In recent yesteryear Mobile engineering has advanced quickly with support of Mobile OS which gives major custodies for popularity of nomadic device and there maker. As today ‘s Mobile phone called as smartphones with their smart attitude of working with cleverly working Operating system. Operating system for nomadic platforms are Android, BlackBerry, IOS, Windows phone OS, Brew, Palm OS and many more and still new OS are on the manner to establish in recent old ages like Mozilla nomadic OS, Ubuntu mobile OS etc. But as a portion of smart phone Multimedia has really and most of import portion of it which requires being really good in quality. Most likely characteristic of smartphone is streaming picture on spells, while it may be unrecorded Television or YouTube pictures, etc. ; people spends there clip for watching some trunkss of import picture on their pocket size portable Television where they can watch all these materials while traveling, as service supplier gives user best trade with quality and comfy experience for observation.
As experience of watching unrecorded Television or unrecorded picture streaming are non that good plenty as like on desktop version of unrecorded cyclosis where it besides provides with HD quality of unrecorded picture cyclosis. And if this HD quality of picture comes to mobile or ache devices figure of screening of picture will acquire increase every bit now a yearss user wants everything quick, smooth and with good quality of experience in at that place little and portable smartphone. This undertaking is a guideline on quality analysis on nomadic multimedia utilizing two largely used Mobile Operating system “ Android of Google Inc. and IOS of Apple Inc. and their engineering of unrecorded picture streaming as focal point of this research on unrecorded picture streaming as nomadic multimedia is really huge subject to research and besides because of limited clip. This research contains the item research on Video, picture cyclosis, streaming protocols followed by architecture of Android, IOS Platform and construct of unrecorded picture streaming on it, codec which these two Mobile platform are utilizing for their unrecorded picture cyclosis, after that method of analyzing the quality of picture and its execution guideline in unit 6 on Implementing Tested Guideline for Quality picture Streaming followed by proving guideline and decision.
To make quality analysis on the nomadic multimedia on two largely used Mobile Operating system platform with regard to major portion of analysis on picture cyclosis and its restriction of todays and future facets in nomadic multimedia.
To make item survey on Android and IOS platform.
To make detail research survey on picture cyclosis in humanoid and Io.
To make analysis on quality of sound and picture streaming with regard to register format of cartridge holders.
To make analysis of hardware and package for current and future nomadic multimedia.
Result of this research will be analysis of picture streaming on two Mobiles based runing system i.e. Android and IOS. Where, this study shows comparing of two platforms with regard to quality of picture streaming them supplying with codec as they utilizing for streaming picture and transition of picture for same.
This study can be guideline for developer or farther research worker ; up to which point cyclosis can and which Operating system can be utile for future point of position. It helps for developer in conformity with which codec they can utilize for their picture cyclosis undertaking and which sort of transition of picture file format they required to make as algorithm which they supposed to develop or non as some of them already available.
Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal:
Multimedia signifies a figure of manners of media types which can be used in aggregation. Multimedia is if text comes with Images that is multimedia, if is there any picture with text that is multimedia. Exploitation of multimedia is excessively much now a twenty-four hours in fact there is non even individual web site without any multimedia content because multimedia web sites get interesting and attracts the user to those sites. And velocity for cyberspace is besides increasing so it makes it easy for user to travel through the site and watch a more media contents like picture, images, life and sound besides without any demand of downloading in that besides it give really good quality of experience. ( ntchosting, 2002-2013. )
2.2 Multimedia picture
Based on figure of specification multimedia picture file may come in assorted format where every format enjoy a great repute. AVI ( Audio Video Interleave ) and MPEG ( Traveling Picture Expert Group ) are the largely used picture format on the bases of handiness and use. 3GP ( 3rd Generation Partnership Project ) , Flash picture ( FLV ) and Windows Media Video ( WMV ) are the most often used picture format for on-line cyclosis and nomadic devices. Some other well-known formats are MOV ( QUICKTIME Movie ) , RM ( REALMEDIA ) , Matroska ( MKV ) , DivX and Ogg.
AVI was established in 1992 as a resource to allow in cooperate picture and audio playback at the equal clip. Its file compaction abilities make it a common select amongst animal trainers who had restricted memory in thrusts. Improvements in separately compaction techniques and info allotment engineering permitted AVI to maintain its esteem for old ages, as the file format stays to be one of the most downloaded multimedia picture formats. AVI videos stand the.avi file extension.
MPEG was developed in 1993 and it was used as VCDs ( video compacts phonograph record ) with contains audio picture information. MPEG 1 was the first version for picture in MPEG class which needs to downzone because of restriction of bitrate which leads to hapless picture quality. After ascent this picture format it provides better quality with scalable declaration, high definition and improved file compaction MPEG sound participant III i.e. MP3 is one of the most known used or played audio format. .mpeg, mp4 and mpg are the common multimedia picture format. FLV and WMV are used by YouTube on web site for sharing picture. MPEG allows smooth and fast streaming on cyberspace in comparing with other format which loos there video quality. User get high definition picture but they have to compromise with the velocity of streaming with ascent of engineering.
In 3G phones most common picture format is 3GP, it has hapless picture quality compare to other file types since it use lees infinite it was ideal pick for nomadic phone. It can be used for MMS ( Multimedia messaging services ) which can shared through storage device transmittal where that can be downloaded and uploaded on cyberspace. ( Marco Sumayao, 2012 )
2.3 Mobile multimedia
Today nomadic multimedia agencies is non merely images, sound, picture and life it is more than that like “ SIRI ” from IPHONE 5 which utilizing address bids is besides portion of nomadic multimedia for assorted type of portable devices. Smart Phones is the best looking step of nomadic multimedia ; which contains assorted characteristic like, picture cyclosis, unrecorded Television, cameras with high Image quality and picture quality, with about 2GB of RAM and latest Operating System etc. Another illustration of nomadic multimedia is IPOD and portable music participant ( Sony Walkman ) .
Mobile multimedia is majorly used for picture naming, audio/video messages, easy to utilize application, streaming unrecorded Television, Shows, News, athleticss etc. even from outside of place and office it can be accessible with the aid of strong bandwidth web supplier.
