The marine environment Essay

The walruss, with its horse-shape caput and unsloped motion are one of the alien looking teleosts in the marine environment. Walruss are grouped into a individual genus, Hippocampus spp. and there are presently 33 valid species ( Planas et al. , 2008 ) . Other Syngnatids genera include the needlefish, pipehorses and seagdragons ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . They are entirely marine species but several species ( H. kuda, H. abdominalis, H. capensis, H. reidi ) frequently tolerate high salt fluctuations due to their estuarine home ground nature ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ; Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . The size of walrus species vary from little H. denise ( & lt ; 20 millimeters height ) to large H. abdominalis ( & gt ; 300 millimeters height ) ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Walruss and needlefish are the lone craniates which males have brood pouches that accommodate the embryologic phases of its larvae ( Dzyuba et al. , 2006 ) . The walruss are of import marauders of seagrass ecosystems and without such animate beings there will be some damaging top-down ecological effects on the nutrient web ( Vincent, 1996 ) .

Presently the walrus faces a battalion of menaces from habitat debasement to heavy development by aggregators and trawler by-catch ( Planas et al. , 2008 ) . The seahorse piscary is a extremely moneymaking international trade that supply the Traditional Chinese Medicine ( TCM ) and fish tank industries ( Vincent, 1996 ) . The developments of seahorse resources in many developing states to provide these markets have decreased the wild populations significantly ( Project Seahorse, 2002, 2003 ) . In add-on, the diminishing quality of many seahorse home grounds due to anthropogenetic factors may hold decreased the species population farther ( Alves et al. , 2009 ) . However, scarceness of information refering the walrus population has hampered the effectivity of the preservation and direction plans ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Therefore, the purpose of this study is to foreground the current state of affairs refering the preservation of walruss, to place the menaces that the walruss population face, the research priorities that are needed to ease the preservation works and the appropriate direction schemes for the preservation of walruss.

General information on walruss

Geographic and ecological distribution

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The earliest dodo records of walrus were late found in the Middle Miocene beds in Slovenia ( Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) . Two fossil species, H. sarmaticus ( which was related to the extant species H. trimaculatus ) and H. slovenicus ( which was related to the extant species H. bargibanti, H. denise and H. Colemani ) were believed to hold lived among the seagrass and marcoalgae home grounds in the temperate shallow Waterss of coastal western Central Paraththys Sea ( Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) . Fossil surveies have suggested that the genus Hippocampus originated before the closing of the Tethyan sea lane and has been around for about 13-15 million old ages ago ( Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) . From these two species, walruss have spread to all over the Earth and now there are presently 33 species under the genus Hippocampus ( Planas et al. , 2008 ) . The Denise ‘s Pygmy Seahorse ( H. denise ) is the most current species to be discovered ( Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) .

Walruss have a circumglobular distribution, where they can be found in both tropical and temperate parts such as in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans ( 50 & A ; deg ; N-50 & A ; deg ; S ) ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ; Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) . They are frequently found in the temperate seagrass hayfields and in the tropical coral reefs ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Indo-Pacific part has the highest distribution of walrus species ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . However, there is a positive relationship between the latitude and the size of walrus ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Most species are found in shallow Waterss ( & lt ; 30 m ) but some may populate deeper Waterss up to 100 m ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Seahorses live in a broad assortment of benthal home grounds, runing from seagrass hayfields to coral reefs, sponges, sea pen, macroalgae, rubble and silt/sandy underside ( Morgan and Panes, 2008 ) . Seahorse species are separated by deepness and home ground types, where some species are found in deep Waterss in gorgonians settlements ( e.g. H. trimaculatus, H. spinosissimus, H. kelloggi ) while others in shallow seagrass hayfields ( e.g. H. kuda ) ( Choo and Liew, 2003 ) . Estuarine walruss are able to digest high salt fluctuations, where grownup walruss are able to digest lower salts ( up to 17 ppt ) while juveniles are less tolerant ( up to 26 ppt ) ( Murugan et al. , 2009 ) .

