On the Job Training Review of Samsung R&D Bangladesh Essay

INTRODUCTION In today dynamic business world, organizations are always required to be flexible and adaptive. A key contributor to such flexibility is the organizations employees. The employee’s ability to understand the situation and demonstrate desired behavior is what makes organizations survive. Thus it is always imperative that employees are on the top of their game. Knowledge, Skill and Attitudes (KSA) are an employee’s tools for success. The more KSA an employee have the more successful the employee is likely to be in achieving objectives and enabling organizational success.

Employees never enter an organization with all the KSA ever needed. Employees develop needed KSA either through training or through experience. However in today’s ultra-competitive environment time is an asset thus is not invested on employees to learn. Therefore the alternative is to train employees to learn the needed KSA at a much quicker rate. Training varies from organization to organization in terms of method, duration and complexity. 1. 1 The Case in Hand Samsung Bangladesh R&D Centre Ltd. tarted operations in Bangladesh in February 2012, becoming the first multinational company to do so, with the goal of utilizing the skilled work force of Bangladesh to develop devices to match the specific needs on this region. The unit has distinctive departments with ever growing number of employees. The unit must operate according to global standards and requirements so as to its progress in track with other r&d units around the world. A majority of the employees hail from engineering back grounds and performs the core organizational tasks with the rest of the employees working in accounts, administration and human resources.

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Despite the employees technical education background their present KSAs are not enough to sustain the global pressures and unit objectives. Thus employees underwent a 3 month on the job training program to improve their KSAs and bring out their latent potential into the work place for synergistic organizational outcomes. However although the training was successful and all trainees passed the training program, their performance was still at the level expected by the organization after the training. In short their training was not transferred to their jobs.

The employees of the testing department were expected to identify 350 binary coding defects in their chipsets every day after their training. But their defect identification was stuck between 300-315 per day. And although they had been able to identify 350 defects during the concluding days of the training program, their actual performance on the job was not satisfactory and is turning out to be an area on concern for the management so as to point out the reason for the performance gap. 1. 2 OJT Development at Samsung, Bangladesh

Training Needs Analysis The need for training is determined by the gap in expected employee performance and actual employee performance. However being a relatively new organization in Bangladesh, Samsung’s training need is formed on the basis of performance standards that have been established in other R&D units across the globe and which every unit is required to achieve. Since past performance data are not available the training need is observed to enhance employee KSA in order to meet global performance objectives. Training Objectives

Based on the training need determined employees of the testing department of Samsung Bangladesh were chosen to undergo training with the core objective of reporting 350 defects of the binary coding for the operating system of Samsung cellular phones to the engineering department every day. The core objective was sub divided into the following components: • Trainee Reaction Objectives: Trainees were expected to accept the training program with enthusiasm and complete dedication. Trainees were also assumed to consider the training as a tool for establishing long term career advancement opportunity. Learning Objectives: Trainees were expected learn how to manually test the binary coding of the software as well as use computerized programs to analyze the accurateness of the coding. • Transfer of training objectives: Trainees would be required to test and report a minimum of 350 defected binary coding platforms per day for each new operating system or operating system version. • Organizational objectives: Trainees effective defect detection would enable the Samsung Bangladesh R&D Centre to demonstrate excellent country performance and thus be allowed greater corporate projects, budgets and profits.

Training Methods Given the context facing Samsung Bangladesh, trainees need to go through a training program that allows for maximum two way communication and trainer control over the process. Thus an On The Job Training (OJT) Program has been selected. Among the many training methods, OJT is relatively inexpensive and helps to deliver maximum learning scope for the trainees within a reasonable period of time. In the start of its operation such a method is possibly the best option for Samsung Bangladesh. Some of the components of the OJT implemented in Samsung Bangladesh are stated below: Trainer: The senior managers and engineers have been given the task of training and guiding the trainees through the program. • Training period: The training length is scheduled for three months during which the trainees will be under strict supervision for the first month, moderate supervision in the second month and minimum supervision in the third month. • OJT type used: Samsung uses the Coaching technique were the managers first explains the task to the trainers along with other necessary details, demonstrates the task a few times and then hands over the task to the trainees.

