Quality 5 Answer to Part i 5



Quality Tools and

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Table of Contents
Answer to
Question 1. 3
Answer to Question 2. 3
Answer to Question 3. 4
Answer to Question 4. 5
Answer to Part i 5
Answer to Part ii 5
Answer to Question 5. 5
Answer to Part i 5
Answer to Part ii 7
Answer to Question 6. 7
Answer to part i 7
Answer to part ii 8
Answer to part iii 8
Answer to part iv. 8
Answer to Question 7. 8
Answer to Part i 8
Answer to Part ii 9
Answer to Question 8. 9
Answer to Question 9. 11
Answer to Part i 11
Answer to Part ii 11
Answer to Question 10. 12
Answer to Part i 12
Answer to Part ii 12
Answer to Part iii 12


Answer to Question 1

Sigma is identified as a list of the tools and techniques which is responsible
for process improvement. The improvement in the quality, as well as the output
of the process are identified, and together with removing the defects and
variability applied into the business and the manufacturing process.

six-sigma process is evident in the 3M’s corporate six sigma approach which is apparent
for continuous growth, cost reduction and increase in the overall cash flow. 3M
uses lean six sigmas to improve the operation/s and eradicate the variation/s in
the process in order to deliver a competitive solution to the customers. The
business improvement methodology is able to combine the tools with the use of
two proven systems namely Lean Manufacturing to concentrate on its speed and Six
Sigma for quality. The overall result of the implementation process has shown
better lead times and quality. The application process of the lean six sigma
process involves opportunity analysis, plan improvement, improvement in focus,
performance delivery and performance improvement.

Answer to Question 2

Japanese term Kaizen means “improvement”. The Kaizen philosophy has direct link
with different concepts of total quality control, small group activities,
labour relations.  The main form of the
foundation of identification of the quality tools and techniques which can be
used to help implement Kaizen. These are seen with the key factors in the
Kaizen five-S framework including tidiness, orderliness, cleanliness,
standardized clean up and discipline. The problems arising with Kaizen are
discerned as a short-term project, Overemphasis on tying kaizen to KPIs, reliance
on a heavily bureaucratic organization and not including sufficient scope for
training. The solution to the problems identified in the Kaizen philosophy has
been evident with propagating the different types of the short-term benefits throughout
the organization. For instance, during the initial business conducted by
Toyota, the quality had been undesirably low, however after 40 years Toyota was
able to prove itself as poster child for quality. In several instances
Government organizations are found to be guilty which needs to be looked after
to ensure that the financial indicators playas indicating factors for personal

Answer to Question 3

process capability index signifies the ratio of the tolerance such as specification,
or permitted amount of variation in relation to the process variation. The
value of 1 shows that the variation in the process equals to the tolerance
level. With a Cp value of 1, the mean is discerned to be 3 standard deviations
away from the lower limit and upper limit. As the process is perfectly centred,
the process of the mean is depicted to be between 2 specification limits. In
addition to this, “USL – Process mean” equals the same thing as the “Process
Mean – LSL”.

The higher is
the process index, the more acceptable is the Cp number. In my opinion the Cp
value equal to three is considered to be ideal. This value can be made more
satisfactory, in case the ratio of the tolerance level is greater that the Process
Spread. This will depict that the overall process has the potential to be more
capable. The process spread will be even higher in case the tolerance level is
increased. This is discerned with the process to be more fit. The process
should be crafted in such a manner that the variables range are within the USL
and LSL.

Answer to Question 4

Answer to Part i

necessary measures seen to prevent the single point exceeding 3 sigma control
limits. The management should include successive points in the determination of
the process capability. The quality of the process in terms of Cp needs to
extensively shown with the use of superficially mechanical task. The
practitioners need to fully understand the applicable conditions. Cp needs to
be also taken into accountable conditions.

Answer to Part ii

example, in case walls of a garage needs to be considered as the specification limits
and the specification limit goes past the customer specification then it is not
ideal to park the car. In case the car is too wide for the garage, the changes
in the dispersion process needs to be considered appropriately. The negative
value of process will be able to consider the regular crash of the car in the
wall. It needs to be further discerned that there is a good chance of hitting wall
or the entry. A Cp value of 2 is seen to be ideal for this situation. However,
in case the process capability is able to achieve a value of 3 then there will
be better chance of accommodating the car within such a confined space.

Answer to Question 5

Answer to Part i

Anything which
is not seen to increase the value in the customer should be able to consider
the MUDA and the efforts made for eliminating the waste. There have been
several lean manufacturing wastes associated to the TPS which are having
universal application to the business for today. The types of the wastes
evaluated by MUDA initiatives with the typical root causes are stated below as

Type of Waste

Root Cause


Poor quality controls
Lack of standards
Missing Processes
Uncontrolled inventory levels
Poor design and undocumented design change


Unclear customer needs
Long setup times
Engineering changes
Poorly applied automation


Absence from work
Long duration for setup time
Poor communication
Poor quality for process

Not utilizing talent

Poor communication
Lacking teamwork
Insufficient training
Assign staff related to wrong tasks

Inventory Excess

Buffers associated to overproduction
Improper Monitoring process
Unreliable suppliers
Misunderstanding the customer needs
Buffers related to overproduction

Motion Waste

Poor process control and design
Shared machines and tools
Lack of standards
Isolation of the siloed operations


Answer to Part ii

main benefit of MUDA over 5S is depicted with the added focus on the safety
which is considered to more hazardous process. The MUDA process helps in the
reducing the future risk of an incident.

