The aim of this experiment is to fix a karyon and mitochondrial fraction utilizing differential centrifugation, from a rat liver homogenate sample. The sum of activity of chondriosome in the fractions can be measured utilizing succinate dehydrogenase ( SDH ) as a marker.

To mensurate the per centum recovery of the SDH of Mitochondrial, Nuclei and supernatant fractions in comparing to the Homogenate and to Calculate the particular and comparative activity of SDH in each fraction.

Figure 1: Shows a typical animate being cell with the single cell organ constituents.

Figure 2: Shows the typical characteristics and maps of the cell organs of involvement in this study.

Figure 1 + 2 Created on Microsoft pigment with mention to Essential Biology ( 2004 )

Individual cell organs differ in size but are all normally around 10nm in diameter. There is a little surface country and size/density depends on the cell organ, the smaller cell organs being lysosomes and ribosomes.

Mitochondria differs in cell type depending on the energy demand of that organ, the more ATP that is required in a peculiar organ the more chondriosomes found. E.g. more mitochondria found in bosom and liver cells than in a white blood cell like a lymph cell. Smaller organelles include lysosomes and ribosomes.

Metamorphosis can be detected utilizing assorted methods such as usage of inhibitors. These can be both competitory and non-competitive, an illustration is seen with arsenic with inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase. Another method is with the usage of radioisotopes to mensurate activity aswell as histochemistry, immunocytochemistry and electromicroscopy.

Preparation of the homogenate occurs in assorted phases. First the homogenization of liver cells. This can be done utilizing a Potter – Elvehjem homogeniser to pull out cell organs without damaging the existent cell. This is a simple and effectual homogenization method. A little spread is made within the cell wall which is so pressurised which forces the contents i.e cell organs, cytol etc. out of the cell. This occurs at a low temperature and mild pH, and to maintain the isosmotic solution a sucrose buffer is used, hence since there is the same H2O potency inside the cell and outside the cell there is no net motion of H2O ( osmosis ) and therefore the cell remains the same size. Homogenized cells besides must be kept at low temperatures to forestall self-digestion ( the debasement of a cell by its enzymes ) . ( www.bookrags.com ) .

Figure 3 shows a authoritative Potter – Elvehjem homogeniser Image taken from ( umwcellbiology.org )

The 2nd phase is fractional process of the homogenate sample. This procedure is called centrifugation and can be farther split into either a differential centrifugation or a denseness gradient centrifugation. The differential centrifugation splits the impure fraction into separate compartments due to the size of the assorted cell organs in inquiry and there denseness. The extractor applies a gravitative force onto the sample to separate constituents. The rate of centrifugation is determined by the acceleration or velocity applied to the homogenate and is normally measured in revolutions per minute ( RPM ) or g. Depending on the denseness of the cell organs will find their isolation at a given velocity. The higher denseness cell organs and the bigger cell organs separate at a lower velocity centrifugation. ( K. Wilson 2005 ) . The separation forms a pellet which is the hasty proportion of the sample and the constituent of involvement and a supernatant which is the liquid constituent. The supernatant readily decanted from the sample without taking the precipitate. Diferemces in centrifugation occur due to the techniques used, differential centrifugation is based upon the deposit rate of atoms and therefore the deposit rate separates them based on size and denseness. After initial deposit the largest atoms separate foremost into pellet and supernatant ( K. Wilson 2005 ) . Density gradient centrifugation offprints organelles utilizing a media. Assorted media can be applied and depending on the atoms will be best for certain types and may non work good for others. ( K. Wilson 2005 ) .

The 4 fractions we will obtain are nuclei, mitochondrial, supernatant and homogenate.

Assorted trials can be carried out to separate between fractions and to find their existent pureness, proving for specific enzymes can code for the activity happening in the cell fractions hence bespeaking the most abundant constituent.

Some trials include: Testing for Deoxyribonucleic acid in both nuclei and mitochondrial fractions. This is because DNA is contained within the karyon but besides within the chondriosome. This is because associating to the endosymbiotic theory chondriosome was a separate aerobically respiring bacterial cell which was later engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell to unify into one aerobically respiring cell. Mitochondria is motherly inherited in the instance of the bulk of multicellular beings, this is due to the higher figure of mtDNA molecules in the ooecyte and much fewer in a sperm cell which are largely degraded before fertilisation takes topographic point.