Trainees are required to take down notes and directions during demonstrations for future references. During the early stages of the training the managers follow up on the trainees activities extensively to induce the desired behavior. With time the monitoring reduces as employees begin to execute tasks appropriately and with reduced errors. Reduced monitoring also increases trainee confidence and positively affects to trainee motivation. • Training location: Training is provided in the Samsung Bangladesh R&D office in AJ Heights Tower, Badda, Dhaka. Training tools: Special chip boards, calculators and customized computer programs are used during the training. Since these tools are the ones used in the actual task to additional equipment are needed. • Training Evaluation Criteria: In order to access the effectiveness of the training, trainees are given targets that they are required to fulfill during their training. For the first month trainees must detect 150 defects per day, 225 defects per day in the second month and 350 defects per day by the end of the third month. . 3 Objective of the Study: • To study the effectiveness of the training, imparted by OJT, at R&D, Samsung Bangladesh and its resultant in the performance of the employees. • To know the perception of the employees regarding training methods in R&D, Samsung Bangladesh. 1. 4 Scope of the Study The scope/range of this project report is not too far stretching to the whole of Samsung Bangladesh rather it only covers the training and development activities conducted by the HR for employees of Research & Development division.

The project mainly deals with the present method of training given at R&D during the tenure of March – May 2012. This project covers training, OJT program, and training evaluation and excludes all other human resources activities conducted before and after training. 1. 5 Hypothesis: Training and Development activities, conducted by HR for R&D of Samsung Bangladesh, are effective and the employees are better performers after the training is imparted 1. 6 Limitations: • Some information being very sensitive, as far as organization is concerned, is left untouched and not mentioned in any way. Top-level strategic type of decisions and information too are not taken under study to avoid any favor to the business counter parts. • The project does not concerned about the designing and planning of training activities which forms a crucial and major part of this field hence a full fledge study can be done in this area. • The data presented here is taken by prepared questionnaire (formulated by P. Nick Blanchard James W. Thacker), information and feedback received from the management. No research has been conducted on this topic for the purpose of this project thus holds a complete field research and development. • Due to time Constraints, all aspects of training and development left untouched. • Due to security reasons, personal attendance to the training conducted, which would provide practical experience, could not me made. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 History of OJT Training is important to improve employees’ skills, knowledge and ability to do more complex tasks or complete tasks better and faster.

During the training, the trainees are able to learn new and important things, which they were not using as before for the completion of their tasks. Organizations’ interest is to control the quality of their products. One way to achieve this goal is pay special attention to the training of their workforce. OJT can be defined as the enhancement of job competence acquisition, involving one or more of the following elements: (I) the actual work processes, (ii) the physical work environment, and (iii) the social work environment.

There is further classification of on-the-job training: un- structured and structured OJT. The first category of OJT is a “shadowing” or “sink or swim” approach in which one employee follows another around, in hopes of the “trainee” learning what the “trainer” is doing. This type of unstructured OJT is an approach in which learners ‘thrown into’ the work,” and the training is based on daily work events rather than the learner/ worker needs. Structured OJT is defined as “planned OJT that occurs on the job and in real time. It is based on a job breakdown so that work equirements are systematically reviewed with newcomers based on effective principles of instruction rather than the logic of the subject matter or the convenience or availability of the trainer. OJT provides employees/trainees both general skills which are transferable from one job to another and specific skills as well that are unique to a particular job these skills are non-transferable. 2. 2 Conducting OJT The purpose of conducting OJT program is to provide the employee with task-specific knowledge and skills in his or her job/work area.

The knowledge and skills presented during OJT are directly related to those they will perform on the job. Bryan (2006) says that the rapid changes in the functions of business activities either business is big or small. There is need to conduct training programs for the maintaining of the employees’ skills because the knowledge becomes outdated. One more important thing is that competition also forces for the conducting training for the survival of the organizations in such tough completion. Technological innovations in product and business functions also create the need for training in organizations (Bryan, 2006).

