In 1775, the noncommissioned officer and the United States Army started with the birth of the Continental Army. The American noncommissioned officer blended traditions of the British, French and Prussian armies into a unique American institution and did not imitate the British indeed. The American political system with its social attitudes, its disdain for aristocracy and the vast westward expanses further removed the US army noncommissioned officer from his European counterparts and made an American noncommissioned officer as years passed by.
The noncommissioned officer (NCO) has the major role in Army Transformation. As time passes, the Army becomes well-trained; he will now learn new tactics and strategies and will receive new equipment. The NCO is held responsible to build the foundation for the Army’s objective.
According to a site edited by Janet R. Benarek that the senior noncommissioned officers have played important roles in supporting the service’s vision for its enlisted force. Everyday, they were able to provide the day-to-day ground-level leadership that held things together in the face of the many challenges. Through the hardships they undergone in the provision of pay, the integration of African Americans and women; the Vietnam and Korean Wars; the transition to the all-volunteer force and the end of the Cold War made the U.S. Air Force NCOs able to step up to the leadership challenges presented them.
In 19th and early 20th centuries, the Army started to define NCO duties. In 1778, von Steuben’s Regulations provided the five or six pages of instructions for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States but in the 1909 Noncommissioned Officers manual, it became 417 pages. There is a chapter on discipline in the Noncommissioned Officers Manual which stressed out the role of punishment in achieving discipline. The manual pointed out that the purpose of punishment was to prevent the commission of offenses and to reform the offender.
The Civil War to World War 1
United States Army was and is always been advanced in terms of their weaponry. In 1850’s, there was a major changes happened in US Army weaponry because the inventors had developed and refined the percussion cap and rifled weapons. Though there was increased lethality of weapons but it did not immediately result in different tactics. But indeed, the vast numbers of casualties in the American Civil War proved that technological advances must result in changes to battlefield tactics. (See http://www.armystudyguide.com/content/army_board_study_guide_topics/nco_history/history-of-the-nco-from-f.shtml).
The noncommissioned officers led the lines of skirmishes that preceded and followed each major unit during civil war. The NCOs also carried the regimental colors and flags of their units. This dangerous task was crucial for commanders to observe their units on the field and to maintain regimental alignment.
There was a need of four million men, one million of which would go overseas, required for training in World War 1. The primary trainers for teaching lessons that emphasized weapons and daytime maneuvers during this period were the corporals. The training included twelve hours used solely for proper using of the gas mask and a trip to the gas chamber. American Commanding General John J. Pershing suggested the establishment of special schools for sergeants and separate NCO messes. Noncommissioned officers’ performance in American Expeditionary Force seemed to reassert these changes. There were 1,600 noncommissioned officers scheduled by the Army for grade reductions in 1922. The necessity of reducing total force and desiring to save money caused difficulties for many noncommissioned officers especially for those with families. The budget reductions in World War 1 and the Great Depression led to irregularities in pay; just for an instance, the soldier just received half his pay in money, or only half his pay and half in consumer goods or food. (See http://www.armystudyguide.com/content/army_board_study_guide_topics/nco_history/history-of-the-nco-from-f.shtml).
During the Vietnam War, Marines played an important role such as Da Hang, Hue City, and Khe Sanh. Marines were the first American combat troops assigned to Vietnam on March 8, 1965. The 3,500 Marines operated in the northern I Corps regions of South Vietnam and fought both a constant guerilla war against the NLF and on conventional war against NVA regulars. On April 30, 1975, the American embassy evacuated in Saigon and the Marine forces were the last one to leave. In May 15, 1975, these Marines were involved in attempting to rescue US merchant marine crewmen in the Mayaguez incident off the coast of Cambodia. (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Marine_Corps#Vietnam_War).
US has been part most of the world’s battles. It always meddles and defends countries which are in need of help against terrorism. One of the evidences of US defender’s acts was when Iraqi military forces captured and occupied Kuwait in August 1990. Kuwait and Iraq has been enemies for many decades now. The US immediately doomed Iraq’s actions and started building support for a coalition to liberate Kuwait. One of the world’s enemies named Saddam Hussein, Iraq’s dictator, did not pay attention with the demands of over 36 nations to leave Kuwait. As a result, Coalition forces started to deploy in Saudi Arabia. In January 12, 1991, the use of military force to liberate Kuwait was authorized by the Congress. Coalition forces were able to enter Kuwait City forcing Iraq to declare a cease-fire after only 100 hours of ground combat in February 27, 1991.