It can besides state that Smartphones are minicomputer, where it is possible to make entree anything like it possible in computing machines, for illustration surfing browser, online picture drama, downloading Numberss of apps, playing of vocals through YOUTUBE, for watching Television, films etc. and many more thing like computing machines smartphone besides can make. It is besides possible for smartphone to make their ain multimedia. Today with text messages installation of fond regard of images, audio/video file is there which makes communicating interesting and gives more value excessively ; best illustration is Skype, WhatsApp and many more.
Apple Inc. comes with new engineering called as “ Siri ” with its IPHONE series and it is still go oning with latest version of IPhone 5. Siri interact with user through voice even without manus user can run that device. ( Jeremy Laukkonen,2013 )
2.4 Types of Multimedia
2.4.1 Video cartridge holders
Video cartridge holder is a sequence of still image running after another which looks like traveling images. Before YouTube comes in being it was necessary to download picture before watching that picture cartridge holder. But as times alterations internet got excessively faster velocity and with betterment in cyberspace velocity and utilizing experience it is possible to watch picture cartridge holder before downloading it. Video cyclosis is besides possible over cyberspace, attaching of picture is more on web as comparison to 5 to 10 old ages before and it can be portion easy through web logs, forum. MP4, MKV, AVI, XVID, etc. are the common picture file format.
Audio is sound system which can we used for naming through talkers. An audio file is recorded sound that can be play subsequently to listen. Audio file is fast to convey because of less size than picture cartridge holder. It requires less bandwidth and storage capacity than picture which is good for waiter for transmittal of those audio files. It is really simple to upload and download the audio files to and from webserver with the aid of simple participant. MP3, AAC, WAV, etc. are the common file format for sound.
The first of all time type of multimedia is used on web is Image ; which became the most utile and important portion of web page design. Images use really less infinite and bandwidth because this functionality of images online intelligence portals is replaced with paper intelligence and as a consequence of this it reach to the more people with in really less clip with often updates of latest intelligence with images of intelligence. Gallery of images in web sites is most popular usage of images which can include assorted images of exposure, picture and images. Alternatively of full image it is possible give thumbnail of that image as a little version of full image. It became an of import portion of web sites. Now it can be used as background, navigational bill of fare, and buttons besides. Most of the images are raster artworks like JPEG, PNG, GIF, TIFF etc. another type of image is vector artworks is non used because of mutual exclusiveness of some browser. ( ntchosting.com,2002-2013. )
Optical semblance is called buttocks life. It is an semblance of still images which are running in gesture one after another. It is used for executing finding which consider as signifier of art. It can be used for presentation intent, educational, instructional and larning intent. Authoritative signifier of life is cartoon life. Cartoon life foremost comes in early old ages of twentieth century which comes with 24 assorted drawing/sec. Traditionally life of sketch is made by manus made sketch drawing, it is dearly-won and clip devouring to make. Because of this con it is merely produce by professional studios. Animation in movies or films is green goodss as single frame footing. Frames can be created utilizing images, images of exposure or it can be drawn or painted. ( N. Madison,2002-2013 )
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2.5 Mobile Platform
The operating system which is particularly for nomadic device is Mobile Platform. As in computing machine where OS is on which application can be run with the support of input device and end product device which organise all procedure and all resource for properly running of application. So as like in computing machine, in Mobile besides there is OS which comes over all other application. OS is responsible for characteristics of any nomadic device and their functionality and maker usage OS functionality for nomadic device to use characteristic of OS for their manufactured device. Following are some popular Mobile operating system
Windows Phone OS
( Mugil, 2011 )
2.5.1 Android H: DissertationNew folderNew folderandroid logo.PNG
In 2005 Google get Android Inc. with their Operating system today it is good known as “ ANDROID ” . The OHA ( “ Open Handset Alliance ” ) was formed in November 2007 which was announced by Google and its associates. Android is working on Linux meat which powers for security, theoretical account of procedure and driver construction. As Android I based on plus of Linux but it does n’t intend application of humanoid can straight run on Linux or frailty versa, it is all because of differ in UI model, Library and difference in life theoretical account. Android is middleware which on Linux meat as humanoid is comes with beds ; support of location service, 2D and 3D, detectors, audio/video multimedia Bluetooth radio networking and many more. Previously middleware multimedia based on the Open nucleus model which was by PacketVideo and late it was renewed by Google ‘s Stagefright undertaking which is much easier model for multimedia. OpenGL ES 1.x and 2.0 APIs are the criterion for 3D artworks and acceleration of 3D hardware.
As application of Android is developed and run utilizing Java and that application is executed utilizing Dalvik JVM, where it was developed by Google. DVM is aid to better the public presentation like use of memory during runtime, burden of processor and battery use. Android 2.2 comes with improved public presentation as it introduces Merely In Time ( JIT ) compiler for Java based application. Android platform comes with built-in application like messaging electronic mail, contacts, dialler, media participant etc. As applications are developed on Java linguistic communication so some restricted APIs are non available for 3rd party application. Android UI besides supports multi-touch, life and gestures, where it is improved by OEM ‘s of Samsung Touch Wiz, HTC Sense Sony Rachael, and LG SCLass.
Eclipse IDE is used for development of Android application with extension of device copycats and some needed plugins. Plugins help for design, optimize, debug and deployment of application on Mobile. For running of 3rd party application android uses Java model. For employment of system API and life rhythm theoretical account, android utilizations idiom of java linguistic communication ; because of this humanoid is non compatible with Java SE and Java ME application. The constituents which are developed in C, C++ with Java can be embed with humanoid, where it uses NDK ( Native Development Kit ) which allows developers to construct and application with C/C++ .
Android Frameworks are combination of assorted groups of APIs which includes SQLite for informations storage, 2D and 3D artworks, Wi-Fi, web services, media with audio/video/image, camera, telephone, detectors and Bluetooth. Because of Novel model used by humanoid it allows loose matching with application and services. Android Market or now called Play shop is used to acquire android application and installed on humanoid enable device. There is another manner to put in application if user knows beginnings and leting the option of unknown beginning as that option is disabled by default and if user wants so merely it can be enable to put in application. ( VisionMobile, 2011 )
2.5.2 IOS H: DissertationNew folderNew folderIOS logo.PNG
In January 2007, Apple Inc. came up with most popular phone with IOS called as IPhone this device was introduce by Apples CEO Steve Jobs at Conference & A ; Expo of MacWorld. During the clip of debut of Io it was called every bit iPhoneOS as the same OS was introduced for iPad in January 2010 from so it was known as IOS. With this IOS platform Apple Inc. got at that place position and grade in nomadic market with their iOS merchandise iPhone, iPad and iPod touch which portion same Io. IOS is merely comes with Apple Inc. merchandise it ca n’t be used for 3rd party device.