Answer to Question 6

Answer to part i

number of the people involved as group members are identified with a total of
200 members. The title of the group members has been identified as Human
Resource managers. The main function of the members is seen with recruitment

Answer to part ii

group will convey the training programs for the members when the quality circle
is formed. The group will be able to convey the steering committee meeting
regularly with two to three months to maintain the minutes.

Answer to part iii

tasks related to the activities is considered as Human Recourse management’s
main strategy for the recruitment and selection functions which are handled in
house. The job posting is considered as another important activity which is
considered as employer’s ability to attract qualified applicants.

Answer to part iv

related activity maintenance process will be conducted with “Human Resources
Management System (HRMS)”. This is considered with combination of systems and
processes which connects HRM and IT with the use of HR software. The automation
of the time consuming and automation is considered with Human Resource
management’s decision to allow shift of culture and retention in the areas of
high impact.

Answer to Question 7

Answer to Part i

quality circle is considered with the group of workers who are involved with similar
nature of work to identify, solve work related problems and workers who meet
regularly. The cycle of the quality is seen with the following steps:

Analysis of the job

Sourcing of the job

Selection and screening

Identifying the disabled


Answer to Part ii

steering committee’s important objectives and goals have been as chief
executive of the chairman of the organisation. The successful implementation
process of the quality circle has been taken into consideration with the
support of the top management which is not only available but also visible to
all. The setting of the goals and objectives by the steering committee has been
established with the operational rate and controls for expansion. The success
of the quality circle is dependent on the expertise for the achievement of the
primary objectives of the organization. In addition to this, the responsibility
of the steering committee has helped in creating harmonious and successful
quality circle activities. The success factors for the quality circle is
considered to be dependent on the five main principles namely setting
objectives, planning, staffing, directing and controlling.

Answer to Question 8

improvement process with the balanced score card implementation is seen with
depicting the compensation by the performance of the KPIs. The level 2 rewards
of the KPIs are linked with the strategy. The third level implementation
process has been further able to depict non-payment of rewards in cash. The
level 4 implementation process with the balanced score card is considered with
the situation of fair payment.

benefit in terms of Objectives, Measurements, Targets and Initiatives is
considered with the quality of the hire.

Balanced Scorecard Implementation



Weight (x of 10)


Present Values

Target Values

Quality of Hire







Rate of accession


The total number of workforce which is hired during
the month divided average of the workforce during the month and multiplying
the same by 100




Staffing yield


 The total number of the percentage of the
positions filled in terms of the total number of the vacant positions.




Internal Hires


 The total number of the percentage
positions are filled internally and overall internal hiring decreases the
turnover rate.




Referral Hires


 The total number or the percentage
of the positions filled through employee referrals particularly from the
referrals from top management



Total performance in the group

 Quality of Hire







Answer to Question 9

Answer to Part i

Standard Deviation = 1.2

LSL = 11 mm

USL = 15 mm

Process Capability (Cp) = (USL-LSL)/6 x
Standard Deviation

Process Capability (Cp) = (15-11)/6 x 1.2

Cp = 0.55

per the measure of process index when the potential capability has a Cp value
less than 1.0, then it is potentially incapable in terms of adhering to the
specification requirement. On the other hand, when there is a Cp value greater
than or equal to 1.0 the process could have been stated potentially capable.
However, as per the given case the process cannot be stated capable as the Cp
value is 0.55.

Answer to Part ii

Cpk = min(USL-Mean)/ 5 x Standard
Deviation, (Mean Value-LSL)/5 x Standard Deviation

Cpk = min
(15-11)/5 x 1.2, (11-15)/3 x 1.2

Cpk = 0.55

As per the given
depictions it can be stated that Cpk and Cp are equal. This implies that t LSL
is difficult to achieve the USL. Due to the inclusion of mean value in case of
Cpk the distribution of the flaw size is seen with a greater non-conformity of
the process.

Answer to Question 10

Answer to Part i

implementation of Gemba along with Quality Function Deployment (QFD) can be
used where manufacturing process has not begun. This will give the customers
the opportunity to learn and identify the appropriate problems.

Answer to Part ii

implementation of the Gemba Kaizen in workplace holds several benefits for the
organizations. This has been particularly evident in several sectors including
the healthcare. In a recent case The Akron Children’s Hospital in the US has
been recently awarded with a Process Excellence’s award for best improvement
project conducted under 90 days.

Answer to Part iii

of the future strategies have included with MRI scheduling which has been
targeted with excessively high amount of waiting time for the patients. To
resolve the problem there had been staff brought on a two-day course which
focused on readdressing of the problem. Form the depiction of the exercise
numbers, the master schedule and the insurance authorization process were
presented.  The implementation process
added $ 1.2 million for implementing the overall changes, the benefits of the
Kaizen implementation process were evident in financial services,
pharmaceuticals, food and beverages and the public sector.