National Institute Of Occupational Safety And Health Construction Essay

Construction industry is one of the most unsafe industries. It can go on in any clip and easy take off people live. As a consequence, many of building workers have being a victim in the building industry. Therefore, the rate of accident and figure of human deaths addition every twelvemonth.

Harmonizing to Statics from Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) , the building industry show the highest rate of human death in the accident comparison to other industries. Department of Occupational Safety and Health has done some probe in twelvemonth 2012 that accident causes of human death are largely neglecting from high edifice. It is barely to forestall all the risky activities in building site.

Last but non least, the job still requires concern from each and every relevant party to organize to work out it. One of the important factors is the public assistance that used to be provided by the employer. Sometimes public assistance could perchance increase the consciousness and diminish the Numberss of accidents happen since the working environment could be somewhat better and workers ‘ productiveness and end product could be wholly different significantly. Thus public assistance is one of the key that can non be abandoned when looking thru and deep into the affair to work out the barriers in implementing OSHA.

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1.2 Project Title

Implementing of Occupational Safety and Health Act ( OSHA ) in Malayan building Industry

1.3 Problem Statement

Construction industry is largely happen accident and cause human deaths in the universe. This is due to fact that the party involve in the building work do non obey their responsible to the safety and wellness of the worker and ensuing accident happen and do decease by the way. Therefore, the authorities has implemented Occupational Safety and wellness Act in building industry for every site during building work. Even though, the authorities has enforced the Occupational Safety and Health Act in building industry, there are still have a batch of job fail to happen due to some barrier confronting at the site.

1.4 Aim

To place the effectivity and efficiency of execution safety and wellness Act on site in building industry

1.5 Aims

To find the barriers of execution of safety and wellness for Site in building industry

To place the grounds for implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act ( OSHA )

To find the types and Preventive and Precaution step of assorted jeopardy at building site

1.6 Research Question

What are the Occupational Safety and Health Act?

What are the demands for Occupational Safety and Health Act?

Why there is a demand of implementing Occupational Safety and Health in building industry?

What are the jeopardies most common happen at building site?

How to forestall and precaution the jeopardy at building site?

Are the Occupational Safety and Health work efficaciously in building industry?

1.7 Background

Safety and wellness is a critical of import in building industry. The intent of safety and wellness to protect worker ‘s life from accident happen. Therefore, authorities has implemented Occupational Safety and Health Act in building industry. The Occupational Safety and Health was established on old ages 1994 which is enforced by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) , a authorities section under the Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. The aim of Occupational Safety and Health Act as follows:

To guarantee that the safety, wellness and public assistance when the individuals which are at work against the hazards to safety or wellness are originating out the activities of individuals at work

To protect the individual at the working topographic point other than individuals at work against the hazards to safety or wellness which are originating out in the activities of the individuals at work

To given purpose to advance an occupational environment for those individuals at work which is adapted to their psychological and physiological demands

To supply the agencies of the associated occupational safety and wellness statute law which may be increasingly to replaced by a system of the ordinances and approved industry codifications of pattern to runing in combination with the commissariats of this Act designed to keep and better the criterions of safety and wellness.

( Department of Health and Safety Malaysia,2009 )

Although the authorities has restricted the Occupational Safety and Health Act that every parties who involve in building work must hold Safety system, but they still ignore the of import of safety issue. They merely have mindset thought to salvage and gain more money by cutting down the cost of safety system such as less utilizing signage at building site, deficiency of practical and preparation system and so on. For illustration, contractor would utilize self- made signage to replace the standard signage during building site. They besides non awareness the of import of safety issue to their worker and allow them make whatever they like. Therefore, accident happens because of their carelessness and jeopardy available.

However, every party either contractor or building company should take their responsible to guarantee their worker ‘s safety in building work. They should pattern safety and wellness during pre- building and station building to their worker so that possibility of accident happen can be reduced. In Malaysia, such range of concern is still fresh and ailing develop hence a batch of research and proctor need to be carry out by mentioning to states like Japan, USA and UK that take this safety and wellness issue with concern to do certain that the influence can be spread out among our industry.