IOS is the tonss or combination of models which includes web services, middleware, application shop, application model, iTunes bringing service and on-line service of iCloud. IPhone, IPad and IPod device of Apple Inc. through which Apple acquiring its most of the net incomes by selling this devices at superior monetary value.
Furthermore, Io is scale-down version of the MAC OS x which is runing system usage in MAC computing machines. In the comparing of MAC OS x, Io is touch screen user interface Operating System. It made of ARM- based processor and hardware constellation losing difficult disc and physical switch divider. Io is based on Unix based Operating system likewise MAC OS is portion of BSD Unix. It besides uses “ intercrossed ” meats uniting elements of both microkernels and massive meats.
Whereas microkernel runs in user infinite and massive meat runs in meat infinite ; microkernels runs with device driver in user infinite and massive meats rune for characteristics like procedure theoretical account tonss of networking and security theoretical account where these characteristics are same as nucleus OS characteristics. IOS offers high degree of constituents where it besides includes 3D artworks, UI, networking, rich multimedia content, web services and many more. These functionality provides services for developers by utilizing set of API ‘s which allows them to cerate new games and applications.
All Io comes with an extended set of preloaded applications, which includes followers:
SMS app and a phone dialler.
Applications of contacts e-mail and calendar
ITunes integrated with media participant used in IPod.
For the intent of purchasing and installation applications Apps Store are available.
Google Maps applications and YouTube for utilizing Google cloud services.
Safari Web browser of Mac besides comes with IOS devices.
In June 2011 Apple comes with ICloud online services which give supports to hive away all users paperss, exposures, calendars, note, music, apps on distant waiter. This service is allowed for merely user of Apple merchandises or who has registered with Apple Inc. merchandises. ( VisionMobile, 2011 )
2.5.3 BlackBerry OS H: DissertationNew folderNew folderlackberry logo.PNG
Over several coevals BlackBerry OS develop bit by bit. Its beginning has traced by BlackBerry 850 device announce by in RIM in 1990. This BlackBerry 850 used to two manner beeper which uses DataTrac Network. In the clip of 2002, RIM launched one of the more meaningful 2nd coevals OS which were known as smart phones. In add-on to this device comes with QWERTY Key tablet with some of the more good functionality like, phone faxing, electronic mail, browse and text messaging ; . because of these characteristics BlackBerry devices found their initial market success.
Recently BlackBerry expanded their client ‘s flexibleness by turn outing them messaging solution for text hooking users. In the twelvemonth of 2009, he announced that 50 % of their endorsers are from consumers and 80 % are from non-enterprise sector. Furthermore, in latest theoretical account of BlackBerry non merely construct strong traditional messaging but besides included private info sharing with support of multimedia, internet service handiness, contacts, location services, entree for Intranet system, contacts and downloadable application. BlackBerry OS 6 included cosmopolitan hunt every bit good as characteristics such as YouTube application, a societal application and a browser built on the unfastened beginning WebKit engine. Even after supplying such a well-developed OS still RIM has been enduring to viing with Io and android OS. In April of 2010, an attempt to overhaul its French telephone platform, RIM launched the acquisition of QNX Software Systems from Harman International. QNX Software Systems is a long clip shaper of the QNX operating system, used in thrust in applications, incorporating in auto information systems.
In the twelvemonth of 2011, RIM had launched one new coevals OS name as BBX platform that was centred on QNX OS. RIM was anticipating BBX would replace the bequest BlackBerry OS in future smart phone and tablet theoretical account of RIM. RIM was anticipating that he should go on the way of creative activity of merchandises on proprietary OS over the clip. BlackBerry OS is a registered operating system which non for 3rd parties.
BlackBerry OS provides the undermentioned characteristics:
Push electronic mails, which are connected with IBM Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange and Novell Groupwise.
Personal information director ( PIM ) , calendar, address book and to make list, which can be coordinated with endeavor associated systems.
It besides supports an Office compatibility suit which provides support to Microsoft file format for certification, presentations and dispersed sheets.
BlackBerry Messenger. With nonpareil typical PIN.
Incorporated messaging application roll uping push presentments from legion applications, every bit good as 3rd party applications
Telephone dialler support.
It can besides back up media participant with audio and video music participant.
Good quality of picture and image gaining control.
Internet based services with YouTube and Facebook.
BlackBerry platform provides many ways for developer to develop different figure of application utilizing Java and web development. With the support of JAVA ME MIDP 2 of Java based nomadic model developer can develop application for BlackBerry OS. RIM extended the model with patented APIs that put together in apps to utilize:
Communication with Bluetooth devices.
Background threads with waiter push.
Media participant with multimedia capableness.
Recording and RTSP cyclosis.
Video playback and cyclosis.
Location based services.
Entree to PIM informations.
Layouts and passages.
Cryptanalysis and security public-service corporations with PKI and elliptic curve support.
( VisionMobile, 2011 )
2.5.4 Windows Phone H: DissertationNew folderNew folderwindows logo.PNG
The new nomadic platform of Microsoft is Windows Phone 7. It seems, it is a modified version of earlier OS name Windows Mobile OS. Microsoft had foremost announced about Windows Phone 7 in February 2010. Several nomadic operator of tier-1 had participated in the declaration operators like AT & A ; T, Orange, Telefonica/O2, Deutsche Telekom, T-Mobile, Sprint, Vodafone, SFR, Verizon Wireless, Telstra, and Telecom Italia.
Furthermore, in 1998, Microsoft had stared to develop its first nomadic production. In April 2000 Microsoft introduced, its first Mobile in market as a name of ‘Pocket Personal computer 2000 ‘ . Mobile based on the Windows Mobile runing system. Till the primer of Android, Windows Mobile was the chief unfastened licensable operating system for smartphones. At the terminal of the 2008, Microsoft had stared to work on new Windows Phone nomadic platform, when it became looking in forepart of everyone Windows Mobile OS could non vie with the more modern Io and Android platforms. In 2011, two biggest companies named Microsoft and Nokia had publicised their partnership in concern of nomadic universe. The trade was that Nokia has to do its smartphone application under Microsoft Windows Phone.