Biological feature of walrus

Walruss are deep species, as they rely on their disguise ability to mime the surrounding and enable them to run for nutrient and fell from danger ( Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) . They feed on unrecorded quarry but the types of diets depend on their life phases ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Other natural defense mechanism mechanisms in walruss include cadaverous home bases and spinal columns that make them unpalatable to predator fishes ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Otherwise, they are a group of really vulnerable animate beings due to their little size, hapless swimming ability, strong site fidelity, low fruitfulness and thin distribution ( Murugan et al. , 2009 ; Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) . By and large, seahorse population densenesss ranges from low ( & lt ; 1 individual/m2 ) to high ( 10 individual/m2 ) ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Seahorses prefer home grounds that can supply a suited concealment topographic point for them, have many fastener constructions for fond regards, in add-on to holding an copiousness of planktonic quarry ( Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) . Holdfast constructions can be from many resources such as seagrass blades, macroalgae, urochordates, polyzoans, worm tubes, sea urchin or unreal constructions ( Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) . Walruss use their tail to attach themselves to the fastener and to stabilise the organic structure against strong current ( Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) .

The lifetime of walruss scopes from 1-5 old ages ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ; Martin-Smith and Vincent, 2005 ; Curtis and Vincent, 2006 ) . The figure of male to female walruss are normally near equal ratio ( ? 1 male: 1.2 female ) ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ; Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . Most seahorse are monogamous, where copulating occurs entirely between the same spouse in a individual genteelness session, but they may alter spouses in other rhythms ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ; Planas et al. , 2008 ) . Walruss besides have drawn-out parental attention ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Engendering season in the wild depend on the local environmental factors ( visible radiation, temperature, nutrient handiness ) and have peak periods ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . There is a direct transportation of clasps from female to the brood pouch of male ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Eggs are by and large bigger than other teleost incubators, and juveniles are more developed when released ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Depending on the species, walruss have brood size runing from 85-683 juveniles.

After a period of incubation ( depending on species and sizes ) , walrus can let go of anyplace from 5-2000 juveniles ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . The size of juveniles scopes from 2-20 millimeter ( tallness ) and non related to the grownup size ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Larvae oceanic continuances range from 2 to 8 hebdomads depending on the species ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Seahorse populations by and large have hapless enlisting and have little place scopes ( Curtis and Vincent, 2006 ) . However, there are studies that walruss can scatter great distances by thumbing on drifting fastener ( e.g. seagrass blades ) and brush off by the current to new sites ( Zalohar et al. , 2009 ) .

Menaces to seahorse

Seahorse populations are diminishing due to the combined factors of commercial trade, by-catch in runt piscaries, habitat loss and debasement ( Fig. 1 ) ( Morgan and Panes, 2008 ; Planas et al. , 2008 ) . One of the chief menaces to seahorse populations is the loss of natural home grounds due to anthropogenetic factors, landscape change and environmental debasement ( Alves et al. , 2009 ) . Seagrass hayfields are worsening and under changeless menaces from coastal country development that contributes high suspended atoms tonss ( Freeman et al. , 2008 ) . Surveies have shown that there is a positive relationship between the quality of benthal home ground and seahorse denseness ( Marcus et al. , 2007 ) . They besides face major menaces from incidental gimmicks by the runt trawlers and to a lesser extent from targeted aggregation by tegument diving ( Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . Recent tendencies besides have shown increased demand of walruss by the fish tank and aquaculture industry ( Martin-Smith and Vincent, 2005 ) . Walruss are besides collected to be sold as oddities ( as key ironss and jewelries ) and cosmetic ornaments ( Baum and Vincent, 2005 ; Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . Other menaces to seahorse populations are from invasive species ( such as starfish and green crab ) and reproduction restriction due to its low denseness and mobility ( Allee consequence ) ( Martin-Smith and Vincent, 2005 ) .

Menaces to the viability of natural seahorse population. The menaces are the combined factors of population loss due to direct harvest home and piscaries bycatch, and from habitat debasement due to assorted anthopogenic causes. The walrus from direct and inadvertent gimmicks are sold to the TCM, fish tank, oddities and even aquaculture industries where there are changeless high demand ( Morgan and Panes, 2008 ; Planas et al. , 2008 ; Alves et al. , 2009 ) .

