The Roman Empire is one of the most prominent civilizations that has walked the face of the Earth. The amount of amazing things that took place because of the Romans is astonishing in its own right, so for the time period of the Pax Romana to be considered the greatest age of Rome, there must have been some great achievements that had taken place during these first two centuries. With the rise of Rome coming from Augustus Caesar during this time, Rome also had its declining downfall come soon after.
Rome’s legacy was left in many places during the time, and still to this day is expressed throughout the modern world. The Pax Romana lasted from roughly 31 B. C. – 180 A. D. During this time period, the state of the Roman Empire was at its highest in technology, infrastructure, law, science, and government. These improvements that took place in society were mainly taking place because of the military that Rome had acquired over the years. The military was able to protect the boarders of Rome and the outside city states that Rome had acquired over the years.
With the outskirts of the boarders secured, it allowed the citizens of Rome to relax and focus on things a lot more. Infrastructure and architecture were some of the most important things that the empire had improved on during the years of the Pax Romana. The Roman Empire had started building roads for their military which then advanced into the use of roads for trade and commerce since they were no longer in danger of robbery. Stone bridges and aqueducts were also a major of the road system because it allowed the Romans to keep the water that was flowing into their cities to continue.
The Romans were also starting to transform what the Greeks had used in architecture into their own form and improving on the skill to making not only the outside looking astonishing, but the inside also. The Romans used arches, vaults, and domes to make the insides of these magnificently large structures look beautiful. Roman literature and science were also at its highest point during the Pax Romana. Literature was going through the golden age of Latin literature. One of the major works during this time was the Aeneid, which was written by Virgil at the request of Augustus.
This work of literature was based on Augustus and his role in founding the empire. In this also included, “Roman virtues- patriotism, devotion to the family, duty to the state, and a strong sense of religion. ” Other classical writers of the time were Horace, whose poetry was based on the value of moderation and the beauty of friendships. The two major leaders in the art of science were Ptolemy and Galen. Ptolemy was a scientist of math, geography, and astronomy. He wrote, Mathematical Composition which was the prominent all the way through The Middle Ages.
As Ptolemy was to math and astronomy, Galen was the prominent medicinal scientist of his time. He was known for dissecting humans and also animals. Even though much of his work was found to be wrong, his contribution to the future of anatomy was great. Roman government was now being governed differently and with this came new law. Roman law started off by passing through two stages, the formation of civil law and the formation of the law of nations. The law of nations came to be applied throughout the empire, although it never fully applied local law.
These laws were brought about to bring everyone together. The government was also being run differently because unlike in the past where the Republic was corrupt and wanted to exploit each other, the Empire was trying to bring everyone together through peace and Roman law. Also slaves and the lowest classes of society were gaining the right of citizenship that a normal person would receive. With these new types of leadership, the empire of Rome was peaceful for almost 200 years. The decline of the Roman Empire after the Pax Romana can be attributed to a few different things and not one event specifically.
Increasing economic inequality and incompetent political and military leadership were some of the main reasons. Political anarchy was taken place around the third century with The Crisis of the Third Century and the reign of Emperor Diocletian. Leadership problems also aided in the downfall of the western part of Rome when Constantine I. He moved the capital of Rome to the east to a city called Constantinople. This separated Rome, which made the east and west two different places. With the empire being split up, the west was now vulnerable to western invasions of the barbarians.
Constant battles with the Visigoths were a major reason why Rome decline in a major way. The Visigoths had a major battle with Rome called the Battle of Adrianple, where a large Roman army was defeated and Emperor Valens was killed. The Visigoths then battled with Rome in the 5th century again and this culminated to the sac of Rome in the year 410. The second sack of Rome by the Vandals in 455 and the failed attempts against the Vandals were major reasons for the fall of Rome also.