New and Improved Tools for Criminal Investigations Essay

New and improving tools and techniques that will assist and improve the investigation process, like Brain Fingerprinting, the new fingerprinting bullets technique, Touch DNA, Sperm free DNA testing, Laser Scaling Device, Antibody profiling identification, 3-D fingerprinting enhancer, Spherical photography will are change the way that investigators investigate crimes. One of the most impressive tools is Brain Fingerprinting a new computer-based technology that identifies the perpetrator of a crime accurately and scientifically by measuring brain-wave responses to crime-relevant words or pictures presented on a computer screen.

Brain Fingerprinting has proven 100% accurate in over 120 tests, including tests on FBI agents, tests for a US intelligence agency and for the US Navy, and tests on real-life situations including felony crimes. The Laser Scaling Device is also very impressive because it allows investigators to view photos in a way that were unimaginable before. The Spherical photography camera is also going to impact investigations because it gives investigators the ability to view the crime scene just like it was when they first took the pictures.

Another great tool is the 3-D fingerprint Enhancer because it does not only improve the quality of the prints but it does it much easier and faster. The scanner for the 3-D fingerprint Enhancer could print all ten fingers at one time. It also makes it so much easier of investigators to match the fingerprints up. Some of these great tools are already in use in different parts of the country and even the world. They aren’t all completely new but they are much more improved then some all ready in existence.

Over the years there has been huge revolutionary tools introduced to criminal investigations, some of them being DNA matching which helps in identifying criminal by using samples of their blood. Another huge and carousal tool in the criminal justice system is fingerprinting. The discovery of the fact that no human on the planet has the same finger patterns made it possible to distinguish criminal. This new invention also eventually lead to fingerprint lifting from crime scenes making it possible to identify a suspect from the prints the he left behind at the scene and of course there are many other reat tools. Now it time for new technology and method to make their impact on the criminal justice system particularly on the investigations of crimes. Here are some of the new tools and techniques that have been developed over the years and are currently being used in some parts of the country and the world. Brain fingerprinting is a new forensic technology that was discovered by Lawrence Farwell, he actually stumbled across this new technology while he was developing technology that would allow the vocally paralyzed to speak.

This new testing system determines with extremely high accuracy whether or not specific information is stored in a person’s brain, the test measures individual brain wave responses to relevant words, pictures or sounds presented by a computer. The measurements are recorded in a fraction of a second after the stimulus is presented, before the subject is able to formulate or control a response. How Brain fingerprinting works, first a suspect is fit with a sensor-filled headband. Then by flashing a series of pictures on a screen, Farwell can read the subjects involuntary reactions to the pictures.

When there is something familiar about an image, it triggers an electrical response that begins between 300 and 800 milliseconds after the other stimulus. Brain Fingerprinting has proven 100% accurate in over 120 tests, including tests on FBI agents, tests for a US intelligence agency and for the US Navy, and tests on real-life situations including felony crimes. The Laser Scaling Device is also very impressive because it allows investigators to view photos After twenty years of research and testing, Dr. Farewell began applying the Brain Fingerprinting technology in the criminal justice system.

Brain fingerprinting is a revolutionary new tool for investigators because it can help determine whether or not a suspected perpetrator has information regarding the crime stored in his brain. If he does happen to have specific information or details stored in his brain that only the perpetrator would have it means that he committed the crime. After several dramatic cases such as the Harrington, where brain fingerprinting helped exonerate innocent convict Terry Harrington in 2005, Brain fingerprinting also helped in the capture and conviction of serial killer JB Grinder back in 1999, there was a ajor breakthrough, brain fingerprinting test results were admitted as evidence in a US District Court in March 2002. Following the impact of these cases and numerous projects with the US Government Brain fingerprinting testing received significant media attention and appeared on programs such as CBS, 60 Minutes, the Discovery Channel, CNN and others. Since the introduction of brain fingerprinting, it as gain worldwide interest. Brain Fingerprinting Laboratories, Inc was founded in 2003 to make this ground braking technology widely available.