At the planetary graduated table, every bit much as 20-25 million walruss were traded yearly in approximately 45 states ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ; Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . From these figures, more than 50 metric tons of dried walruss were traded yearly ( Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . One kg of dried weight represents some 260 to 1000 single walruss depending on crop size and species ( Vincent, 1996 ) . States like India, Brazil, Mexico, Thailand, Vietnam and the Philippines are the major exporters of walrus ( Vincent, 1996 ; Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ; Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . Seahorse trade expanded from China in the mid 1980 ‘s but there were earlier known trade recorded in South America since the 1970 ‘s ( Baum and Vincent, 2005 ) . Presently, several 1000s of unrecorded walruss are exported yearly from South American states such as Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama and Brazil ( Baum and Vincent, 2005 ) . However, the chief markets for walrus merchandises are the Far East part, peculiarly China and Hong Kong particularly for their traditional medical specialty industries ( Baum and Vincent, 2005 ) .

The earliest records of the usage of walrus were by the Greeks in 342 BC for the intervention of urinal jobs, phalacrosis, hydrophobias and sterility ( Vincent, 1996 ) . Since so, walruss are extremely sought after by the Traditional Chinese Medicine ( TCM ) industry ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ; Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . Historical records showed that the walrus has been used in the traditional Chinese medical specialty since 720 AD ( Vincent, 1996 ) . The TCM industry uses walrus for myriad of interventions, such as asthma, arterial sclerosis, powerlessness, backpain, skin disease, for healing of unfastened lesions and broken castanetss, easiness of childbearing, cut down pharynx emotionlessness and as a general quinine water ( Vincent, 1995 ) . However, most mending belongingss of these traditional medical specialties are still untested in scientific discipline and their effectivity are extremely subjective ( Vincent, 1995 ) . The broad arrays of mending belongingss from one beginning of medical specialty ( walrus ) may hold influenced more by common people traditional knowledges than traditional medicative cognition ( Vincent, 1995 ) .

With the promotion of engineering, the TCM industry has began bring forthing proprietary medical specialty tablets which contain seahorse ingredient ( Vincent, 1995 ) . The mass production of walrus related proprietary medical specialty ( e.g. tablets and pulverize signifiers ) has encourage higher ingestion of walrus of all classs and qualities, even those once rejected when sold in its dried signifier ( Vincent, 1996 ) . Beside China, there are besides studies of utilizations of walrus as traditional redresss in other states. In Indonesia and the Philippines, walruss are used as aphrodisiac in their traditional medical specialty ( Vincent, 1995 ) . In Brazil, walruss are usage in traditional medical specialty ( zootherapeutics ) to handle asthma for human and pets ( Alves et al. , 2009 ) . Often in hapless countries without entree to proper industrialised drugs and medical installations, sometime the lone option for people is to trust on traditional medical specialty ( Alves et al. , 2009 ) .

Management issues of walrus

Seahorse preservation position

Based on the IUCN studies, all the known walrus species are presently classified into three classs ; seven species are classified as ‘Vulnerable ‘ , H. capensis is classified as ‘Endangered ‘ while the other 25 species are classified as ‘Data Deficient ‘ ( Table 2 ) . The whole genus Hippocampus spp. , nevertheless has been classified as ‘Vulnerable ‘ ( Marcus et al. , 2007 ) . H. capensis is classified as ‘Endangered ‘ based on the grounds that its extent of happening is really limited, as it is merely found in several estuaries in South Africa and is confronting menaces from continued habitat diminution and high population fluctuations ( Lockyear, 2000 ) . Seven species are classified as ‘Vulnerable ‘ based on the grounds that there are continued diminution in population size due to high degree of development and habitat debasement and the cause of decrease have non ceased ( Project Seahorse, 2002, 2003 ; IUCN, 2009 ) . H. comes is classified with the A2 class due to its continued population diminution of 30-50 % in the past 3 coevalss chiefly from surveies done in the Philippines ( Project Seahorse, 2002 ) . Other species were classified as ‘Vulnerable ‘ due to gauge and/or projected population size decrease of more than 30 % in the past and future due to the aforesaid grounds ( Project Seahorse, 2002, 2003 ) . The other 25 species did non hold sufficient informations to be classified consequently and more surveies are needed.

