This high level of cognitive involvement with

study use the Model Elaboration Likelihood (ELM) developed by two Social
Psychologists Richard E Petty and John T. Cacioppo expert from Ohio State
University US, in 1980. Based on this model, there are two types of processes
namely Central and Peripheral. Both processes are effective to persuade the
audience to change attitudes and behaviors, but they occur in two different
contexts or situations. The Central process occurs when individuals are at a
high level of cognitive involvement with high thinking and knowledge about an
issue. Peripheral processes occur when individuals are at a low level of
cognitive involvement, a high degree of affective involvement and accompanied
by a lack of level of thinking and knowledge.


and Welbourne (2002) state that in the central process, individuals usually
have high levels of knowledge, motivation and interest in issues. For example,
when a person has high information on an issue it is an impulse for the
individual to judge in detail the message received is also high. This process
is categorized as a central process. When the individual has little information
about the issue and is less interested in the issue, the level of motivation to
deeply assess the receiving message is decreasing. The process of persuading is
categorized as a peripheral process.

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according to Bryant and Oliver (2009), a central process occurs when a memorial
message involves a very close or important issue to the recipient of the
message. When the issue is important to the recipient of the message, the
individual will act with attention in evaluating the information obtained. In
addition, the individual will think repeatedly about the messages received. The
peripheral process occurs when the issue being addressed is not important to
the person receiving the message. Hence, indirectly, the individual is less
attention to think of a received message. Itself influenced by secondary
factors, such as source credibility, visual appeal, presentation, and
enticements like food, sex, and humor. Attitudes formed or reinforced this way
are thought to be less continuing, subject to change through counter-arguments,
and in need of continual reinforcement.