Reno Evening Gazette, December 7, 1941
Waterloo Daily Courier, December 7, 1948
Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune, December 7, 1941
History has always been a part of every man’s life in this world. Without history there will be no civilization and no development and progress among nations. It may have many points of views but still history allows the human race to have direction and learn from it. A lot of factors affect history, like geography, people and events that could possibly bring a significant change or impact to the society and to the world.
A lot of communication medium has been a mode of how history is created. One medium of communication which helped history to be molded is the use of printed materials like publications, magazines and newspapers. During the 18th to 20th century newspapers and publications played one of the biggest roles in making history for the mankind.
Newspapers have their own history as well. In the United States, the first publication appeared during 1960 in Boston. The newspaper was entitled Publick Occurrences and this paper was published without authority and immediately banned and its publisher was arrested and all published newspaper by that time was trashed and ruined. After that, the first ever authorized newspaper in America was the Boston New-Letter it was managed by John Campbell in the early 1700’s. Thus, the publication is only limited for circulation. A lot of newspaper publication then was inspired and built their companies of newspapers. Newspapers in America during the Revolutionary War were so significant and contribute a big change for communication and history of United States. Articles in the papers became centers for public opinion for revolutionary propagandists and had influenced American’s opinion for political independence and reconciliation with England. I can say now that press had played an important role with the domestic and even international affairs. Newspapers made a mark for political opinions in the United States, Most of the written articles before were about public opinions, politics and the government. Publications became the voice of Americans who wanted changes in the society.
Meanwhile, history may also begin with what is written in an article of a newspaper. Many historical events in the world were seen and read in a newspaper and can affect the way people live. One of the biggest historical events is the Pearl Harbor Bombing in Hawaii. This event put the world in shock and chaos among all nations affected. Newspapers that day were full of articles about the bombing within and across the nation.
For example, the issues of Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune on December 7, 1941, all articles written that day have to do with the bombing with headline Japan Declares War against U.S. The headline was timely and the author chose to focus on the war that is about to happen. The author of the headline might as well wanted to warn the people on what is about to happen in Hawaii and how is it going that time. For me, the writer of the article wanted to awaken the American nation of what is happening around them, especially those from Wisconsin, because they are far from the incident and they need information so that they could get ready for any harm or danger that might occur. The headline also informed the nation about the plans of the American government if they will also impose war against Japan. Generally the headline was significant and unbiased. He stated both sides of the story and gave facts and figures that could describe the scenario for those people away from the incident.
An article, entitled Naval Operation Progress — Japs, catch my attention. The news came from Tokyo and according to the writer the naval operation of the Japanese troops to America is in progress and will be a threat to the United States. The writer aims to warn the American troop to what are the plans of Japan towards a war. And this article is effective because it can give the American military troops idea on how they must strategize and develop their tactics as well. The American government might as well be alarmed with this news and immediately they should be planning counteracts and strategies on how to stop the Japanese naval operations going to Hawaii.
Almost all of the articles on Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune that day are pertaining to the incident of Pearl Harbor bombing. Authors wrote and published those articles because of one reason that is to educate the American nation and to give information on how is it going. The best thing about newspaper that time is that it reached as far as Wisconsin to relay the news and make it a history.
Another issue of newspaper that day was a publication from Nevada entitled Reno Evening Gazette. There was a story that was interesting with a heading Writer Tells Story of Attack on Hawaii. The article was a feature about a Hawaiian writer who had witnessed the attack. I think the article wanted to show the readers about what it feels like when you are in the war. It was a great story to get the attention of the readers. The article wanted to get sympathy, especially who were unaffected, to feel the hardships of the attack in Honolulu.
In addition, Reno Evening Gazette issue of December 7, 1941 enables to show the Nevada Public the facts about the Pearl Harbor bombing easily spread out for public opinion and information. It allows Nevada public to interact with what is happening in Hawaii and being warned with the threat of war between America and Japan.
Many articles from countries like Canada and Italy were also included in their December 7, 1941 issue of Reno Evening Gazette. The article named Canada Called its Cabinet stated to support United States against Japan in the war. For me the article has something to do with the international affairs of United States. Knowing that Canada is near the Pacific and America, they are alarmed with what is happening with their neighboring country. Canada is willing to help United States because they are geographically near and has a fear of being damaged and affected to the upcoming war. This story in the newspaper gave America a bit of relieve because they are being supported by different nations. The writer of the article might as well wanted to inform the readers that they will be expecting military support and many more from the countries who is willing to fight together with United States against the Japanese.
From the two newspaper archives that I encountered and read, most of the articles are talking about the damage that happened in Pearl Harbor. Public opinions from the authors of the articles were also included. In almost all of the articles, the author’s pointed out about the shock that the American nation must face during that day. Information was very important especially to those distant from Honolulu. Newspapers act as communication medium of other states and nations with what is the real deal in Honolulu. The entire American societies were awakening. Newspapers became one of their watchdogs of the daily happening during those times. And many journalists write about these issues because it is life changing and has great impact especially for the United States. And Americans have their right for the information and public opinion.