In addition to the criminal justice system brain fingerprinting testing will be applied to help in the fight against terrorism. Research is also being conducted in the areas of drug efficacy in in the pharmaceutical industry, advertising effectiveness, insurance fraud and security screening, so clearly this new technology has is a major breakthrough in the criminal justice system but it is also going to make a huge difference in the lives of the people because of all the potential uses and benefits that it has.

Another major discovery is the new way of Fingerprinting Bullets. Scientist has developed a technique for retrieving fingerprints from bullet casings and bomb fragments after they have been fired or detonated. This new method that relies on corrosion of metal surfaces is already being applied for the first time two British police forces. The patterns of corrosion remain even after the surface has been cleaned, heated to 600c or even painted over. This means that trace of fingerprints stay on the metal long after the residue from a person’s finger has gone.

This new technique is very different from all the other conventional techniques because it does not require physical or chemical interaction with the fingerprint residue. The new technique relies on permanent physical changes to the metal. The chemical basis of the change is not yet cleat. It is believed that it is corrosion by chloride ions from the salt in sweat. This produces lines of corrosion along the ridges of the fingerprints residue. When the metal is heated, for example in a bomb blast or when a gun is fired, the chemical reaction actually speeds up and makes the corrosion more pronounced.

To visualize the patterns, this new technique involves passing 2500 volts through the metal and sprinkling a fine conduction powder on it. While the electric field is applied the powder sticks to the corroded areas. If a corrosion patterns is present it will stay there unless you abrasively clean the metal. The only way to get rid of it is to actually take the surface layer of the metal off. Some metal turn up very good corrosion patterns well others don’t. One of the metals that work very well is bras and gun cartage cases. Touch DNA is another huge breakthrough in criminal investigations.

Touch DNA has to do with skin cells. Humans shed tens of thousands of skin cells each day, and these cells ate transferred to every surfaces with which human skin comes into contact. With contact between two items there will always be an exchange. So when a crime is committed, if the perpetrator deposit’s a sufficient number of skin cells on an item at the crime scene, and the item is collected as possible evidence, touch DNA analysis may be able to like the perpetrator to the crime scene, by collecting the skin cells and analyzing them.

Experts say Touch DNA has been successfully sampled from different items like gun grips, steering wheels, eating utensils, luggage handles and clothing. But finding Touch DNA for sampling can be difficult because it is usually not visible and since it is often at deposited in smaller amounts that the DNA found in bloodstains or other body fluid. A lot of times investigators must use their on good judgment and make educated guesses on where they think it is most likely that only the perpetrator may have left skin cells.

The key to obtaining successful Touch DNA results depend on recognizing items which may be suitable for Touch DNA analysis and using the sampling technique or collection method that will recover the highest number of skin cells possible. Swabbing the surface of the item is rubbed with a cotton swab to collect possible cells. This method is preferred for hard items such as glass or plastic. Cutting may be used for soft items such as clothing, in which fabric from areas of interest is cut to collect possible cells. Scraping and tape lifting methods are also good ways to collect skin cells from surfaces of soft items.

Touch DNA is a great tool in the investigation process because it is very likely that it is present and if it is found it could easily link the suspect to the crime scene. Touch DNA was made famous in the memorable murder investigation of Jon Bent Ramsey, the six year old child beauty queen. Touch DNA helped clear her family of the murder. Touch DNA is now in use all over the country and is currently being used to try to numerous solve close cases. A new Laser scaling Device Engineered by NASA will assist in analyzing crime scene photos.

The laser scaling and measurement device for photographic images (LSMDP) was originally developed to assist scientists who were unable to determine the exact scale of damages to a space shuttle’s external tank by viewing photographs of the spacecrafts on its launch pad. The LSMDPI is a half pound black box, powered by a single nickel-cadmium battery that attaches directly to a camera’s tripod mount. The twin lasers shoot from the box and add scale to the photographs. The lasers allow us to see the special photographs and have a better understanding of just how big of small the objects in the scene really are.