DeJong (1993) did his research in a large steel works company in Netherlands. The research was a descriptive study of two job training programs at Hoogovens Ijmuiden and raised three dimensions of his study; (a) how training programs are conducted in Hoogovens, (b) conditions for conducting OJT programs, and finally (c) the effects of the training. Dejong states that there is a growing interest in structured OJT because both classroom/off-the-job training and unstructured OJT have major drawbacks when firms provide training to their personnel for their jobs.

It provided a third route for the development of employees and towards their competence. Dejong (1993) found four phases as a result from the study of structured OJT program (i) Import phase: in this phase new employees are trained by way of unstructured OJT. (ii) Development phase: a handbook is written in this phase how tasks will be performed in the training program. Handbooks are written by operating staff and training manager. (iii) Execution phase: trainees undertake a theoretical explanation of the training program for two to three days and are told on site how to perform the specified tasks. iv) Export phase: it is compulsory for employees at Hoogovens Ijmuiden to get OJT before operating at their jobs. He stated that without OJT employees even not in a position to handle material with care, they treat, wrap up and 24 materials carelessly which in not acceptable and shame for the material, answered by one of the mentors at Hoogovens. In the end he reported that OJT program is very necessary and a natural event to affect the functioning of individuals and organization as well. Dejong stated that there are many other authors who reported evaluation studies on structured OJT e. g. Belbin et al; Cullen et al; Jacobs; Jacobs & McGiffin; Kolkhuis-Tanke) and most of them claimed that structured OJT is more effective than the other two types of training. The DeJong’s article relevant to our current study for two main reasons; (i) it is about a manufacturing organization, and (ii) he focused about the execution of OJT program in that firm. First conducting OJT program it is important to assess the needs of the firm for training. That makes the management of any organization to understand which department needs training, which type (on-the-job, off-the-job) of training is to be conducted.

Which employees would be the part of the training program and what are the criteria for selecting and providing training to the employees. The assessment of the training needs of any organization guides the management to find out the objective of the training to be conducted for their workforce. So, for conducting a training program many authors have written how to assess the training needs of any organization. Here we will discuss the assessing needs of training. 2. 3 When OJT is needed Rothwell et al. (1994) describe some conditions. They say under these conditions OJT program is appropriate.

These conditions are; (i) when employee is new to the post, domestic office or the job; (ii) employee lacks knowledge essential for job; (iii) job functions have changed, or are about to change; (iv) other obstacles in the work place e. g. lack of tools, equipment. In the part above we have seen from literature review how different authors demonstrated the assessing needs of training before starting OJT training program. The next part will let us know the remaining steps of OJT program i. e. planning, developing, executing and evaluation.

These steps are explained as under; Planning OJT Program: During planning trainer or supervisor identifies the employees who need training. They (trainer and trainees) establish timeframes for implementing OJT program. They set goals for learning outcomes and instructional objectives. In other words they develop strategies for OJT program. Generally these strategies include selection criteria of employees for training, period of training, number of employees and frequency of training, etc. (Shultz, n. d. ). Developing: The trainer and employees prepare a task sheet for training program.

In developing they translate design decisions into training material. Training material include course material for trainer and trainees, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props. Execution: The Execution of training program involves instructor providing procedural rules, emphasizing the steps and sequence for correctly performing the tasks (Rothwell et al. , 1994). Evaluation: The outcomes of the training program seeks to depict how effective was the training. The question is to know if the results are in accord to the desired outcomes or not. It also considers whether training program was conducted or implemented according to plan.

Evaluation helps trainer to seek if any employee needs further training to perform his/her job. Kirkpatrick (2005) has proposed a four level model to evaluate effectiveness of training. His model has been used widely among firms throughout the world. This model helps firms to see how effective their training was. And what could be the results of that particular training provided by the firms to their employees. These four levels (Kirkpatrick, 2005) are; (i) Reactions: represent trainees’ affective and attitudinal responses to the training program.

