Nutrition in Clinical Care
The article “Nutrition Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome: An Evidenced-Based Review” by Mann provides thorough examination of diabetes and metabolic syndrome and provides relevant recommendations how to prevent, treat and to manage diseases in clinical care. Thus it is necessary to admit that the article is of great importance for modern medicine as it aims at providing better understanding of diseases, patient’s needs and new nutritional approaches to disease prevention.
The findings presented in the article prove that diabetes and metabolic syndrome should be treated and prevented due to proper and thoroughly chosen nutrition. The article is also amplified with two tables: the first table provides overview of general recommendations and evidence regarding the topic being discussed and the second article examines surrogate endpoints necessary for disease management and prevention. (Mann 2006)
Firstly, the article discusses the importance of energy balance, dietary fat, dietary protein and body weight stating that recommendations should be followed to increase energy intake in people suffering from overweight. The author pays special attention how to maintain the achieved weight after losses. Mann admits that overweight negatively affects person’s state of health and emphasizes that “insulin sensitivity is reduced and most of the metabolic abnormalities associated with diabetes are exaggerated in those who are overweight”. It means that it is necessary to loose weight to improve sensitivity of insulin and glucose. Furthermore, life expectancy is improved as well due to weight loss. Overweight patients suffering from diabetes should loose their weight to become insulin resistant and to reduce insulin dose. (Mann 2006)
Further, the article deals with total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, free sugars and glycemic index, though the author focuses more on examining sugars and their impact. Mann assumes that the most appropriate sources of carbohydrate are fruits and vegetavles, legumes and grain cereals, etc. Thus patients suffeting from diabates and metabolic syndrom are strongly reccomened to use for food only naturallu occuring products which are rich in dietaru fiber. Mann says such diet is able to improve glycemic control, to increase the level of lipoprotein and reduce the level of cholesterol. Mann asserts that glycemic index is low in soluble fibers. The author admits that intake of free sugar should be moderate depending on diabetes 1 or 2, should be accompanied by acceptable glucose level, though a person should be overweighed. (Mann 2006)
The article outlines the importance of antioxidant nutrients, minerals, vitamins and trace elements for patients with diabetes 1 and 2. It is reported that a person should use restricted amount of sodium to reduce systolic blood pressure and to enhance it lowering thus fat intake and should restrict salt. (Mann 2006) Mann notes that “although no conclusive evidence exists for people with diabetes, recommendations are offered regarding the encouragement of foods naturally rich in dietary antioxidants, trace elements, and other vitamins”. (Mann 2006)
Finally, the last section of the article provides recommendations regarding prevention and treatment of diabetes. According to recent statistics, the risk of developing diabetes 2 is higher in persons having high levels of saturated fatty acids and using high intake of fat. Correspondingly, persons having normal weight and high proportion of linoleic acids are at lower risk of developing disease. Thus it is recommended to intake cereal fiber and low-glycemic-index foods to reduce the risk of diabetes. Diets and physical activity lead to improvements in lifestyle and to reduction of diseases. Moreover, Mann admits that regular intake of vitamin D and magnesium is associated with reduced risk of becoming ill. Actually, moderate physical activity such as walking and jogging is important for lifestyle modification. (Mann 2006)
Mann, J.I. (2006, September). Nutrition Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome: An Evidenced-Based Review. Nutrition Reviews, 64, 9, 423-437.