The use of this new technology is very helpful in the investigations process because it helps investigators go back to photos taken and look at other evidence that were not previously part of the investigation with grate accuracy. The device also allows for the investigator to view the crime scene in different angles including diagonally, horizontally and vertically to better analyze and understand the scene. Think that this new technology is extremely important and of great value to crime scene investigators because photographing is a huge part of crime scene investigation and documentation.

Spherical photography is a method that creates real photograph, 3-D images of the crime scene using a 360-degree camera with a fisheye lens and high dynamic range imaging that captures real world lighting without clipping pixels and bleaching areas within the images there for corrupting the image and making it questionable evidence, the heightened realism aids in recreating the crime scene for extended analysis and observation after the fact. This new way of photographing will serve investigators very well in reconstructing the crime scene long after the crime was committed.

Being able to reconstruct a crime scene is carousal in criminal investigations because it could really be the differences in whether or not investigators solve the case and capture the criminal and ultimately convict him. Antibody Profiling Identification is a method that was developed as a fast, accurate means to identify humans from their body fluids. Instead of DNA, the test uses auto-antibodies, which rid the body of dead and diseased cells and have their own unique genetic profile. Auto-antibodies are found in blood, urine, semen, saliva, tears, and perspiration.

AbP ID was developed as a companion to DNA testing a tool to indentify suspects who should be targeted for DNA testing. Sperm free DNA testing is also a new technology that will assist the Criminal Justice System by making it easier to identify suspects. Before Sperm free DNA testing, attempting to identify DNA is sexual assault cases were difficult or not possible because of the lack of sperm in the semen sample. This new technique overcomes that hurdle by gathering DNA from other types of cells in sperm free semen.

The new process combines two techniques laser micro dissection (LMD), which extracts individual cells, and fluorescence in hybridization (FISH), which distinguishes between male and female cells to identify and isolates male cells for DNA testing. 3-D Fingerprinting is the futuristic but already present technology for taking fingerprints. This new fingerprinting method is faster, more accurate and overall more effective than conventional 2-d fingerprinting without the ink soaked fingers.

The way 3-D finger printing works is first the subject places his fingers over a glass panel which beams a series of striped lines so that they wrap around a finger. Than a 1. 4 megapixel camera captures the lines at almost 1,000 pixels per inch, and creates a highly detailed 3-D map of the fingerprint ridges and valleys that can be analyzed on a computer screen. This new device proved both more effective and accurate prints than traditional 2-D fingerprinting. Ink fingerprinting has always been a painstaking and less accurate. Even modern scanners with glass planes often require several minutes to capture prints from all ten fingers.

This new method of finger printing is still in development and is expected to reduce its processing time even more to less that . 1 second and scan all 10 fingers at once. I think that this new method will really change the criminal justice system because it will make fingerprinting more accurate, covenant and much faster, it will ultimately reduce the time and difficulty that officers have when they have to fingerprint a subject. By using this new method departments will ultimately save money allowing them refocused their resources.

This new tools and techniques I think can only improve as well as help improve the process of investigations. The new technology called brain fingerprinting I think is one of the most revolutionary ones because I think it could lead to mush grater things that will not only serve in the investigation of crimes but serve us all as a community. The new Spherical photography technology along with the Photo scaling device I think are going to become very a important part of the investigation process because documenting on the crime scene is a very important in trying to investigate a crime.

The fingerprinting of bullets and explosive fragments after they are detonated I think will assist investigators very well in the investigation of crimes. Another huge invention is the 3-D fingerprinting; 3-D fingerprinting will make the fingerprinting process dramatically faster and mush easier. All of this new tools and technologies will only help the criminal justice system because they will all assist in the investigation process and ultimately in the conviction of criminal.

Bibliography
· http://www.policeone.com/police-products/crime-scene-investigation/articles/94507-The-next-dimension-Detectives-and-crime-scene-investigators-are-using-3D-tech-to-bring-crime-scenes-to-life/

· http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/02/060227184837.htm

· http://www.suite101.com/content/what-is-touch-dna-a85797

· Public Safety IT Magazine, Homeland Security’s virtual 3D light technology digitizes fingerprints

· New York times

Climbing Inside The Criminal Mind: THE BRAIN SCIENTIST

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