Trial for histones which indicate nuclei fraction every bit good as proving for assorted enzymes such as ATPase found in cytoplasmatic ( supernatant ) and mitochondrial fractions and phosphotase kinase bespeaking microsomes and Golgi setup are present. Some enzymes are sole to the citric acid rhythm which occurs in the chondriosome, hence proving for these enzymes indicates the presence of chondriosomes in a fraction. The enzyme marker to prove for chondriosome which we use is succinate dehydrogenase which is sole to the interior mitochondrial membrane. Succinate dehydrogenase is formed merely during the citric acid rhythm so is merely given as an indicant of chondriosome. However, since during the homogenization procedure the chondriosome could potentially split sloping their contents into the cytol ( supernatant fraction ) , this does non therefore give an accurate indicant of chondriosome nowadays in a fraction. Succinate dehydrogenase interruptions down succinate into fumurate, therefore the measuring of formazan indicates presence of succinate dehydrogenase.

## Measuring Succinate Dehydrogenase Activity

## ( Red Formazan check )

This occurs in 2 reactions:

1: succinate + FAD & A ; egrave ; fumarate + FADH2

SDH breaks down succinate into fumarate. This is an oxidization reaction since the succinate loses 2 negatrons, in add-on a decrease of the enzyme flavin A dinucleotide occurs ( FAD additions 2 negatrons ) ( FAD + 2 negatrons & A ; egrave ; FADH2 )

Figure 4: Shows the oxidation-reduction reaction which occurs with succinate and FAD.

Image taken from natuurlijkerwijs.com

SDH activity is measured by the formation of formazan a deep ruddy compound formed from the decrease on a tetrazolium salt. The decreased FADH2 reduces tetrazolium salt ( INT ) .

2: FADH2 + INT & A ; egrave ; FAD + formazan

Centrifugation and ciphering the comparative centrifugal field. ( K. Wilson 2005 )

G = W2r = 4 II2 R ( revolutions per minute ) 2 = 1.11×10-5r ( revolutions per minute ) 2

3600

G= Relative centrifugal force ( RFC )

R = Radical distance from axis of rotary motion

tungsten = Angular speed

revolutions per minute = Revolutions per minute.

T = 9 E? ( In Rt/Rb )

2 W2rp2 ( Pp -P )

E? = Viscosity of medium

rp = Radius of atom

Pp = Density of atom

P = Density of medium

Rt = Radius to exceed of extractor tubing

Rb = Radius to bottom of extractor tubing.

There are many differences in types of extractors available and consequences depend on the velocity of the centrifugation and whether a vacuity is present and the type of rotor used. ( K. Wilson 2005 )

Analysis of marker enzymes in subfractions determines the recovery of subcellular cell organs, with comparing to old trials, quantative informations can be used to measure taint of fractions. Showing whether the subfractionation method has been successful or non.

These trials besides hold wellness benefits and deductions e.g. microsome C causes cell decease and can be found in mitochondrial fractions, nevertheless in malignant neoplastic disease patients no microsome degree Celsius is present, bespeaking no cell decease will happen a common characteristic of malignant neoplastic disease cells.

Enzyme measuring in subcellular fractions nevertheless does keep some deductions such as the solubility of the environment which may do differences in enzyme map. Another deduction is latency of enzymes, this refers to whether proteins are bound to the enzyme which in bend activates them one time bound signalling enzyme map. There may besides be low recovery of enzymes in the fractions due to hapless recovery of the cell organs which they come from, in peculiar if the enzyme is confined merely to a specific part.

Over the 3 hebdomad period centrifugation will divide the fractions harmonizing to size/density and dividing the sample into the pellet and supernatant fractions. The velocity of the extractor determines whether the pellets will divide. A lower velocity is needed to divide the nuclei fraction due to the higher denseness, whereas the higher velocity is needed to divide the supernatant due to the smaller denseness staying cell organs. ( K. Wilson 2005 ) . The protein content is besides step for each fraction utilizing the biuret check, optical density values are given which determine the protein content of each fraction. Finally succinate dehydrogenase is measured. This causes a redox reaction and causes e- ions are released, utilizing formazan as an index this changes the coloring material of solution ruddy, demoing a redox reaction has taken topographic point.

From this research I can foretell that the mitochondrial fraction is expected to hold the highest consequences in specific activity due to fewer proteins present in that fraction.