In add-on, similar to other production, Windows Phone 7 is registered of the Microsoft. Microsoft owned the rights to the operating system and there were no backward compatibility with Windows Mobile. Windows Phone 7 put up at the top of the Microsoft Windows CE 6 meat. The services of cardinal system provided by meats such as, procedure abstraction, memory direction and programming. As lucifer to CE 6 meat is touted as significantly more advanced than CE 5 which is used in Windows Mobile merchandise line. Windows Phone middleware supports Wi-Fi networking, Bluetooth and 3G informations. Harmonizing to a pre-configured policy, a built in connexion director handles Wi-Fi and cellular informations connexions. The new expression of the artworks and rendering engine of the platform is based on the Direct 3D 11 API, with hardware acceleration.
At the procedure degree every bit good as at the file-system degree ( every application merely has entree to its ain files ) , Windows Phone 7 supports separate application. In Windows CE 6 meats application security has compulsory. Windows Phone 7 applications are discovered with pre installed Windows Marketplace. Client merely put in the application from merely Windows Marketplace after formal entry, confirmation and vetting procedure by Microsoft. For development of Windowss phone application developer can utilize widley popular Ocular Studio. The Ocular studio 2010 for Windowss phone SDK comes with support of Silverlight for Windowss phone, Expression Blend 4 for Windows Phone, Windows phone Emulator and XNA Game Studio 4.0. ( VisionMobile, 2011 )
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Table: ( VisionMobile, 2011 ) Note: Above tabular array shows till Q3 2011 history of four Mobile platform which was estimated by VisionMobile.
Video is the package of still images which runs one after another in speedy span of clip with peculiarly set frequence which gives experience of gesture image. In early yearss it was for parallel telecasting services, and still it been used by many but as today universe of digital service everything about videos get improved with in mode of their quality, watching experiences, capacity, declaration, size, airing medium and most of import viewing audiences ; viewing audiences who wants best quality with low size, easy manner to entree with good quality sing experience.
In video frame rate, facet ratio, color infinite and spots per pel and picture quality are the chief features. Frame rate is continuously running still images in per unit of clip to do it as picture, earlier for old cameras it was scope between 6 to 8 frames/sec but for new cameras it is more than 120 frames/sec. PAL ( Phase Altering Line ) is the largely used criterion before as it was linear telecasting criterion which was used in Europe, Asia, Australia. SECAM ( Sequential coloring material with memory ) criterion largely used in Russia, France, Africa with 25 frames/sec and NTSC ( National Television System Committee ) which was used in Japan, America, Canada with 29.97 frame/sec. As because of less frame rate it was non looks as continues some slowdown was at that place as engineering improved frame rate increased which give good and continues look to videos with about negligible slowdown. Digital standard DVB, ATSC, ISDB comes with really much improved digital picture. European states are utilizing DVB ( Digital video airing ) with frame rate of 60 frame/sec, ATSC i.e. Advanced Television System Committee being used by North America with 60 fame/sec and Japan utilizing standard called ISDB i.e. Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting with 30 frame/sec.
Resolution is the most of import of any picture as with proper declaration one can see video decently with information that picture wants to give. Resolution is the physical size of picture with its pel tallness and breadth ; pixel is the smallest portion of image and with figure of pixel one digital image can be seen. More figure of pels is better the quality of picture. . For illustration of declaration where it shows 640 pels x 480 pels its shows 640 pels as breadth of picture and 480 pels shows the tallness of video Colour infinite is collection assorted coloring materials combination for assorted application where coloring material infinite incorporate with strength of Red, Green and Blue in each coloring material pel in scope of 0 to 255 which allows render more than 16 million single coloring material with combination this three coloring material.
Aspect raito is dimension of screen to be displayed which represents with breadth and tallness. For traditional Television screen facet ratio is 4:3 or 1.33:1 and todays HD Television screen facet ratio is 16:9 or 1.78:1. Pixels in digital picture are non square aspect ratio as traditional proctor screen in computing machine where it was square aspect ratio. ( RTE, october 2009 )
2.7 Video Streaming
Streaming is the playing of picture on client device/machine while that picture being downloaded from waiter. There will be fluctuation in bandwidth with assorted type of streaming intent where it depends on the web with frame rate, declaration and spot rate for that cyclosis, as these addition in these factors it required appropriate bandwidth for that picture file, where streaming can be on-demand and may be existent clip like as unrecorded Television. Video conferencing is the application of existent clip streaming as it needs to be low loss of packages and clip hold as it requires speedy communicating between terminal users. Every user is can function as a client and a waiter for streaming in picture conferencing.
On-demand type of service is like watching pictures on cyberspace where all pre-recorded pictures are stored in waiter and can be played or viewed by user when they asked for it or demand it. As real-time service can merely be available when existent events are go oning but as in on-demand pictures are recorder one they can be played anytime and anyplace. ( RTE, october 2009 )
2.8 Research Methodology
The Research Difficulties can be solved by Research Methodology. It can be assumed as a scientific discipline of larning how research is complete methodically. This is stairss through which research can analyze there job with logic. It is besides of import for research worker to cognize about research techniques and methodological analysiss besides. Research methodological analysis contains assorted methods and dimensions to attach to with it. The chance of research methodological analysis is extended than that of research methods. Therefore, when research methodological analysis has discourse it means non merely discourse of the research methods but besides think through the logic for that methods supposed to utilize in the state of affairs of our research acquisition and clear up why it is indispensable to utilize a specific method and why there is no demand to utilize others so that research results are skilled and estimated by the research worker or others.
2.8.1 Quantitative research
Quantitative research gives more emphasis on measuring while garnering and analyzing informations. The usage of numerical steps no merely for this but besides tracks natural scientific discipline theoretical account research mensurating procedure to establish cognition. Usually it makes use of decision, that is, research is supported out in comparative to hypotheses tired from theoretical account. The usual process of quantitative research is given in Figure.
