Introduction: Tourism is now a global industry connecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide; which has been recognized as a fastest rising sector. This industry makes it a key column of economic development of any country. Bangladesh has some significant tourist attractions such as world’s largest unbroken sea beach Cox’s Bazar, leading world 7 wonder nominated mangrove forest Sundarban etc; but its fails to attract world tourist due to inadequate promotional actions which can uplift the country image as a global brand on tourism. The main purposes of the research is to evaluate, understand, review and investigate existing situations or problems; find out the appropriate solutions to the problems as well explain new idea and generate scope of further research. Research on the issues on tourism sector is to focus on problems of the specified sector and find out appropriate solution of research.
1. What are the barriers that hinder the development of the tourism industry in Bangladesh and how these have been perceived by different stakeholder. 2. What are the comparative prospects of Bangladesh tourism industry in south Asia.
In order to understand the barriers of tourism, and to find meaningful answer to the research questions, qualitative research needs to be carried forth.
There are two types of research methodologies.
Qualitative and quantitative.
Research based on ‘human’ aspects of information is done by qualitative research. This type of research involves examining and reflecting on the less tangible aspects of a research subject, e.g. values, attitudes, perceptions.
Quantitative research is more on numerical data collection and analysis of numerical data. It concentrates on measuring the scales, range, frequency, scientific value, etc.
Qualitative research is often easy to start but the finding may be difficult to interpret. Also inaccurate sampling may result in ambiguous data collection.
Quantitative research is usually difficult to start and needs time initially to construct the data collection framework, but the data is accurate and less ambiguous.
In preparing this thesis, I shall be using the qualitative research methodology and will be also cautious in interpreting the data from the sampling population.
Research methods are the tools that are used to collect data for a research. Items that fall under research methods are sampling, population, sampling strategy, instruments, etc.
Sampling: Sampling is a tool to perform research over a smaller group of people from a particular population.
There are two types of sampling. Probability samples and purposive samples.
In probability samples, all people within the research population have a
specifiable chance of being selected. These types of sample are used if the researcher wishes to explain, predict to generalize to the whole research population. On the other hand, purposive samples are used if description rather than generalization is the goal. In this type of sample it is not possible to specify the possibility of one person being included in the sample.
Within the probability and purposive categories there are several different sampling methods (Dawson C, 2002, p 48).
To briefly define population, it is a group of persons having similar set of belief, vision or way of living or same type of job. For this research, all the tour operators of Bangladesh are the population for research. Although everybody cannot be questioned or interviewed, a smaller number of tour operators will be interviewed. This is sampling.
The sample of tourism stakeholders for this study will be collected from a selected pool of population.
Population includes, but not limited to are
1. Ministry of Culture and Tourism,
2. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation,
3. Owners of the private tour operators,
4. Foreign tourists visiting country,
5. Biman Bangladesh Airlines,
6. Owners of the Travel Agencies (ATAB members).
The sampling strategy is a guideline to identify how many persons of a population set will be interviewed or researched. This includes the type of persons selected and the sample size as well. For this thesis and to better answer the research questions the following sampling size and strategy is proposed:
From Government Tourism controller:
1. Ministry of Culture and Tourism,
a. The Secretary (1 person)
b. Administrative officer (3 persons)
2. Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation,
a. Chairman (1 person)
b. BPC Hotel managers (3 persons)
c. BPC Tour guides. (5 persons)
From the private sector:
1. TOAB members
a. operators for outbound tours (3 persons)
b. operators for seasonal tours (5 persons)
c. operators who design customized tours based on user requirements (3 persons)
2. ATAB Members
a. members who sale tickets online (5 persons)
b. members who sale tickets thru localized channels (5 persons)
3. Foreign tourist
a. first time visitors (5 persons)
b. repeat visitors (5 persons)
Typical research instruments are interviews, questionnaire form, focus group discussion, etc. In order to comprehend the samples’ justified answer to my research questions, open ended questionnaire will be arranged.
In social research there are many types of interview. The most common of these are unstructured, semi-structured and structured interviews. Unstructured or in-depth interviews are sometimes called life history interviews. In this type of interview, the researcher attempts to achieve a
holistic understanding of the interviewees’ point of view or situation. Semi-structured interviewing is perhaps the most common type of interview used in qualitative social research. In this type of interview, the researcher wants to know specific information which can be compared and contrasted with information gained in other interviews. To do this, the same questions need to be asked in each inter- view. However, the researcher also wants the interview to remain flexible so that other important information can still arise. (Dawson, 2002, P. 27).
Also Interviews of the sampling population will be carried out. The Unstructured and Semi-structured interviews will be recorded and data tabulated into summarized answers.
The Governmental samples will be approached with a letter of introduction from my university, detailing my research interest and scope of work.
The samples from private organizations will be collected from the Tour Operators Association of Bangladesh (TOAB) office, which can provide a list of possible respondents, their addresses, and other details. This information source contains a large source of private tour operators.
Additionally The tour operators current tourists will be approached and briefed about the research topic and will be requested to participate in the questionnaire and interview session. A small gift may be provided to the interested tourists to attract participation.
In all sampling cases it will be ensured that research ethics are not violated and proper communication is established between the researcher and the samples.
The field of study based on the sampling selection will be in Dhaka city and in possible tourist spot like Cox’s Bazar. Although most of the tour operators operate tour guides around the country, but their offices are
mainly Dhaka based. The government organization like Ministry of Culture & Tourism is also Dhaka based. Certain samples such as the tourist, tour operators’ guides and hotel manager are based on tourist spot locations. For this research, my fieldwork will be divided between the capital city and a tourist spot namely Cox’s bazar. The bulk of the interviews, questionnaire will be from Dhaka.
Primary research (talk to relevant
Develop and pilot questionnaire Continue literature search
Analyze pilot work and revise
Ask relevant people for comments
Send out questionnaire.
Categorize returned questionnaires
Send out reminder letter for non-responders.
Continue to categorize returned questionnaires.
Prepare oral presentation
Scope and Limitation:
The scope of this research paper is to obtain data from selected population in identifying the barriers in Bangladesh tourism. The sampling will be done by qualitative research, and the instruments for it will be open ended questionnaire and interviews. Having the root level tour guides and tourists as sample will need good access strategy to positively attract them. This is also in the scope. Limitation of the study is in many ways greater than the scope. The research topic is subjective and needs only qualitative research methods, and obtaining actual information from the samples is a challenge. Also all instruments cannot be used, i.e. Focus group discussion. When sampling the Secretary of MoCAT or the Chairman of BPC, timely appointment may not be obtained. Tourist arrives in Bangladesh based on season, so the ideal situation would have been to interview tourist around the year. But this is not possible. This is a logistical limitation.
The research objectives are guide to understanding the tourism sector’s under development and may help identify the problems and find a possible solution for faster development in this sector. The research methods and instruments selected will give us proper directive as to the key reasons of the tourism development barriers.
dr.dawson, c. (2002) . Practical Research Methods :A user-friendly guide to mastering research techniques and project. United kingdom