This level answers the following questions, how trainees feel about training, whether they like it; (ii) learning: measures learning outcomes of training. What trainees have learnt from the training program and what are the outcomes of the learning; (iii) behavioral: the third level measures the behaviors of employees in a sense how they are performing in actual after getting training; (iv) results: the final ‘results’ or the outcomes of the training in the form of productivity and organizational goals and objectives. 2. Development of Modern OJT During the development of systematic training, a four-step method of training evolved. The steps included: [pic] This four step method was developed by Charles R. Allen to train shipbuilders during World War I (Sleight, 1993). These steps still form the basis for many forms of OJT. Army research as well as Allen’s work led to several principles of instruction. Training should be carried out by supervisors who are also trained to train. Groups of nine to eleven employees should be trained at a time.

An analysis of the job should be completed before training is done. Training on the job reduces break in time, and employees develop feelings of loyalty from personal attention given during training (McCord, 1976). During World War II, the need for rapidly trained workers became more urgent and a systematic method of training called JIT or Job Instruction Training was created. JIT followed a four-step method of instruction and was most effective for simpler, more manipulative tasks (Sleight, 1993). The four steps were as follows: [pic]

The effectiveness of Job Instruction Training was diminished when applied to more complicated tasks. As a result, as job tasks became more complicated in the time following World War II, this method lost its popularity. Although the use of traditional Job Instruction Training as originally developed has virtually disappeared, the movement signaled a move away from the more traditional on-the-job training or job shadowing to more formalized, planned, and organized training. One landmark study examined the effects of on-the-job training.

In a study conducted at Bowling Green University in Ohio in 1975, two groups of employees were trained by two very diverse methods. In this method, the first worker was trained by the supervisor. This first trainee then trained the next trainee, and so on until all twenty were trained. The members of the second group, on the other hand, although trained one at a time like the first group, were each trained by the supervisor. The supervisor used a structured program to train each person individually.

The supervisor trained group, the second group, reached the desired skill and productivity level in roughly a quarter of the time it took to train the “buddy system. ” Not only that, but the structured group had 76% fewer rejects (Sisson, 2001). 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Methodology can be defined as a systematic way of investigation directed to the discovery of some facts by careful study of a subject, a course of critical and scientific inquiry. For our project we required information like knowledge about the employees understanding, skills generated and the mastery gained during the training.

Hence we have taken an insight at the performance of the employees through evaluation of performance, through questionnaires and feedback received by the management. 3. 1 Data Collection A list of questions related to subject has been adopted from the book “Effective Training – System, Strategies and Practices” by P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker and given to participants. The questionnaire contains close-ended questions and provides space. A request is made to participants to fill up the questionnaire and send it back within a specified time.

However, primary data were collected ,for the first time hence is fresh and happens to be original in nature, from employees already have gone by these method of training and the ability to perform accordingly and the interview, based on some open-ended questions, given by management. 3. 2 Sample size Sample can be defined as the selection of a part or a group or an aggregate with a view in obtaining information about the whole population. Nonetheless, the number of employees working in the testing unit of R&D Samsung Bangladesh is 47 employees and it is still expanding.

Out of which we have selected a sample of 10 people who have undergone the training program in the last six months to have a flavor of the new practices in training. However, the result generated by 10 people has been converted into the measurement unit of 100 people. 3. 3 Research Instrument After the completion of data accumulation process, the info has been arranged in the form of table. After tabulation we analyze the data with the help of column & pie chart because in charts it was easy to understand everything in percentage as well as it gives better picture. 4. DATA ANALYSIS

As mentioned before, employees of the testing department of Samsung Bangladesh were chosen to undergo training (from March to May) with the core objective of reporting 350 defects of the binary coding for the operating system of Samsung cellular phones to the engineering department every day. Thereby, in this connection, assessment of data has been conducted primarily in order to determine how well the training has accomplished its objectives. 4. 1 Interpretation In order to implement a successful outcome evaluation for the training conducted, the following graphical presentation along with interpretation has been effectively considered.