Korean War was all backed up and fought by the US forces and the Commonwealth using the imperial system of measure and throughout the text; it was the imperial system which was being used. The Korean War witnessed the formed Provision Marine Brigade holding the line at Pusan Perimeter. After that, it landed at Inchon. When the US forces came upon the Yalu River, The People’s Republic of China sent armies to engage American forces within Korea for fearing of invasion by American forces. At the end of the conflict in 1953, the Korean War was able to witness the Marine Corps expansion from 75,000 regulars to a force into 261,000 Marines and most these Marines were Reservists. During the war, there were 30,544 Marines who were wounded or killed and 42 were awarded the Medal of Honor.
In 1994, The USAF led NATO action in Bosnia with air strikes against Bosnian Serb. The USAF aircraft took part in military action as part of a NATO mission for the first time. The USAF was the only air force of NATO that has the capability to launch significant air strikes over a long period of time, which is why it led the strike forces. After that event, during the Kosovo war, the USAF led NATO air strikes against Serbia. Because of that event happened, the forces were criticized for attacking civilian targets in Belgrade which include a strike on the civilian television station and attack afterwards which destroyed the Chinese Embassy. (See non.commissioned.officer.development.ribbon.en.infoax.org)
The War on Terrorism
Saddam Hussein had retained his power in Iraq after the Persian Gulf War and continued to make weapons of mass destruction (WMD) even he learned that there were defiance of numerous resolutions in the United States, the presence of inspection teams and he kept ignoring the world’s demands. In 2002, it was discovered by the United States that Saddam Hussein was training, providing weapons and give other assistance to terrorists around the world. The United States made an intense diplomatic effort to Saddam Hussein but still, the United States was unable to remove Hussein’s regime. Because of it, the United States deployed its Armed Forces to the Gulf for the operation of Iraqi freedom. On March 20, 2003, the United States with a coalition which includes Australia, Poland, Great Britain and 44 other nations started offensive military operations to deliver Iraq from the hands of Saddam Hussein and to remove him from his power. The full forces of US Marine Corps, US Army and British forces entered Iraq. And for two weeks of continuous air and ground attacks, the most organized Iraqi forces were defeated. (See The Army and the Nation globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/7-21-13/chap2.htm).
The 101st Airborne Division and U.S. marines closed in on Baghdad while the 3d Infantry Division seized the main airport of Baghdad and started giving powerful incursions into the city. In the Northern part of Iraq, Special Operations Forces and the 173d Airborne Brigade defeated enemy units and delivered most of the northern area of the country. On the other hand, the Special Operations Forces neutralized enemy units while looking for sites which containing WMD in the West. The Special Operations Forces was able to provide targeting data and intelligence all throughout the country. The Army units showed their bravery and great skill in defeating Iraqi’s regular and irregular forces while limiting civilian and US casualties. This operation helped the Iraqi people to be free from the cruelty of Saddam Hussein and brought hope for peace to the troubled Middle East. This major combat ended on May 1, 2003 and there were 115 Americans had lost their lives which also include 53 soldiers.
US army soldiers really played a leading role in the war on terrorism and provided security to the troubled nation. They are not only defending our nation but every individual who lives and belongs to this nation. They always do their all best to protect every citizen from the hands of the terrorist and even give their own very lives. (See The Army and the Nation globalsecutiry.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/7-21-13/chap2/htm).
In September 11, 2001, the United States was attacked by the terrorists of the al-Qaeda and was able to damage the Pentagon, killed approximately 3,000 people and destroyed the World Trade Center in New York City. In October 7, 2001, the United States had gained support from the global community and attacked the al-Qaeda network including the Taliban-controlled government of Afghanistan. This mission was brought success to US and allied forces because they were able to defeat the Taliban regime and brought damage to the al-Qaeda forces in Afghanistan. The Armies who were deployed in Afghanistan were simultaneously had operations and gave support to its tenderfoot democracy. The purpose for this is to lend a hand to the Afghanis rebuild their country and provide their people the benefits of a truly representative government.
1. History of the NCO (from FM 7-22.7) Posted Friday, October 7, 2005< http://www.armystudyguide.com/content/army_board_study_guide_topics/nco_history/history-of-the-nco-from-f.shtml>.
5. The Army and the Nation<globalsecurity.org/military/library/policy/army/fm/7-