North Carolina Hurricane Essay


            Disaster avoidance encompasses the many steps a company can take that enable it to respond in stride to any of the aforementioned events. High availability, redundancy, fault tolerance, and failover are all mantras of this process. By all means, you need that superb failover system. However, you must assume that it will not provide foolproof protection from certain types of damage particularly that caused natural force.

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            For natural disasters such as hurricanes, agencies typically use four loss control strategies in their overall planning and response

The first two strategies, mitigation and planning, occur before the disaster occurs. The second two strategies response and recovery occur after the disaster has occurred. A comprehensive disaster plan will incorporate all of these strategies. In this category also included the costing the history of North Carolina that is affected before by the hurricane, the damage that has been done that make s me prepare for the coming disaster it won’t happen again and how to do it.


Hazard mitigation concentrates on long-term methods to reduce the effects of a hazard by improving the agency’s ability to withstand future hazards. In order to mitigate hazards effectively, an agency should address mitigation measures through planning, policy making, and implementation. Mitigation may be accomplished through a variety of means. Because most natural disasters are localized, mitigation may be accomplished by analyzing the areas that a particular hazard may occur in and then either not occupying those areas (loss avoidance) or by implementing measures to counteract the effects of the hazard, such as installing hurricane shutters on the windows of buildings in coastal areas.

The risk management concepts of segregation and duplication are effective ways to implement mitigation in your agency’s disaster plan. With segregation, an agency’s business units are not housed in a single facility, so that the loss of one facility will not cause all of the agency’s services to be discontinued. With duplication, the agency has duplicate facilities spread over an area so that services may be continued even if some of the facilities are destroyed. Essential business records and files may also be duplicated and stored in separate locations so that the agency can continue operations in the event that the original records are damaged or destroyed.

Develop annually published hurricane awareness newspaper insert.
Public Information and Awareness
Hazard(s) Addressed:
Priority (High, Moderate, Low):
Estimated Cost:
$100,000 for 750,000 copies in English and Spanish; $200,000 for 1,500,000 copies in English and Spanish
Potential/Current Funding Sources:
Pre Disaster Mitigation, Hazard Mitigation Grant Program, FEMA – Emergency Management Performance Grant, Citizen Corps, FEMA and Red Cross materials free of charge
Lead Agency/Department Responsible:
Emergency Management Division
Implementation Schedule:
Early 2005
Fig. 1

Renourish Hunting Island State Park.
Structural Projects
Hazard(s) Addressed:
Hurricane, Coastal Erosion, Nor’ easter
Priority (High, Moderate, Low):
Estimated Cost:
Potential/Current Funding Sources:
U.S. Corps of Engineers – Planning Assistance to States, U.S. Corps of Engineers – Emergency Streambank and Shoreline Protection, U.S. Corps of Engineers – Beach Erosion Control Projects, U.S. Corps of Engineers – Emergency Rehabilitation of Flood Control Works or Federally Authorized Coastal Protection Works, Beach Renourishment Trust Fund,
Lead Agency/Department Responsible:
SCPRT/Maintenance and Engineering
Implementation Schedule:
Within one year of funding
Fig. 2

Type of Natural Disaster

A hurricane is a type of tropical cyclone, the generic term for a low pressure system that generally forms in the tropics. (Simpson and Reihl, 1981)  A typical cyclone is accompanied by thunderstorms, and in the Northern Hemisphere, a counterclockwise circulation of winds near the earth’s surface. (National Weather Service)

Hurricanes can cause catastrophic damage to coastlines and several hundred miles inland. Winds can exceed 155 miles per hour. Hurricanes and tropical storms can also spawn tornadoes and microburst, create storm surges along the coast, and cause extensive damage from heavy rainfall. (Wikipedia Encyclopedia online, 2006)

History of North Carolina

            North Carolina has a long and notorious history of destruction by hurricanes. Ever since the first expeditions to Roanoke Island in 1586, hurricanes are recorded to have caused tremendous damage to the state. Reliable classification of the intensity of tropical cyclones began in 1886. Since that time, there have been 951 tropical cyclones that have been recorded in the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Approximately 166 or 17.5% of those tropical cyclones passed within 300 miles of North Carolina. Table 1 contains the number and percentage of tropical storms and hurricanes that made landfall in North Carolina or made landfall in another state and later passed through North Carolina. (Barnes, 1995). The coast of North Carolina can expect to receive a tropical storm or a hurricane once every four years, while a tropical cyclone affects the state every 1.3 years.

            STATE CLIMATE OFFICE OF North Carolina (2006)

North Carolina Tropical Cyclone Statistics (1886-1996)

Direct Land falling Tropical Cyclones in NC
Tropical Cyclones that passed through NC
Number of Storms
Percentage of Storms
Average number of years between storms
Average number of storms per year
Table 1. Number and percentage of hurricanes and tropical storms to make direct landfall in North Carolina from 1886 through 1996. Number of years between storms (period) and number of storms per year (frequency) are also given. Data compiled from the Colorado State Tropical Cyclone database.