Table 1: Represents the different methods of training and its convenience to the employees. |Method |Coaching |CBT | |Number of Employees |57 |43 | [pic] The above figures show preference on the modes of training and it is found people prefer more Coaching while 43 out of 100 employees desire Computer Based Training. This implies that significant numbers of trainees are biased against a kind of training.

In this respect, we can also conclude that the existing training program lacks enough proof of effectiveness about “coaching” to demonstrate to its participants. Table 2: Represents the rating of training schedule. |Rating of Training |Convenient |Disturbing |Average | |Number of Employees |59 |35 |6 | [pic] Large number of employees find the training convenient while others think it is disturbing the daily work.

Since 41 out of 100 people didn’t remark the training as convenient one, therefore, in this connection it can be assumed that the trainer might not be good enough at stating the objectives and value of the training to the participants or the trainer was not good at keeping everyone interested in the topics. Table 3: Represents the satisfaction level of employees undergone training. |Satisfaction of Employees |Yes |No | |Number of Employees |72 |28 | pic] 72 out of 100 employees confronted that they were satisfied with the way the training activities had been conducted while rest showed their dissatisfaction. Here, if we simultaneously focus on table 2 where 35 people remarked the training as disturbing and table 3 where about 30 people showed their dissatisfaction for the training, then we can concluded that trainee’s ability level with respect to this training might not be equal in moderate scale. Table 4: Represents the degree of development among the employees after the training was given. Employees Response |Yes |No |May be | |Number of Employees |67 |9 |24 | [pic] Maximum numbers of employees, 67 out of 100, show a positive response in terms of their development, some feel they are not at all developed and about a quarter showed a passive response. Table 5: Represents the degree of Improvement in employee-supervisor relationship after the training was given. Employees Reaction |Agree |Disagree |Neutral | |Number of Employees |69 |12 |19 | [pic] Here, about 70 employees agreed that that training has improved their relationship with supervisors while 12 disagreed with fact and 19 participants were neither agreed nor disagreed. Table 6: Represents the improvement in skill and attitude and future aspects. Improvement Status |Progressed |Non-progressed |Can’t say | |Number of Employees |70 |10 |20 | [pic] Large number of employees experienced progress in their skills and its future aspects whereas 10 participants feel that they have not progressed and others cannot say now. However, if we consecutively observe table 4, 5 & 6, it can be considered that on average around 30 employees out of 100 doesn’t hold positive attitude toward the training conducted during March-May 2012.

Therefore, any further study on TNA with respect to the kind of training we are dealing with now should emphasize on trainee’s attitude buildup foremost. Table 7: Represents the degree to which the employees have successfully achieved their training objectives. |Degree of Achievement |Completely |Partially |Not at all | |Number of Employees |62 |15 |23 | pic] The degree of achievement of training objectives is higher among the employees and even in the least case the achievement rate is above average. However, notice should be given on the fact that about 40 out of 100 employees believes the training objectives is not fully achieved, which clearly implies that transferring of training is not happening effectively to the job. Table 8: Represents the response of the employees regarding training aids provided for the training. Training Aid Status |Yes |No | |Number of Employees |72 |28 | [pic] 72 out of 100 employees are in full satisfaction regarding the right type of training aids are provided for training and about 30 of them feel otherwise. Thus, this signifies that the training was well-designed in the case of enhancing motivation among employees over the training period.

Table 9: Represents the level of support from the superiors to the sub-ordinates in completing the training |Support level of Superiors |Full |Average | |Number of Employees |66 |34 | [pic] Superiors seem to be very supportive during the training programs, as maximum number of employees responses are positive regarding support from the superiors.