## Consequences:

Calculations:

Formazan ‘s molar extinction coefficient ( E490nm ) = 20,100 M-1 cm-1

The specific activity and comparative activity of the fractions can be determined by mensurating the concentration utilizing Beer- Lamberts Law: ( www.chemguide.co.uk )

A = ? x cubic decimeter x C

A = Absorbance ( no units )

? = Epsilon. The adsorbtion coefficient M -1 centimeter -1

l= Cuvette ‘s light way length, this is the length of solution a light base on ballss through ( ever 1 centimeter )

C= Concentration of substance in M ( moles in 1 liter )

Rearrange to give concentration:

C = A / ? x cubic decimeter

Unit of measurements: M-1 ten cm-1 = 1 / M x centimeter

C = A / ? x cubic decimeter Gives units: ( 1/ ( 1/M x centimeter ) x centimeter ) . This can be simplified to give 1/ ( 1/M )

And further simplified to give units: M ( moles per liter or dcm -3 )

## Know values:

? = the formazan surface assimilation coefficient is 20,100 M -1 centimeter -1

A = refers to the optical density at 490nm values for each fraction are found in the mean-control table subdivision.

Using the equation: C = A / ? x cubic decimeter

We can work out the concentration of formazan formed in the reaction.

The concentration value is for 1 liter, therefore we must cipher the existent concentration from the existent check volume used.

Concentration = amount/volume rearranged to give A = C x V

The concluding check volume from hebdomad 3 is 6 ml* due to the add-on of ethyl ethanoate.

* Note by error 6ml of ethyl ethanoate was added alternatively of 4 milliliter giving a different concluding volume to the other groups.

Converting 6ml into its litre value and ten by the concentration gives the accurate mole merchandise of formazan produced.

Chemical reaction clip needs to be included to give the accurate units. Activity units can be determined utilizing the undermentioned equation.

Activity = Moles of formazan/reaction clip ( 12 proceedingss )

This gives the activity in M -1

## Calculating entire activity and specific activity of the fractions.

Table 1: Entire volumes from each cellular fraction.

## Fraction

## Entire Volume ( milliliter )

Homogenate

12

Nuclei Fraction

12

Mitochondrial Fraction

12

Supernatant Fraction

26

To make this we need to take into the history:

The entire volume

The entire protein of the fraction.

Dilution factor

The entire volume values for each fraction can be found in table 1.

The sample of each fraction used was 0.2ml, hence the sum of moles of formazan calculated is in 0.2ml.

( 0.2 / entire volume ) ten moles of formazan in 0.2ml

Ten by the dilution factor of each fraction to give the entire activity for each fraction, the values are given in table 4.

To find the specific activity we must see the entire protein of the fraction. Valuess are given in table 3.

Specific activity = Total activity of fraction/ entire protein of fraction

Table 2: Bovine serum albumen ( BSA ) solution concentrations

## Volume ( milliliter )

## BSA ( 10mg/ml BSA

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.6

## 0.1m NaOH

2.0 ( space )

1.8.

1.6

1.4

1.2

0.8

0.4

Table 3: Valuess for BSA standard curve.

See Graph 1 for the consequences from the corresponding fraction optical density.

## Protein Amount ( milligram )

0 ( space )

2

4

6

8

12

16

## Optical density at 550nm

0

0.105

0.184

0.275

0.354

0.511

0.531

Table 4: Protein sum in homogenate and subcellular fractions.

## Homogenate 0.05ml

## Nuclei 0.2ml

## Mitochondrions 0.2ml

## Supernatant 0.2ml

## Average Absorbance ( 550nm )

0.169

0.054

0.174

0.199

## Protein sum in sample ‘s aliquot ( milligram )

3.6

1.18

3.8

4.15

## Protein concentration in fraction ( mg/ml )

72

5.9

19

20.75

## Protein sum in fraction ‘s entire volume ( milligram )

864

70.8

228

539.5

Graph 2: Shows the difference in protein sum amongst cellular fractions.

Table 5: Actual concentration of fraction after dilution.

## Dilution Factor

## Actual concentration ( mg/ml )

## Homogenate

20

3.6

## Nucleus

3

2

## Mitochondrial

20

0.95

## Supernatant

1

20.75

Table 6: Formazan content optical density at 490nm.