Status of scientific cognition and research precedences

Seahorse is a data deficient group of animate beings in piscaries ( Curtis and Vincent, 2008 ) . Presently, there have been many surveies on the reproduction and coupling of walruss but less information is available on other facets such as growing rate and natural population sizes ( Foster and Vincent, 2004 ) . Therefore, more surveies are needed on the specific species ecology and life history, unmoved copiousness and comparing with internationally traded volumes ( Morgan and Panes, 2008 ) . Specifically, more scientific focal point should be given to the relationship between seahorse population denseness and piscaries impact, age/stage based mortality due to natural status and fishing force per unit area, natural growing rate of walruss and the age at first adulthood ( Foster and Vincent,2004 ; Martin-Smith, 2006 ) . Population theoretical accounts surveies normally applied in other commercial teleost species are still missing for walrus, therefore more prognostic response theoretical accounts surveies using methods such as output per recruit ( YPR ) , population viability analysis ( PVA ) and minimal feasible population size ( MVP ) methods are needed to give better estimations of the existent population sizes ( Martin-Smith, 2006 ) . Merely when these information are available do piscary directors and environmentalists able to understand the impact of the planetary trade and ingestion on the wild seahorse population and hopefully it will help in the planning of seahorse preservation and direction plans ( Vincent, 1996 ) .

International actions, statute laws, local statute laws, preservation actions

The full genus of Hippocampus spp. was besides listed in the Appendix II of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species ( CITES ) since 2002 even if the execution merely began in 2004 ( Project Seahorse, 2003 ) . The international trade of walrus are limited by the CITES convention, and the whole genus is classified as Vulnerable under IUCN Red List ( Marcus et al. , 2007 ) . However, many states where walruss are found have specific Torahs and local statute laws that deal with preservation of coastal Marine home grounds, but with changing grades of enforcement and effectivity ( Vincent, 1996 ; Project Seahorse, 2002, 2003 ) . Conservation plans concentrating on coastal Marine home grounds and walrus are carried out by international organisations such as Project Seahorse ( Project Seahorse, 2009 ) . In add-on, many of coastal Marine home grounds associated with walruss are listed in the Ramsar List of Wetland of International Importance ( RAMSAR, 2009 ) . However, being listed do non necessary mean automatic protection position for the sites since the convention merely promote the ‘wise usage ‘ of wetlands in each of the member ‘s districts and in many cases wetlands are still confronting considerable menaces from human developments ( Seto and Fragkias, 2007 ) .

Management schemes appropriate for preservation

Some of the recommendations by CITES to its signer states in a workshop on seahorse preservation in 2004 were to implement the minimal size for seahorse trade, for export states to do available basic information on their local walrus populations and tendencies, place the extent of walrus related home grounds and new countries suited for preservation intents, active enforcement of available Torahs on piscaries that may endanger seahorse populations, and more systematic record of seahorse export particularly in relation to taxonomic and export volume informations ( Bruckner et al. , 2005 ) . One of the biggest hurdlings in seahorse preservation is the increasing planetary market demand for walrus from the TCM and fish tank industries ( Baum and Vincent, 2005 ) . One manner to diminish the demand of walrus in TCM industry is through cooperation with the industry itself to happen alternate beginnings of remedy that can replace the use of walrus in their prescriptions, while the fish tank industry and their clients should be made to recognize that seahorse life anticipation in imprisonment is really short and it is a hard species to look after, therefore it does non do a good fish tank species ( Vincent, 1996 ) .