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Figure: Stairss in the ( additive ) deductive procedure ( Commonwealth of Learning, 2004 )
Data aggregation methods in Quantitative research:
probes ( questionnaires )
secondary survey and authorized informations
content survey conformity with coding system
quasi-experiments ( surveies that need certain of the features of
Investigational design )
Authoritative research ( surveies that need resistance groups and investigational groups ) .
2.8.2 Qualitative research
Qualitative researches are binary where they are concerned in phenomena or they put attempt indirectly with scales.Mainly qualitative researches hunt for to acknowledge and take to intending of conditions or steps from the point of views of the persons tangled and as understood by them. It is usually inductive moderately than rational in its tactic, i.e. , it creates theoretical account from elucidation of the verification, although equated to a theoretic circumstantial. A procedure in qualitative research is given in Figure. Qualitative research high spots senses instead than frequences and shops every bit shortly as assemblage and analyzing informations. Some research workers claim that qualitative research is besides worried with topics of measure, but with methods that are of altered order to numerical steps.
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Figure: The iterative qualitative research procedure ( Miller and Crabtree 1992 )
Methods of qualitative research include:
interviews ( face-to-face, or through assorted engineerings )
shapeless ( normal treatment, life history narration of cardinal betrayers ; projective techniques )
semi-structured ( utilizing an meeting usher )
single ( an in-depth interview )
group ( concentrate group )
life history narrative focused on selected subjects
structured ( utilizing an interview agenda )
questionnaires given in meetings
recordings – sound and picture with structured or unstructured analysis,
content analysis of talk and interaction
2.8.3 Assorted Methods Research Method
The assorted methods research process theoretical account includes eight different stages:
specify the research inquiry ;
define whether a assorted design is suited ;
pick the mixed-method or mixed-model research design ;
gather the informations ;
analyze the informations ;
read the informations ;
reliable the information ; and
Draw determinations and compose the concluding study.
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Figure: Mon method and mixed-model designs. ( Commonwealth of Learning, 2004 )
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Figure: Mixed-method design matrix with mixed-method research designs shown in the four cells. ( Commonwealth of Learning, 2004 )
Assorted methods research:
Triangulation ( i.e. , looking for junction and legalisation of results as of diverse methods and designs larning the indistinguishable phenomenon ) ;
Complementarity ( i.e. , looking for account, betterment, design, and reading of the results from one method with results from the other ) ;
Initiation ( i.e. , finding incompatibilities and defects that clue to a rethinking of the research enquiry ) ;
Development ( i.e. , with the replies from one method to profit notify the other ) ;
Expansion ( i.e. , looking for to develop the scope and assortment of research by agencies of assorted methods for different reappraisal mechanisms ) .
The assorted methods research process theoretical account includes Onwuegbuziea nd Teddlie ‘s ( 2003 ) seven phase construct of the assorted methods informations scrutiny process. the seven phases are as follows:
Data decrease: Data decrease contains decrease of the component of the quantitative informations ( e.g. , via expressive figures, analyzing issue survey, corporate survey ) and qualitative informations ( e.g. , via explorative thematic survey ) .
Datas show: Data show includes specifying symbolically the qualitative informations ( e.g. , mediums, list, Venn diagram, webs, charts, and quantitative informations ( e.g. , tabular arraies, graphs ) .
Data transmutation: informations transmutation in this phase quantitative informations are transformed acute on description informations that can be examined qualitatively ( i.e. , qualified ; Tashakkori & A ; Teddlie, 1998 ) and qualitative informations are transformed acute on statistical codifications which is presented numerically ( i.e. , quantized ; Tashakkori & A ; Teddlie, 1998 ) .
Data correlativity: Data correlativity contains connected with the qualified informations through the quantitative informations or the qualitative informations being connected through the quantized information.
Data consolidation: Data consolidation, in which every bit quantitative and qualitative informations are united to bring forth fresh or amalgamate Data sets.
Data comparing: informations comparing contains comparing informations as of the qualitative and quantitative information bases.
Data integrating: Data integrating typifies the last stage, in which both quantitative and qualitative informations are united into whichever a comprehendible units or two divides etc. ( i.e. , qualitative and quantitative ) of comprehendible units.
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Figure: Assorted Research Method ( Commonwealth of Learning, 2004 )
Chapter3: RESEARCH INTO ANDROID
3.1 Android Introduction
Android is nomadic runing system which is stack of package which contains OS, middleware and application. Java programming linguistic communication application developer can develop application for humanoid as it supports constructs of Java with its ain necessary tools and APIs in Android SDK.
Reuse of constituents and replacing of constituents can enable because of application model
Like every bit JVM in Java in humanoid there is DVM ( Dalvik-virtual-machine ) adjusted for nomadic devices
Preloaded web browser with Integration of unfastened beginning Web Kit engine
It besides supports 2D artworks and 3D besides with OpenGL ES 1.0.
For hive awaying informations there is SQLite
It supports normally used audio/video format and image formats besides which includes ( “ MPEG4, H.264, MP3, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG, GIF ” )
It besides supports Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GSM telephone, 3G and EDGE.
Android besides comes with support of compass, camera accelerometer and GPS.
3.2 Android Architecture
Following figure shows the architecture of Android with constituent of Linux Kernel, Libraries, Android Runtime, Application frame work and Application.
Android System Architecture
Figure: Android Architecture ( developer.android.com/about/versions/index.html )
Android comes with pre-loaded application like electronic mail, maps, SMS, Contacts, calendars, browsers and others which are written in java linguistic communication. Application is portion of android architecture where all installed application comes.
3.2.2 Application Framework
Application model is the aggregation of director which aid for developing the figure advanced application by accessing its original API which were used for nucleus application. Through these directors developer can manage hardware of device, location based entree besides can be handle service which runs in background besides can be handle, notification dismay and many more can be handle through android API ‘s.
Android system includes following service for application
Android provide figure Views for constructing an application with assorted options like textbox, list, buttons, grids and even web browser.
As content supplier it allows to entree of internal informations for other application or to portion informations within application in device.
In resource director it allows developer to entree resources like layout strings and artworks.
Notification Manager allows to all other application presentment to be displayed on position saloon with customize qui vive scene.
Activity director is most of import portion where it manages the life rhythm of any application with proper pilotage of application.
Libraries of android system includes the C, C++ libraries besides which can be entree through android model and those models can be used by developer in their application. Following are some nucleus libraries of humanoid.