Hurricanes affects NC most often in the late summer and early fall. Ocean temperatures are warmest during this time of the year in the North Atlantic Basin. (State Climate Office of North Carolina 2006)


The 1940s and 1950s were active periods for tropical storms in NC. Other research has shown a 20-30 year cycle in tropical storm development, suggesting we’ll see more storm in the next 20 years than we saw in the last 20 years. (State Climate Office of North Carolina 2006)

Damage Done of Hurricane

In North Carolina, Hugo damaged more than 2.7 million acres of forests in twenty-six counties, with almost complete destruction of 68,000 acres. Timber losses to the state were valued at $250 million. And like South Carolina, very little timber was salvaged. Forestry experts were overwhelmed by the sheer volume of dead trees. Most of the timber was either splintered by the storm or decayed before loggers could reach it. (Barns, 2006)

Fig. 6

            Left: North Carolina’s fishing piers are extremely vulnerable to hurricanes, as even modest storms can bring damages. (Photo by Drew Wilson, courtesy of the Outer Banks History Center) Right: Wrightsville Beach Yacht Club after hurricane Hazel, October 1954. (Photo courtesy of the N.C. Division of Archives and History)

            August and September historically have produced the most hurricanes in North Carolina and the N.C. Insurance News Service says the 10 most costly hurricanes in the United States all hit in those two months. Three of the 10 have hit in North Carolina – Gloria (1985) and Hugo (1989) in September and Bob (1991) in August. Hugo is second on the list, with $4.2 billion in damages to insured property, Bob sixth with $620 million, and Gloria ninth with $419 million. Hurricane Andrew, which struck Florida in 1992, is the most costly hurricane of all time with $16.5 billion in damages. (Federal Emergency Management Agency)


            Implementing the things below my area are more prepared now compare to the previous year it is also because of the experienced I learned to overcome it.

Important steps toward saving lives and property: Allow time to prepare is before the storm, Assemble a disaster supply kit to include:  water, nonperishable food items, first aid supplies, clothing & bedding, tools & emergency supplies, and special items, Clear loose and clogged rain gutters and downspouts, Trim trees and shrubbery, Review your insurance policy.(Louisiana Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness, 2006)

            Hurricane Safety Tips Fuel and service your vehicle, Secure all windows and any items that could become flying objects, Wedge sliding glass doors so they do not lift off track, Have flashlights and first aid kit available Turn refrigerator to the coldest setting in case of power failure, Have an extra supply of cash on hand, Secure and protect your pets, Evacuate, if advised to do so! (Baton Rouge Government Website, 2006)

            If You Evacuate: Evacuate during daylight, if possible, Notify neighbors and one family member outside of the affected area, Monitor local TV and radio for official bulletins: NOAA Weather Radio 162.400 and WJB0 1150 AM. For further information contact:  East Baton Rouge Parish Office of Homeland Security & Emergency Preparedness at 389-2100. (Louisiana Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness, 2006)

Shelters In the even of a major storm, shelters will be opened and maintained by volunteers of the American Red Cross. (American Red Cross)

What to bring to a shelter: Blankets, sleeping bags, and pillows. Medications: insulin, heart, and others. The Baby foods American Red Cross and diapers. Plastic container of water, sandwiches, and snacks. Bring the flashlight and radio extra batteries. We must have a first Aid Kit Identification cash and valuable papers. Pets are not allowed in shelters. (Baxter, 2006)

The information for the Elderly and for Assisted-Living Communities, Residents in assisted living communities should be aware of evacuation procedures for the complex in which they reside.  Many facilities do not provide transportation in the event of and evacuation. (CNN, 2006). Residents should have at least two emergency contact telephone numbers of friends and family members to assist if an evacuation is necessary.  For further information contact East Baton Rouge Office of Homeland Security & Emergency Preparedness. (Red Cross)

Lastly, Helpful Telephone Numbers, Emergency calls should be made first to East Baton Rouge Parish Emergency Number 911

In the event of a hurricane, the following emergency numbers are listed for more information 🙁 Louisiana Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness, 2006)

Advocate Info Line

(225) 383-0000 ext 4444
American Red Cross

(225) 291-4533
Baton Rouge City Police

(225) 389-3831
Baton Rouge Fire Dept.

(225) 354-4618
Department of Public Works

(225) 389-3158
Emergency Medical Services

(225) 389-3300
Louisiana State Police (Troop A)

(225) 754-8500
E.B.R. Parish Office of Homeland Security & Emergency Preparedness

(225) 389-2100
Sheriff’s Office

(225) 389-5000
U.S. Geological Survey

(225) 389-0281


            Anticipating and planning for hurricanes and other disasters are vital first steps in being prepared for an event. Before an emergency occurs, mitigation may reduce the potential for damage by improving an agency’s ability to withstand damages through the use of methods such as segregation or duplication. Preparedness can minimize the losses an agency may incur and the time required to resume key operations, primarily through the development and implementation of the agency’s emergency response plan. Once an emergency is detected, responses to the emergency according to the agency’s emergency response plan are implemented to protect lives and minimize losses. After the emergency has passed, recovery activities are initiated to resume operations and services, and to recover the costs associated with the emergency.


“Hurricane History”. State Climate Office of North Carolina .200618 December 2006, ;;.

“Preparedness”. Baton Rouge Government Website 1997-2006 City of Baton Rouge/Parish of East Baton Rouge

“What is Hurricane?” FEMA. 18, December 2006, ;;.

American Red Cross: ;;

Barnes, J., 1995: North Carolina’s Hurricane History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Barns, Jay. Hurricane History 3rd Ed. 18 December 2006, <>

Baxter, Peter J. Disaster Preparedness. 18 December 2006, <>

Federal Emergency Management Agency: <>

Hurricane. Wikipedia Online. 18 December 2006, <>.

Louisiana Homeland and Security Preparedness. Louisiana Gov. 18 December 2006, <>.

Mitigation. South Carolina Emergency Management Division. 18 December 2006, <>.

National Weather Service: <>.

Simpson, R. and H. Reihl, 1981: The Hurricane and Its Impact. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University.

“Some storm preparedness tips from CNN viewers and readers”. CNN. 18 December 2006, <C:Documents and SettingsPentium your e-mails ‘Prepare and Protect’ – Jul 10, 2006.htm>.


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