Cuba lies to the south of the U. S. A and is easily accessible from the Florida region by boat. The first war of independence was fought between 1868 and 1878 against Spanish rule in Cuba. Carlos de Cespedes, a wealthy planter led the Cuba revolution and proclaimed independence from Spain. The Cuban revolution came to an end after signing the Treaty of El Zanjun. It was reported that more than 200,000 lives were lost. The Treaty of El Zanjun paved the way for the abolishment of slavery and introduction of reforms in the Cuban government and end of tyrannical rule in Cuba.
However, the Treaty was not honored in its letter and spirit and hence the resistance was again put up in 1885. The rebellious Cubans were placed in the concentration camps for revolutionaries by the Spanish king Alfonso XIII. The Cuban revolution turned to be exceptionally bloody due to use of Guerilla warfare. The unexpected events that happened during 1898 helped Cuba in its fights for independence. On February, 15, 1898, the U. S Battleship Maine was sunk by Spain. In retaliation to this, America declared a war on Spain thereby started to attack all the Spanish ships in U. S area thereby marking the beginning of the Spanish –American War. On July 18, 1898, under the stewardship of Dewey, an U. S naval officer, Spanish vessels were destroyed in Manila. Unable to face the U. S attacks, finally Spain surrendered to U. S. It also surrendered Philippines and Cuba as free countries to U. S. Thus with the assistance of United States, Cuba attained independence from Spanish rule and become Cuban Republic in 1901. Thomas Estrada Palma became as Cuban President in 1902. There was a necessity for a second Cuban revolution during 1959 to end a tyranny rule as between 1953 and 1958.
During the 1952 election, Batista captured the power and later became a dictator. During this period, Cuba was under the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar. Fidel Castro and his brother Raul, were captured after an abortive attack against the Moncada barracks in eastern Cuba on July 26, 1953. The Military tribunal sentenced both of them for long term sentence after a formal trial in which Fidel Castro delivered his famous “ History will absolve me “ utterance , in which he sketched out a reformist agenda.
Later Castro was accorded clemency and after that he relocated to Mexico and started for initiating the Cuban revolution again. He set up a “triumvirate “in 1956 with Raul Castro and Ernesto “Che” Guevara. Castro along with members of his “26th of July Movement” members made secret return to Cuba and took position in the Sierra Maestra mountain range, where they resorted to guerilla tactics. Castro’s revolutionary group became notorious and infamous in both Cuba and the world. By that time, U. S support for Batista declined and the regime lost ground against rebels.
Castro successfully set up a government with Jose Cardona as Prime Minister Manuel Urrutia as President and Castro himself as commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Later, Castro became both the prime minister and commander-in-chief, thereby establishing as the sole political power within Cuba. Modern Cuba has been nourished by the U. S repugnance for the communist government. Today, Cuba is facing many problems including its waning economy, pollution problems, and its health cares problems. It is to be observed that all problems that Cuba is facing at present is emanated from the U.
S non-cooperation to align with Cuban communist government as the ultimate aim for the U. S government is to bestow “freedom and liberty “to Cuba from the clutches of “harsh communist government” of Cuba. The real reason for the suffering of Cubans at present is mainly due to prevalence of communist government which resulted in the declaration of trade embargo on Cuba by U. S. U. S government is of the opinion that by placing trade embargo on Cuba is the only way to dismantle the communist government which is having strong foot in Cuba. Though, the U. S is unsuccessful in toppling down the Castro dominated communist government, it had made a lot of ramification on Cuba’s economy.
The U. S embargo has affected the Cuba in many spheres . It has the devastating effect on educational system in Cuba. Even common items like pen to computer are turned to be an uncommon commodity in Cuba now. Complete Cuban education system is in doldrums due to U. S embargo. To stabilize its economy, Cuba has been forced to devalue its currency and it had added more fuel to the fire. Cuba was once the largest producer of sugar and U. S had imported majority of sugar from Cuba. Due to trade embargo, U. S later refused to buy sugar from Cuba. Thus, U. S trade embargo had its worst effect of Cuban Peso which was equal to one American dollar just after the Cuban revolution and now its value came down after the initiation of trade embargo. During the cold war, Soviet Russia stepped in and extended moral support to Cuba by supplying petroleum, buying its sugar and extending financial assistance to sustain Cuban communist’s government programs . Thus, Russian efforts helped Cuba to sustain its peso’s value.
But after the fall of Soviet Russia in the 80’s, Cuba’s economy again faced a lot of twists and turns and the currently the exchange rate for Cuban peso is around 25 pesos per U. S. dollar. Prior to U. S embargo, Cuban health care is considered as one of the best in the world. But the effect of embargo resulted in lack of medicine and medical machines and health care system was in deteriorated conditions. Further, short supply of food items compelled Cuba to import goods which became more expensive due to its devalued currency.
This had compelled Cuban government to introduce ration for food articles and due to malnourishment, diseases were rampant and Cuban government was helpless to provide adequate health care to its subjects. The U. S embargo has created untold miseries to Cuba’s economy. Not only has it crippled its economy but also has initiated a waning support to communist government by Cubans. It is reported that U. S is initiating many disguised plans to bring the communist government down especially through creating anti-communist waves among Cuban gullible publics especially through failed economics policies.
U. S had devised strategy not only poison the Cuban crops but also to poison its leader , Fidel Castro mainly to see that communist government is ousted out of power in Cuba. In the Bay of Pigs invasion, in which U. S attempted to invade Cuba as a strategic location but was defeated and ousted out of Cuba during John F. Kennedy regime. The continuous efforts of U. S have indirect influence on Fidel Castro’s health as it had created considerable amount of damage on his mental state.
All Latin American nations except Cuba are practicing democracy and have introduced market reforms. Mexico, which is one of the Latin American countries, is the second –largest trading partner of U. S after Canada. Latin American countries are occupying a strategic position as U. S trading partners as this region occupies half of the trade in the region than that of Asia and twice that of Europe . Due to this trade necessity , U. S has everything to gain in economic and security terms from promoting a stable and prosperous Latin America. U. S by its actions or inaction predictably plays a pivotal role supporting or obstructing constructive change in Latin American countries. Cuba misses the bus by antagonizing the U. S by following the communism. The Cuba has strong tourist potentialities but it has affected by strong American anti propaganda against Cuba. Thus, strong American tirade against Cuba not only devastating effect on its economy but also on its image, education, health cares and safety. The suffering that is being countered by Cubans is due to result of “American effort to ‘liberate ‘Cuba from communism.
U. S. A through its dubious efforts attempts to foster a public revolt against communist’s government through trade embargo, general slandering of Cuba and through covert CIA actions. For resurrection of Cuban economy, trade might once again burgeon the economy, tourism might once again open up new economic vistas and foreign investments from France, Italy and Spain could possibly save the Cuba from its economic catastrophe. In a nutshell, the Cuban revolution was more of a breakdown rather than it was an accomplishment but it all depends upon the way one visualizing the same.