However, 34 participant’s average remark regarding support level of superiors also implies that the assumptions made with respect to table 2 have significant value. 4. 2 Findings • Though by and large, substantial number of employees are content with the way the training is conducted, still there is a scope to analyze at micro level whether the negatives respondents were either non attentive confronted confused or otherwise. Based up on the data there is a scope to take corrective action. Keeping in mind that the very first batch of trainees might moderately differ with respect to their ability levels, though coaching was decided as training to ensure high level of trainer-trainee interaction, preferences of participants for CBT over coaching after getting trained widen the scope for further study on employee TNA. • Though the training was well-designed in the case of enhancing motivation among employees over the training period, the trainer seemed not as competent as the training itself. Trainee reaction objectives and transfer of training objectives could not be presumed as issues well-served by the trained employees. 4. 3 Conclusion In light of the findings, it would be correct to state that the assumed hypothesis is not accepted. Employees were not motivated and did not demonstrate any significant change in performance. The performance was not as per expectations and Samsung will need to rework on their training program to develop their employees’ KSAs into global standards. 5. RECOMMENDATIONS In light of the findings made, it would be a strategically correct decision for Samsung Bangladesh to change their training method from OJT to CBT. The logic behind this is numerous.

CBT is the most commonly used technique among all the other R&D setups of Samsung around the world and the method has proved successful in improving employee performance. • CBT allows greater trainer control and presents an opportunity to provide customized training based on individual trainee capabilities thus preventing employees to feel inadequate. Though Computer-based training (CBT) is costly, it is suitable for the industries that encompasses dynamic task like electronic technology. Thus, CBT application over a large numbers of trainees could be an effective scheme for Samsung Bangladesh to primarily reduce trainee learning time as well as to afford privacy of learning. • Coaching would be a helpful option if the trainer is motivated to his task. Thereby, Samsung Bangladesh could further motivate the coach by offering him higher designation plus monetary reward for his one-to-one supervision in the training program. Out of Knowledge, Skill and Attitude, since the first batch of coaching at Samsung Bangladesh were detected in need of building up cognition, therefore, to effectively attain the trainee reaction objectives and transfer of training objectives in future, much emphasize should be given on improving employee attitude. • Samsung Bangladesh should start to conduct a loop hole-free “process evaluation” to figure out how the training was designed, developed and carried out in order to gain long-term advantage. • No formal evaluation procedure is now available there in Samsung Bangladesh in the name of cost saving.

Though the R&D setup is fresh to the local market, any “outcome evaluation” related to R&D progress need to be considered as important as the training. 6. REFERENCES Broadwell, M. 1986, The supervisor and on-the-job training. (3 Ed). Reading MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. DeSimone, R. & Harris, D, 1998, Human resource development. Fort Worth: Dryden Press Evaluation of Training, n,d. Retrieved August 9th, 2012, from http://www2. aau. org/aur-hiv-aids/ws/pretoria07/docs/evaluation_training. pdf Galindo, S, 1999, A revised on-the-job training system at Johnson Matthey Electronics.

Master’s Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI. Goldstein, IL, 1970, On-the-job training in Training: Program Development and Evaluation. Brooks/Cole, Monterey, Calif. , 1970, pp. 141-143. On-The- Job Training: Hanan Project, n,d. Retrieved August 9th, 2012, from http://hanan. jsi. com/Docs/Resources/hanan_onjobtrain_guide. pdf Rothwell, W J & Kazanas, H C, 1994, Improving on-the-job training: How to establish and operate a comprehensive OJT program. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Sadiya, A, 2009, To study, analyze and evaluate Training and development practices imparted by NIS- Sparta at Reliance Communication.

Retrieved August 9th, 2012, 2012, from http://www. axzopress. com/downloads/pdf/0619259051pv. pdf Training Objective, n,d. Retrieved August 9th, 2012, from http://download. aibd. org. my/books/manual_for_media_trainers/section4. pdf Utgaard, SB & Davis, RV, 1970, The Moat Frequently-Used Training Techniques. Training and Development Journal, 24(2), 1970, pp. 40-43. Wenig, RE and Wolansky, WD, 1972, Review and Synthesis of Literature on Job Training in Industry. Ohio State University, Center for Vocational and Technical Education, Columbus, Ohio. ———————– 7. APPENDIX