1. Some of the reinforcing behaviors I use are praise and encouragement (offering praise when a job is well done, as well as offering encouragement when I see it could be done better or if I see an employee feels a sense of failure), constructive criticism (providing ways in which I see a particular task could be improved without appearing to be harsh or unnecessarily mean), and occasionally negative attention such as nagging or shouting at people (an emotional response). In a management position, I could use money as either positive or negative reinforcement (making bonuses and raises contingent on performance.)
2. The positive reinforcement techniques that I use are praise and encouragement and monetary reward in the form of raises. Negative reinforcement techniques are lack of raises, and nagging/yelling. Constructive criticism may be seen as either negative or positive reinforcement depending on the attitude and personality of the employee in question, but I try to tilt it toward the positive side whenever possible.
3. Nagging and shouting, one of my demonstrated negative reinforcement techniques, could certainly be replaced with positive reinforcement effectively. Rewarding positive behavior (such as establishing a small reward for weekly reports being turned in on time) may have a better effect than punishing negative behavior (such as complaining when weekly reports are not turned in on time.) Constructive criticism, which can be seen as either positive or negative depending on the other person’s viewpoint, must be handled carefully. One tactic I could use to avoid this reinforcing behavior being viewed negatively is to make sure to include positive feedback as well as negative feedback in the criticism – a rate of three positives to one negative is considered ideal to create an atmosphere that most people will see as positive rather than negative.