reason the
relations became sharper. This coldness continued until 1980 and later. In
addition, other events have affected the relationships in this process. The
Americans war against Vietnam and the post-war opium crisis have led to a much
tense relationship between Turkey and US. America, while seeing the country use
Turkey as a cause of the increasing opium access, the opium trade in Turkey had
not make illegally.
sub-questions occurred like this:
are the spesific issues?
is balance of power?
3)How this crisis shaped the Turkey-US
These questions are helpful questions
that we can ask to help you understand. As it is understood from these
questions, some events and problems can help me to understand the Cyprus
problem, besides these are the factors that can be useful in concepts.
4-Method and Design
study going to analyze Cyprus crisis from the beginning of the crisis to the
end of cold-war period using some concepts ; balance of power, self-defence. In
terms of actors, this study is going to focus on Turkey and US while in the
terms of time, the work’s emphasis will be Cyprus Crisis. Yet the Cyprus crisis
period is also going to be a historical background to reveal the relations
between Turkey and US to present day.
research’s unit of analysis will be on a state and organization level. The states
and organizations which will be involve in our research: Turkey, USA, Greece ,
In terms of level of analysis this
research is a macro-level study. In this respect, there will be analysis at
three levels in this study. The first level will be the most general one, the
conceptual and theoretical level, which is going to outline concepts of balance
of power, self-defence. The second level will be the Cyprus crisis using the
balance of power and self-defence as the main guide. The third level of the study
will be related to “key foreign issues” where US and Turkey met in the Cold War
period. In this respect, it is clear that the research will start with a
macro-level study and pass to a micro-level one throughout the dissertation:
Turkey and the US>>Cyprus Crisis >> Key foreign issues. The unit of
analysis will be first international and then regional.
CONCEPTS OF “BALANCE OF POWER” AND “SELF-DEFENCE”
EXPLANATION OF “BALANCE OF POWER” AND “SELF-DEFENCE”
IS THE CONCEPT OF “BALANCE OF POWER”
1.3WHAT IS THE CONCEPT OF
2. INTERPRETATION OF THE CYPRUS CRISIS IN
THE CONTEXT OF “BALANCE
OF POWER” AND “SELF-DEFENCE” CONCEPTS
OF THE CYPRUS CRISIS IN THE CONTEXT OF “BALANCE OF POWER” CONCEPT
2.2 INTERPRETATION OF THE CYPRUS CRISIS
IN THE CONTEXT OF ”SELF DEFENCE” CONCEPT
2.3 DISCUSSION OF THE CYPRUS CRISIS WITH
THE INTERACTION OF ”BALANCE OF POWER”
AND “SELF-DEFENCE” CONCEPTS
3.ANALYSES OF CYPRUS CRISIS IN TWO
COUNTRIES PERSPECTIVE FROM THE CRISIS PERIOD UNTIL THE END OF THE COLD WAR
3.1 EVALUATION OF CYPRUS CRISIS
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