System C library is standard C library which are embedded for usage in android via Linux based devices.
Media Libraries- Media library supports many audio and video files format and it besides supports still images ; it supports files like MPEG4, MP3, AMR, PNG, H.264, ACC, and JPEG.
Surface Manager- It allows to entree of show for application in 2D and 3D artworks.
Android comes with its ain web browser engine and embeddable web position besides.
SGL 2D graphic is the primary in writing engine.
3D libraries- IT contains library for 3D acceleration and rasterizer which is based on OpenGL ES 1.0.
Font Rendering and electronic image comes in FreeType libraries.
SQLite – is the database engine for android device which accessible for all application.
3.2.4 Android Runtime
Android contains core libraries of Java linguistic communication that provides assorted functionality for android application ; like as in Java there is JVM for in humanoid there is DVM Dalvik practical machine where every procedure of android application run on its ain with case of DVM. DVM supports multiple running procedures expeditiously. It has feasible file called.dex format which elevate memory footmark. The practical machine runs compiled categories of Java compiler that interpreted into.dex format with dx tool. The DVN dependant on Linux meat for functionality like as direction of memory and weaving construct of Java.
3.2.5 Linux Kernel
Linux Kernel is the bosom of humanoid system which pertains as abstraction bed for hardware and package. It is a nucleus system for services like driver theoretical account, security procedure direction, web stack and memory direction. Android uses 2.6 versions Linux.
3.3 Live Video Streaming from Android-Enabled device:
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Figure: Architecture Overview ( N. Vun and Y. H. Ooi. 2010 )
Figure shows the architecture of unrecorded cyclosis for android devices, which contains two chief parts one is android device and another is server from where picture will have both are interconnected. The android device demands mandate to link with waiter with the aid of convention protocol over a TCP connexion.
After mandate approved device bend on camera and starts to convey the picture over UDP server get picture in signifier of RTP packages. If user device capable or application capable of RTSP video participant wants to see picture it decodes the watercourse and acquire connected with RTSP waiter and after info like connexion information and type of information is asked from server client petition for drama. Server starts directing RTP packages to the client device where it acquire decode the picture in an embeddable format. Encoded picture stored to server in brassy picture format. And when user petitions for picture it get played on user ‘s device.
188.8.131.52 Android Device application
H.263 is an encryption and decrypting picture criterion which developed in 1996 by ITU-T picture coding group it use low bandwidth for picture conferencing where in twelvemonth 1998 and 2000 they made some alterations for high quality. Google has adopted this for android OS because of this today it can supported by all android devices. Because of low bandwidth watercourse it is possible to convey over low bandwidth web. ( Vun, N. ; Ansary, M, 2010 )
184.108.40.206 Real-time Transport Protocol
RTP is a package which is usage for transmittal of sound and picture in figure of encoded format over cyberspace or web. Number of application supports RTP such as VLC, Windows media participant, ffmpeg and QuickTime. There is no demand of TCP acknowledge as RTP transportation packages over UDP, because of this ground UDP has chosen for sending of packages. For illustration if user is at low bandwidth are from their besides device can direct picture to the waiter in clip ; it will be variable picture but it will reassign. And when user is at no coverage country and playback is get stop and when once more it comes to coverage are it will straight get down redisplaying picture. ( N. Vun and Y. H. Ooi. 2010 ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: //tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2326 )
220.127.116.11 Real Time Streaming Protocol
RTSP is used to manage playback of RTP watercourse. It allows client to have RTP package, client can non see RTP watercourse straight because of that ground RTSP waiter is needed for managing the start and halt of streaming package utilizing streaming information. It includes some bids like apparatus, option, teardown, announce, describe, drama and intermission. RTSP besides supported by Safari browser because HTML5 supports picture which enable to implant picture without any flash participant. The OS of client device demand to back up required decipherer for transmitted video.H.263 and H.264 are largely used watercourse for picture for RTP.
( hypertext transfer protocol: //tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2326 )
18.104.22.168 Encoding and Decoding
The function of encoder and decipherer is to change over unrecorded watercourse picture into brassy picture for web page. There figure of encoding and decrypting picture playback, but everyone has its ain pros and cons while comparing with each other. Properties like memory footmark, file size, decrypting clip, encoding clip, processor use, picture quality and many. There is a demand of optimum scalability because of picture is being transmitted from android device which requires treating. As FFmpeg gives really good quality of image, CPU and memory convention besides low per watercourse, that ‘s why it is selected as default transcode. ( N. Vun and Y. H. Ooi. 2010 )
22.214.171.124 Real Time Streaming Protocol Server
RTSP waiter provides stream info and onward RTP packages to the requested client merely. It receives the RTP packages from devices, packages get ignored if there are no viewing audiences. When any petition come to RTSP waiter for drama watercourse, waiter modifies the package and onwards them to client device. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2326 )
126.96.36.199 Android Device Side
The picture created from android device through the camera that device is merely responsible for reassigning the picture on cyberspace to waiter. Through pattern protocol it retains communique with waiter for corroborating right cogent evidence of individuality and picture cyclosis.
188.8.131.52 Conversion H.263 to RTP H.263
Through RTP picture get transferred from android device and, as signal can change cellular web are non dependable and because of that it consume more power and battery life. Conversion from camera device required to happen to make RTP package. Android device sends H.263 which get support from API ‘s to native TCP on the device, phone get package from the native port so reassign the package into RTP H.263 package by boxing frame as sequence with RTP heading. The original picture interruption into figure of packages which is near by 1500 bytes, with grade at start of every block of heading informations get frontward, so RTP packages sent to server to bespeak picture UDP port. By information contains in RTP heading frame cane be decoded on waiter and at the terminal on client it will be viewable picture. Because of H.263 picture do n’t direct any info about picture like length of picture boulder clay it get close, beginning individuality, warhead type, marker, and version it needs this transition to RTP. ( Vun, N. ; Ansary, M, 2010 )
184.108.40.206 Conversion to Flash Video
Through circuit board for browser and shockwave participant brassy picture file can be viewed on web page. Almost every browser and OS has circuit boards to play flash picture which is developed by Adobe merely job of compatibility is with Apple merchandise. Flash was selected for change of file to expose the picture live on web page. Extension for brassy picture is.flv, it encodes with synced sound and picture watercourse and it acquire encoded same as sound and picture in.swf files. ( Adobe Systems Incorporated, 2010 )
Longtail Video has given unfastened beginning FLV participant called as JWPlayer. The picture transcoding end product offers a shockwave Flash file that can be used to transferral the FLV file. Every watercourse is a solo happening of JWPlayer.