CITES proficient commission has been sing the cover minimal trade size of 100 millimeters for all seahorse species to let the grownups to reproduce before being lawfully caught as many of the traded species reached generative age before turning to this size ( with the exclusion of smaller species such as H. kelloggi ) ( Foster and Vincent, 2005 ) . If accepted, this standard size would necessitate to be adopted by all 167 CITES signatory states ( Foster and Vincent, 2005 ) . The 100 millimeter minimal size bound proposal is merely an interim step before some other lasting solutions can be found ( Curtis and Vincent, 2008 ) . Model analyses have shown that the execution of this minimal size bound can really diminish the diminution and extinction of seahorse population by every bit much as 50 % , at a minimum cost of 5.6 % decrease in end product ( Curtis and Vincent, 2008 ) . The usage of a individual criterion lower limit size for the seahorse trade facilitate the monitoring of seahorse exports as usage officers do non necessitate elaborate systematic description of each walrus species and their specific minimal sizes ( Foster and Vincent, 2005 ) . An straight-out prohibition on the trade of walrus may be unrealistic to implement and counterproductive as excessively many hapless communities are involved in this industry and it would be harder to track the activities if they go belowground ( Vincent, 1995 ) . The minimal size criterion nevertheless does non work out the job of incidental landing of little walruss in piscaries bycatch ( Foster and Vincent, 2005 ) .

To conserve walruss in their natural environment, they can be considered as a flagship species for estuarial preservation ( Martin-Smith and Vincent, 2005 ; Shokri et al. , 2009 ) . Walruss and their Alliess are magnetic fishes that able to earn high public understanding and support ( Shokri et al. , 2009 ) . In add-on, surveies have found that utilizing syngnathids densenesss and gatherings for the preservation of seagrass home grounds have benefited other fish as good ( Shokri et al. , 2009 ) . As Marine Protected Areas ( MPAs ) are comparatively free from angling force per unit area, it is suggested as a direction scheme for the preservation of walruss ( Marcus et al. , 2007 ) . Surveies have indicated that the seahorse populations benefited from limit of such protective countries ( Marcus et al. , 2007 ) . Concurrently, implementing policies where degraded coastal Marine home ground countries are compensated with the creative activity of new home grounds by organ transplant of similar size and species may assist keep the viability of walruss ‘ home grounds ( Duarte, 2002 ) . Specific direction aims need be defined on the national and regional graduated tables and all available options identified to ease in the execution of preservation plans of coastal Marine organisms including walrus ( Martin-Smith, 2006 ) . There is no individual direction scheme for all seahorse species as biological and ecological demands for each species sometime varied greatly and even contradictory therefore localised schemes that look into the demands of each species are recommended ( Curtis et al. , 2007 ) .

Aquaculture options pro and cons

The civilization of walrus is a recent phenomenon, and has been conducted for few species merely ( Planas et al. , 2008 ) . For illustrations, H. trimaculatus is one of the of import commercial species of walrus ( Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . The H. reidi is another seahorse species suited for aquaculture due to its fast growing ( 0.77±0.01 mm day-1 ) , low mortality and early adulthood ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ) . The civilization of H. trimaculatus takes about 6.5 months to make maximal size ( 125 millimeter ) , but have lower endurance rate ( ?65 % ) compared to H. kuda ( Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . The civilization of H. reidi takes about 4 months to make the size of 80-85 millimeter ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ) . There is less public resistance to the cultivation of walruss since aquaculture endeavors do non use the Marine environment ( as most cultivation are done on land ) therefore the sensed deficiency of direct environmental impact ( Tlusty, 2002 ) . Culture facets such as light strength, carrying denseness, salt and eating frequence straight act upon the growing rate of juveniles and impact the development of broodpouch of males ( Lin et al. , 2009 ) .

The cognition about walrus and its civilization is scarce but has been increasing bit by bit due to its preservation concerns and high market demand ( Planas et al. , 2008 ) . There is still considerable deficiency of information ( optimal temperature, salt, photoperiod ) to enable a successful aquaculture venture of walrus ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ) . Broodstock supply is frequently a prevalent job in seahorse aquaculture and culturists frequently rely on the wild population to run into its demand ( Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . Attempts to utilize 2nd coevals broodstocks have met with the job of lower fruitfulness and egg quality frequently decreases as length of broodstock imprisonment additions ( Planas et al. , 2008 ; Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . Culture of walrus are besides prone to jobs of fiting the size of provender to the phase of civilization, and mortality during the oceanic stage due to consumption of air bubble are common ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ; Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . Livefeeds normally used in seahorse aquaculture include wild zooplankton, Artemia and mysid runts ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ) . Finding suited diet for days-old larvae is hard as the commonly used Artemia livefeed is excessively large for the larvae at this phase ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ) . Without proper eating, juvenile walruss can endure malformations that finally lower their endurance opportunities ( Hora and Joyeus, 2009 ; Murugan et al. , 2009 ) . Seahorses besides frequently suffer from tailrot deseases in civilization conditions ( Planas et al. , 2008 ) .