## Fraction

## Control

## Trial 1

## Trial 2

## Mean-Control

## Homogenate

0.132

0.58

0.52

0.42

## Nucleus

0.21

0.352

0.326

0.13

## Mitochondrial

0.057

0.391

0.265

0.27

## Supernatant

0.132

0.52

0.33

0.29

Consequences for Homogenate:

From table 5, we have the optical density of homogenate as 0.42 this divided by the surface assimilation co-efficient gives:

0.42/20,100 = 2.1 ten 10 -5 M

The units for concentration are left as moles per liter ( M ) . To acquire this into moles in the existent volume used ( 6ml non 1 liters ) 2.1 x 10 -5 M x 0.006 light = 1.3 ten 10-7 M

Include the reaction clip of 12 proceedingss to give moles per minute.

1.3 ten 10-7 M /12mins = 1.0×10-8 M -1

To find entire activity and specific activity.

The entire volume from table 1: for the homogenate is 12ml, nevertheless the sample used was merely 0.2ml we therefore divide existent volume / used volume x concentration of H x dilution factor ( 20 in the instance of the homogenate from table 5 values )

Entire activity = ( 12/0.2 ) x1.0x10-8 M -1 x 20 = 1.2 ten 10 -5 M -1

specific activity = 1.2 x 10 -5 M -1/ entire sum protein in homogenate from table 4

1.2 ten 10 -5 M -1/864= 1.3 x 10-8 M min-1

Consequences for nuclei fraction:

0.13/20,100 M-1 cm-1 = 6.5 x 10-6

In 0.006 liter: 6.5 x 10-6 ten 0.006 = 3.9 ten 10-8 M

3.9 ten 10-8 M / 12 = 3.2 ten 10-9 M min-1

Entire activity = 3.2 ten 10-9 M min-1 x ( 12/0.2 ) x 3 = 5.8 x 10 – 7M min-1

Specific activity = 5.8 x 10 – 7/ 70.8 = 8.2 ten 10 -9 M min-1

Consequences for chondriosome:

C = 0.27/20,100 m-1 centimeter -1 = 1.3 ten 10-5aˆ‘M

1.3 ten 10-5aˆ‘M ten 0.006 = 7.8 ten 10-8 M

7.8 ten 10-8 M / 12 = 6.5 ten 10-9 M min-1

Entire activity = 6.5 ten 10-9 M min-1 x ( 12/0.2 ) x 20 = 7.8 ten 10-6 M min-1

Specific activity = 7.8 ten 10-6 M min-1/228 = 3.4 ten 10-8 M min -1

Consequences for supernatant:

C = 0.29/20,100 m-1 centimeter -1 = 1.4 ten 10-5aˆ‘M

1.4 ten 10-5aˆ‘M ten 0.006 = 8.7 ten 10-8 M

= 8.7 ten 10-8 M / 12 = = 7.3 ten 10-9 M min-1

Entire activity = 7.3 ten 10-9 M min-1 x ( 26/0.2 ) = 9.4 ten 10-7 M min-1

Specific activity = 9.4 ten 10-7 M min-1/539.5 = 1.7 ten 10-9 M min -1

Percentage recovery of Succinate Dehydrogenase for the fractions

This is done by spliting the sum of Succinate dehydrogenase in the single fractions by the original homogenate and so multiplied by 100 to give a per centum.

Table 7: Shows the entire activity for each of the fractions.

## Fraction

## Entire Activity

Homogenate

1.2 ten 10 -5 M -1

Nucleus

5.8 x 10 – 7M min-1

Mitochondrions

7.8 ten 10-6 M min-1

Supernatant

9.4 ten 10-7 M min-1

Nuclei fraction:

( 5.8X10-7/1.2×10-5 ) x 100 = 4.8 %

Mitochondria fraction

( 7.8×10-6/1.2×10-5 ) x 100 = 65 %

Supernatant fraction

( 9.4×10-7/1.2×10-5 ) x 100 =7.8 %

Relative Specific Activity of Succinate Dehydrogenase

This is found by spliting the specific activity of the fractions ( found above ) by the specific activity of the homogenate ( found supra ) .

Table 8 shows the specific activity for each of the fractions:

## Fraction

## Specific Activity

Homogenate

1.4 ten 10-8 M min-1

Nucleus

8.2 ten 10 -9 M min-1

Mitochondrions

3.4 ten 10-8 M min -1

Supernatant

1.7 ten 10-9 M min -1

Nuclei fraction

8.2 ten 10 -9 M min-1 /1.4 x 10-8 M min-1 = 0.586

Mitochondrial fraction

3.4 ten 10 -8 M min-1 /1.4 x 10-8 M min-1 = 2.429

Supernatant fraction

1.7 ten 10 -9 M min-1 /1.4 x 10-8 M min-1 = 0.121

## Discussion:

Note: There was really small protein found in the nuclei fractions entire volume, this is abnormally low since we would anticipate this to be higher.