From the clip when the FLV file is gets by the encoder, the whole picture recording will be stored to the file, if video played directly off via HTTP server its result is video get played and if it get entering that means it non acquire played as unrecorded picture that will be recorded picture. There are figure of package which correlate with unrecorded cyclosis but none of them present a comprehensive reply for picture streaming to net page from nomadic device. There are some other package which delivers net incomes for other categories of application like cyclosis of picture from web Cam. ( JWPlayer,2011 ) ( Vun, N. ; Ansary, M, 2010 )
Chapter 4: Research INTO IOS
4.1 IOS Introduction
IOS is the Operating system which comes with all apples portable hand-held devices like IPhone, IPad and IPod. The IOS manages all hardware of devices with their native application and a device besides comes with preloaded application such as mails, phones and browser.
The application for IOS devices can be developed by utilizing IOS SDK which contains supports of tools and interface for development of application. All IOS application can be run on iOS devices as it builds in IOS model and written nonsubjective C linguistic communication. All application of phones are synced with users computing machine through iTunes. ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
4.2 The Io Architecture is Layered
IOS intermediate with all hardware of devices and their native application which come on screen. Applications interact with their native hardware via system interface which besides protect from damaging application from altering hardware scenes. Since, Io has good interface with its hardware it is merely to compose application for any hardware of devices. Following figure shows the layer architecture of IOS where lower bed gives cardinal services supports to all application ; and higher bed support more refined service and engineering.
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Figure: Layers of IOS ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
For developing application developer ever seek to utilize higer degree model alternatively of lower degree model ; because high degree model supports abstraction of object oriented for lower degree. As a consequence it reduces codification and makes it easy to compose application with more complex characteristics like as togss and sockets.
First bed of IOS architecture is Coca Touch bed where is the most of import bed as it contains the key models for development of IOS application ; such as high degree services for system, presentment, touch input and multitasking. Before planing application developer must hold to look into this bed whether it will carry through the application demand.
Second bed is Media Layer as it names seem this bed is for all multimedia content base application where it contains audio, picture, in writing engineering for developing best multimedia apps for device. Through multimedia application can look good and sound good for user experience.
Third Layer of Architecture is Core service Layer it consist of system service which are run for all application that are installed in device whether that application is do n’t utilize service straight but still some cardinal service has top precedence to run over all of application.
The last and 4th Layer is Core OS layer consist of low degree characteristic which most of the engineerings are built on it ; whether if one usage it or non these engineerings are automatically integrated with application via other models. And sometimes if it demand of covering with security or communicating with external hardware of devices this bed provides support for model. ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
4.3 Live Streaming.
Live cyclosis is directing of an audio/video on HTTP through any waiter which can be played on IOS devices IPhone, IPOD, Apple TV, IPAD, and Mac book computing machine besides. Live cyclosis maintain both per corded i.e. Video-on-demand and unrecorded broadcast medium. It supports figure of options for streaming at assorted bitrate and stop user package can stream picture harmonizing to web bandwidth handiness. Authentication is besides required to stream a picture to protect a work hence encoding of media is besides supported in unrecorded cyclosis. All the apple devices support HTTP live streaming with their ain Safari browser which can stream with media participant as HTTP Live streaming Client. ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
4.4 HTTP Streaming Architecture
HTTP live streaming allows all apple devices with IOS 3.0 or subsequently or with Safire 4.0 or subsequently installed can stream recorded or unrecorded audio/video with hallmark and encoding.
hypertext transfer protocol: //developer.apple.com/library/ios/documentation/NetworkingInternet/Conceptual/StreamingMediaGuide/art/trasnsport_stream.jpg
Figure A A A basic constellation ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
4.4.1 Server Components
Server Components is in authorization for taking input watercourse which can be encoded digitally with appropriate format for directing to client via distribution. It need media encoder i.e. hardware and it interrupt media into sections and shops them as file ; for cleavage of media, apple provide media stream segmenter package.
4.4.2 Media Encoder
Media Encoder takes existent clip audio/ picture media signal and encapsulate and encode that media for transmittal. Media which is ready for transmittal is set as back uping file for client device, such as for picture H.264 and for audio AAC. At this clip for bringing of audio/video MPEG-2 conveyance watercourse is supported and for audio merely MPEG simple watercourse is supported. MPEG-2 conveyance watercourse is responsible for bringing of encoded media over web to the watercourse segmenter.
4.4.3 Stream Segmenter
Stream Segmenter is the package which reads the conveyance watercourse over local web and splits that stream into equal continuance in sequence of little media files. Video file are created from changeless watercourse even though every section of file is separate which can be reassembled effortlessly. Segmenert besides produces an index file which consist mention for media file ; after completion of new media file each clip index file besides acquire restructured. For tracking the handiness of media file with location index file get used. The segmenter create cardinal file for encrypted media section as a portion of procedure. Index file is store as.M3U8 play lists and media section are store as.ts files.
4.4.4 File Segmenter
If there is media file with supported codec it can be use straight for file segmenter to compact it as MPEG and splits into sections of indistinguishable length. For transmittal of video- on-demand through HTTP unrecorded cyclosis file segmenter provides bing audio/video files library. File segmenter takes files as an input alternatively of watercourse as it is input for watercourse segmenter as both file segmenter and watercourse segmenter perform same undertaking.
4.4.5 Media Segment Files
Media section files are created by watercourse segmenter which is depends on encode input and that file contains a sequence of.ts files which consist of section of MPEG-2 conveyance watercourse which held H.264 and ACC for picture and sound severally. For transmittal of sound file merely segmenter merely make MPEG audio watercourse consisting of AAC with ADTS-header or MP3 for sound.
4.4.6 Index Files
Index file are by and large created by file or watercourse segmenter and that file is soter as M3U8 play lists, with extension of.m3u which is used for mp3 play list.