Overall, seahorse aquaculture is merely feasible if the purpose is for preservation intent, or if there is some environmental benefit to be derived from the venture, but should non be for any economic or cultural benefits, or to replace the crop of wild animate beings ( Tlusty, 2002 ) . However, in the present state of affairs, this is frequently non the instance since most aquaculture ventures are net income driven and most will seek to tap into the high demands from the TCM and fish tank industries. Removal of broodstock from the natural state is strongly discouraged ( Tlusty, 2002 ) . Ultimately, some environmentalists feel that aquaculture is non the reply to seahorse preservation ( Vincent, 1995 ; Tlusty, 2002 ) .

Prognosis for the hereafter of walrus

With increasing planetary population and diminishing available land infinite, development in coastal countries will probably to increase farther, conveying with it the associated jobs of tellurian based pollution, increased coastal eroding and sea renewal undertakings that may endanger the coastal Marine home grounds which are places to the walruss. In add-on, the current form of clime alteration and projected sea degree rise of 0.5cm yr-1 may see many of the present shallow coastal countries going unsuitable for seahorse home grounds ( mangrove, seagrass, macroalgae ) ( Duarte, 2002 ) . The present tendency of coastal marine home grounds loss is projected to farther diminution in the hereafter therefore many of the associated animate beings such as walruss and Dugong dugon may confront a really black hereafter of being critically endangered or even face extinction if no stronger proactive actions are implemented from now ( Duarte, 2002 ) .

As for the state of affairs with the planetary market for walrus merchandises, the increasing economic development in China and its environing states will probably to increase farther the demand for seahorse merchandises ( Vincent, 1996 ) . With more people holding higher disposable income than earlier, whom many are already good accustomed consumers of walrus merchandises, the seahorse demand and ingestion in the part will probably ( or has already? ) addition to an unsustainable degree unless the people are informed of the preservation value of extremely vulnerable species such as the walrus ( Vincent, 1996 ) .


The hereafter of the many of the walrus species are closely linked to the viability of their surrounding home grounds and the fishing force per unit area that they face. The most vulnerable species to confront extinction are the shallow H2O species populating in coastal country near human populations, since development rates and habitat debasements in these locations are the most distressing. For people in these countries, socio-economic and development issues will take precedences over preservation concerns unless there is a important displacement of public perceptual experience on the value of conserving animate beings such as walruss. Seahorse, like any other teleost fishes, can be a renewable piscaries resource if they are decently managed with the backup of local community support and sound scientific information.


  • Execution of the 100 millimeter minimal size for seahorse trade ( Bruckner et al. , 2005 )
  • Gathering of basic information of local walrus populations and tendencies in exporting states ( Bruckner et al. , 2005 )
  • dentification of the extent of walrus related home grounds and new countries suited for preservation intents ( Bruckner et al. , 2005 )
  • Active enforcement of available Torahs on menaces to seahorse populations and home ground ( Bruckner et al. , 2005 )
  • Adopting a more systematic system of entering seahorse export informations and verifying the taxonomy of exported species ( Bruckner et al. , 2005 )
  • Cooperation with the TCM industry to happen alternate beginnings of remedy to replace the use of walrus in their prescriptions ( Vincent, 1996 )
  • Deter the raising of walrus in the fish tank industry due to complicated care and short lifetime ( Vincent, 1996 ) .
  • Promotion of walrus as a flagship species for estuarial preservation ( Martin-Smith and Vincent, 2005 )
  • Using MPAs as a direction scheme for the preservation of walruss ( Marcus et al. , 2007 ) .
  • Implementing policies where degraded coastal Marine home ground countries are compensated with the creative activity of new home grounds of similar characteristics ( Duarte, 2002 ) .