The history of December 7 attack does end there. After the war it became a talk for all of the nations. It became a world history. That is why from the archives that I encountered the facts and figures were very important in making history. It allows the people of today understand what happened during the Pearl Harbor attack. And not only and many unprinted stories in the books can only be seen in the newspapers, that many of the untold history is seen in the newspapers during the attack and war in Pearl Harbor.
Not to forget the incident in the Pearl Harbor, after the war the newspapers across the nation write a feature about the attack. From this we can see that it became a date to be remembered by the Americans and most of the world. A lot of the opinions and queries were written and presented to the public.
A good example was the December 7, 1948 issue of Waterloo Daily Courier published in Waterloo, Iowa. There was a story with a title Survivor and Jap Attacker Tell of Pearl Harbor Attack. The feature article was so interesting and lessons could be learned from it. The author wanted to present two points of views. One is the survivor’s and the other one is from the Japanese attacker’s view. The story was authored by the Ian Mitsu for the Japanese attacker and Willard Eberhart for the American survivor.
Mitsu wrote about Kazuo Sakamaki, the only Japanese survivor of the midget submarine attack in Pearl Harbor. According to the article he has been traumatized by the incident and if ever war would happen again Sakamaki would stay home and stay neutral. Mitsu described Sakamaki as a happy man. And from the article it is stated that Kazuo Sakamaki was the first prison of the World War II. Mitsu presented the news feature to bring out the good within the Japanese attacker. Because of the Pearl Harbor attack, American’s begun to hate Japanese. But with Mitsu’s article he made Sakamaki as a victim of the attack. He relay the story of the Japanese attacker’s hardship in the arms of the Americans when he was imprisoned. For me one factor that affects the article to look that way is that because of the nationality of the writer. The author was Japanese and became biased with the facts and story he wrote. But still, the story about the attack 7 years ago in the article was presented to be true and is can be a part of history because of the historical facts that is gathered from the article. Also, the article wanted to justify that not all Japanese soldiers have their aim in putting United States down that Kazuo’s aim is to fight for the glory of Japan like other Japanese troopers do during the Pearl Harbor attack.
While on the article which talks about the survivor in the attack which was written by Eberhart, the story was on how Harold Lindstrom, a US navy, survived the attack in Honolulu. Lindstrom stated his near death experiences during the Pearl Harbor attck. He also gave his opinions about the incident. The author of the story about would like to remind the leaders the hardships of the US navy during those times in Honolulu. The writer wanted to prove that it was really a day for America to always be reminded of, that a lot of heroes have sacrificed their lives in honor of their country. The author is American and I can conclude that he is trying to reach out his readers because he wanted to awaken the people to treat Pearl Harbor attack as a part of each and every American life. That it is one of America’s nation-changing histories.
From the printed newspapers that I researched on, it is safe for me to state that newspapers, publications and magazines play a very crucial role in the history of every nation. In the case of the Pearl Harbor attack, newspaper became a mode for information dissemination and for facts and figures of what is happening around Honolulu. Newspapers are not only printed materials that are being read then thrown out in a garbage bag. Newspapers shares public opinion and relates issues to public.
Moreover, it is in the newspapers that we can interact with journalists’ views and make our own judgments. We can learn from it and apply it in our everyday lives. History can be formed thru this communication medium. It allows people to relate with events and will greatly have an impact with how they live. History is not only the printed ones but on how and why is history written. Newspaper as reading material has one of the biggest contributions in history. Events will be recorded for the benefit of the next generation. It will also help people especially the historians to answer the queries that they have about any matter in history which are not found in the books.
Newspaper is cheap but the things that it can bring to each life and to society or nation is more than its price. Articles, news, features and editorials in a newspaper are not just written without purpose. These are written to influence the reader’s perspective in life and share it with the larger world and make history.
AP. “Canada Called its Cabinet.” Reno Evening Gazette 07 December 1941: A1.
AP. “Naval Operation Progress — Japs” Wisconsin Rapids Daily Tribune 07 December 1941: A1.
AP. “Writer Tells Story of Attack on Hawaii.” Reno Evening Gazette 07 December 1941: A1.
Barber, Phil. “A Brief History of Newspapers.” 2007. Boston, Massachusetts. April 22, 2007 < http://www.historicpages.com/nprhist.htm >.
Eberhart W. and Mitsu I. “Survivor and Jap Attacker Tell of Pearl Harbor Attack”. Waterloo Daily Courier 07 December 1948: A1.
Stephens, Mitchell. “History of Newspapers.” Collier’s Encyclopedia 2000. April 22, 2007 <http://www.nyu.edu/classes/stephens/Collier’s%20page.htm;