4.4.7 Distribution Components
The distribution Component is web waiter ; which is responsible for admiting the client petition and transmittal of media to bespeak client. For big informations bringing, border or other content web being get used. The distribution system is hoarding system which distributes the index and media file over HTTP to the requested Client. Typically with low constellation is required for web waiter and no customize waiter faculties are needed for transmittal of content. MIME-type which related with.M3U8 and.ts files is suggested as specific constellation.
4.4.8 Client Component
The client package is apt for specifying the suited media to demand, downloading those resources, and retracing for uninterrupted streaming for user. The client package get started with bringing index file harmonizing to URL observing the watercourse. The handiness of media file alternate watercourse decoding key is specifies in index files. The client download sequence of bing file for certain watercourse. The client starts with showing reconstructed watercourse to client device once it got adequate extents of downloaded information. The client is apt for bringing any authenticating or giving and decoding keys to a user interface to allow verification, and decoding media files as required. ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
4.5 Fixing Media for Delivery to iOS-Based Devicess
The following four tabular arraies show the scenes for IOS devices which are suggested encoder constellation. This constellation needs to be at that place in point of position of hardware or package encoder. It is possible to utilize tool like compressor for picture redacting if there is demand to encode from original file for video-on-demand. MP3 for sound, MPEG 4 for picture and Quick clip for film are the file formate for file segmenter which can be used utilizing identified encryption.
MPEG sound and picture watercourse enclosed in MPEG 2 conveyance watercourse are the watercourse format for watercourse segmenter which can be wrapped utilizing followers:
H.264 Compression for encoding picture:
H.264 Baseline 3.0 is supported by IPhone 3G or subsequently and IPOD 2nd coevals or subsequently If application tallies on earlier version of IPHONE and IPOD it is necessary to utilize H.264 Baseline 3.0 for compatibility.
Baseline Profile 3.0, 3.1 or Main profiles 3.1 are used for IPHONE 4 and subsequently, IPAD, Apple Television 2 and subsequently. ( Baseline Profile can utilize for little screen merely or for both big and little screen, and Main Profile can be used for big screen device ) 10 fps frame rate suggested for picture watercourse lower than 200 kbps. Video watercourse between 300kbps 12 to 15 frame/sec and for other watercourse 29.97 frame/sec frame rate suggested.
For encoding of picture either HE-ACC or ACC-LC, stereo and MP3 MPEG 1 sound bed 3 stereo. Bitrate bow sound is 40 kbps and sample rate of 22.05 kilohertz is suggested for all instances. ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
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Table: Encoder scenes for iPhone, iPod touch, iPad, and Apple TV, 16:9 aspect ratios ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
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Table: Encoder scenes for iPhone, iPod touch iPad, and Apple TV, 4:3 aspect ratios ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
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Table: Extra encoder scenes for iPad and Apple TV merely, 16:9 aspect ratios ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
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Table: A Additional encoder scenes for iPad and Apple TV merely, 4:3 aspect ratios ( Apple Inc. 2011. )
Codec is abbreviation for programmer decipherer ; it takes original informations file and converts into compressed file. Compressed file consist merely some informations than the original file, codec is translator which takes on what information should travel through the tight version what acquire discarded.
AAC is Advanced Audio coding it is a digital sound file which replaced by another sound file type which dominate in digital sound for long clip that is MP3. AAC gives better sound quality compare to MP3. AAC is an Apple ‘s proprietary sound format, where it was developed by group of organisation which includes Sony, AT & A ; T, Nokia and Dolby ; because of this now AAC can be played on non-Apple devices besides, like android nomadic phone, Sony PlayStation 3 and PSP, Microsoft Zune, Nintendo Wii and many others. AAC is loss format like MP3 which mean if it compresses audio files for transmittal some informations will be removed from file which will non impact to the listening experience. Because of compaction AAC non likewise as CD quality file. Quality of AAC is measured on bitrate like MP3, and bitrate for AAC is same as MP3 which includes 256 kbps, 192 kbps and 128 kbps. ( Apple Inc. 2009 )
H.264 is new coevals picture compaction format ; it is besides called as MPEG 4 AVC. It is used for HD systems like HD DVD, HDTV and Blu-ray and it besides can be used in portable devices where it requires low declaration devices like Apple IPOD and SONY PSP. IT give better quality comparison to MPEG 2 and MPEG 4 ( i.e. DivX or XviD ) . For QuickTime apple has officially adopted H.264 format. H.264 is chief picture format for Blu-ray recording equipment and camcorder. X264 is free encoder for H.264 as sometimes it besides gets referred as MP4. For H.264 format MP $ is best pick. ( H264info.com. 2010 )
Chapter 5: Challenges Associated with Video and picture cyclosis
5.1 Video Quality Issues Source
Quality issues in picture is non rare for nomadic user which caused due to service web, particularly in older telephone webs which was non good plenty for transmittal of picture. The restricted usage of bandwidth in web and as design of protocol are to developed harmonizing to picture transmittal there were many issues in quality of nomadic pictures and displaying of it on devices ; these issues are still at that place with usage of engineering web but non as that was earlier. The four major issues associated with video quality are:
Issue while creative activity of picture.
Issue while transcoding.
Issue while transmittal of picture.
Issue while exposing picture.
5.1.1 Issue while creative activity of picture
Today anyone can do picture with their ain picture entering device whether with ready to hand Cams or may be with nomadic enable with good quality camera. Professionally video recording or creative activity done with all needed equipment with professional camera which is merely doing picture which are widely produced by film studios or by telecasting web ; and for doing picture and managing camera there are trained camera operator and technicians. But still sometimes taking all attention, circumstantially some job will be at that place in doing picture which will non impact experience but it will impact choice criterion of picture. However now a yearss most of the picture viewed are created or made by user with their portable picture entering devices which did non bring forth quality of picture as they were utilizing low pel value camera or may be lens of camera besides affects the quality of picture. Environment besides can be possible ground like while it ‘s raining in on traveling football lucifer so it affect the camera lens because of H2O and something because of bluess besides. In instance of user recorded video it can be rickety as human one can non do their manus steady to take shingle less picture, as many devices comes with anti-shake algorithm but still it is non good plenty. ( Dialogic Corporation, D, 2009 )
5.1.2 Issue while transcoding
In instance of user created picture while entering picture from device picture gets compressed consequently so that it can expeditiously transmitted over web. As there are strong algorithms for retaining video quality but still there are some built-in losingss of q