From the consequences we can find that the this supports our anticipation that

The mitochondrial fraction is expected to hold the highest consequences in specific activity due to fewer proteins present in that fraction. Organelles have been isolated from each other as seen with the differing proportions of protein found in each fraction every bit good as the differing values for specific and entire activity calculated.

However the homogenate is expected to hold the highest entire activity due to the higher sum of protein since all fractions are present.

However since protein was found in the cytol or supernatant fraction, this indicates that there was an mistake in the separation of the fractions as SDH is present where it normally is n’t found. Succinate dehydrogenase plants by reassigning 2 negatrons from succinate which transfers it to fumerate, which blocks the remainder of the reaction when it binds to FAD, from the measuring of formazan gives the value of activity.

Consequences show that the comparative specific activity is highest in the mitochondrial fraction, every bit good as the per centum recovery of the fractions. Therefore showing that the fractions were purified and that the homogenization and centrifugation has been comparatively successful in dividing fractions.

However there were some inaccuracies from the consequences, this includes the really low protein sum found with in nuclei fraction, this was nevertheless predicted to incorporate a higher sum of protein due to the nature of the cell organ and the enzymes contained within it. Another inaccuracy in this experiment is that SDH was found within the supernatant. This is chiefly a marker for chondriosomes so would non normally be found within the cytol, nevertheless due to mitochondria bursting and let go ofing its contents into the cytol during the homogenization phase and centrifugation the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase was present. Since the trial was carried out under the same conditions in a impersonal pH buffer we can reason that this was a just trial, nevertheless is it frequently found that the more molecules present in a

The separating of the homogenate could be improved by utilizing another method of homogenization, in this experiment we used a Potter – Lethem homogeniser which is a glass and plastic manus homogeniser. This possibly is n’t the most accurate at supercharging cells with the force needed to accurately let go of cell content. Alternate homogenisers include supersonic and rotor based homogenisers which may supply more accurate. ( www.proscientific.com )

A different centrifugation method used. During this experiment differential centrifugation was used, nevertheless denseness gradients may supply more accurate at sublimating a sample ( www.coleparmer.co.uk ) . This method works by puting assorted beds after bed of gradient media such as saccharose in a tubing with the heaviest bed at the underside and the lightest at the top. The cell fraction to be separated is placed on top of the bed and centrifuged. Density gradient separation can be classified into two classs. Rate-tonal ( size ) separation. Isopycnic ( denseness ) in which organelles separate until their denseness matches the milieus of the media in which they are. A really good medium for dividing cell organs is an iodinised media. ( www.coleparmer.co.uk ) .

Accuracy of the optical density and truth of obtaining the protein sum. Consequences are somewhat low bespeaking inaccuracy in both roll uping the samples and besides mensurating the optical density, this could be due to error in homogenization and centrifugation techniques but could besides be due to error in the reading of optical density utilizing the Spectrophotometric check since U.V wavelength has different optical density degrees if either oxidised or decreased enzymes absorb light hence giving innacurate indicant to enzyme present ( www.millipore.com ) . This may impact the optical density degrees in the fractions if specific enzymes are affected therefore giving an altered optical density degree and hence undermined protein sum. Another method to mensurate enzyme check could be to utilize a caliometric method which measures heat glow given off alternatively of the optical density degrees.

Some of the cell organs which remain in the supernatant fraction are the smaller and less heavy proportions of the cell such as ribosomes and lysosomes. Further centrifugation at a higher velocity can be used to divide these smaller less heavy cell organs into pellets. This can besides be used to further sublimate bacteriums.

In decision we see that every bit predicted, the specific activity is highest in the mitochondrial fraction and the entire activity is highest in the homogenate. The % recovery of each fraction and the comparative specific activity for each fraction calculated shows a higher proportion in the mitochondrial fraction besides. Overall the consequences indicate accurate research lab accomplishments and consequences conclude what was intended, nevertheless some little alterations to laboratory equipment would intend that some of the consequences such as SDH found in the supernatant may non come about in a future trial.