1.8 Scope of survey

Safety and wellness is important issues go on in building industry. Accident is ineluctable in building industry but it can be prevent by complete duties of each party involved by mentioning to the Occupational Safety and Health Act which is implementing by Department of Safety and Health. Therefore, this research will be specific into determine the barriers of implementing Occupational Safety and wellness Act for site in building industry, types and Preventive and Precaution step of assorted jeopardy at building site and place the ground of implementing Occupational Safety and wellness Act. Methodology method that will be carried out for this research is questionnaires and interview.

1.9 Research Methodology

The resource will be collected categorized into two ways which is primary resources and 2nd resources. The primary resources will be conducted by questionnaires method where as 2nd resources will be carried out through the beginnings of literature reappraisal.

Primary Resources

1.9.1 Questionnaires

Questionnaires will be carried out in this research proposal. The inquiry will be prepared based on the aim of this research proposal and will be sent either by manus or by postal to the two selected company that either building company or contractor company to make study. The estimating clip to return back the questionnaire from the building company will be 1 month. After acquire back the information, the information collect will be keyed in to the computing machine by utilizing descriptive statistics method to make informations analysis. In this questionnaire, the inquiry will be asked about the issue of Safety and Health that based on the aim in this research proposal

1.9.2 Interview

Interview is another method that used in this research proposal. The intent for utilizing this method is acquire more item information to accomplish the aim that we proposal to this survey. The interview will be prepared in written signifier and give some line and infinite to compose their sentiment. The inquiry that prepare for this interview is open- complete inquiry. Interviewee that involved in this interview will be a individual who is experience in Safety and Health at Construction Industry or Safety and Health officer.

Secondary Resources

1.9.3 Literature Review

Literature reappraisal is a reviewing and measuring what has been done by old research workers on the subject. It can assist to heighten a better understanding the beginnings of information. Harmonizing to Kumar ( 2005 ) , reexamining literature can be time-consuming, dashing and frustrating, but it is besides honoring. Those mentions can be collected from the article, diaries, magazines or newspaper, mentions books and beginnings from cyberspace and web pages which related to the field. The information can be found from library and universe wild web as there is a batch of relevant information can be found. For illustration, we can entree to Emerald and Ebrary that provide by the TARC web site to happen out and download the full text of article and diary that related to the research. Data aggregations include the barrier, ground and the extent which to contractors faces during implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act in building industry. As a consequence, literature reappraisal can be to the full done and the research worker can acquire better cognition and latest information about the research subject.

1.10 Anticipated of findings and parts

Through this research, it is enhance for the research worker to understand the of import of Occupational Safety and Health Act in Construction Industry, which is enforced by Department of Safety and Health ( DOSH ) due to protect worker ‘s life against to safety or wellness which are connexion with the activities for those individuals at work.

Therefore, this research can assist to find the barriers, grounds, benefits of Occupational Safety and Health Act and besides the extent which to contractors faces during implementing the OSHA in building industry. ( Department of Health and Safety Malaysia, 2009 ) With this Act, we can specify that life is cherished to everyone. So, every parties involved in building work must take their duty earnestly due to their worker safety and wellness. Some of the Activities such as pattern, preparation and public assistance can be carried out in this phase.

Through this research, implementing safety and wellness Act can be properly guarantee safety and cut down accident in building industry due to their consciousness.

1.11 Overall Structure and Planned Organisation of Dissertation

Chapter 1: Introduction

This chapter is about an debut to Safety and Health Act in building industry. In this chapter, it will dwell foreword, the background of the research subject, set up the purposes, aims and research inquiries, range of survey, job statement, awaited findings and part of survey and research methodological analysis to study this research.

Chapter 2: Literature Reappraisal

This chapter will explicate the 4th aims of the research. The relevant information will be collected from some resources such as book, cyberspace, article that are related to the research subject and will be recorded down in this chapter. The auxiliary information aid the theoretical understand in this research subject. This chapter will include:

The barriers of Implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act

The grounds of Implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act

The types and Preventive and Precaution step of assorted jeopardy at building site

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

In this chapter, questionnaire will be carried out to get the primary informations. The inquiry will be prepared based on the 4th aim of this research subject and it will divide into 4 subdivisions. After inquiry has been set and approved by the supervisor, it will be sent out to the respondents either postal or face to face in order to cognize their penchant on safety and wellness during building work. On the other manus, the interview will be conducted to further look into to accomplish the aim of this research subject and at the same clip to turn out the feasibleness of theories that stated in the literature reappraisal. The interviewer will be interviewed who is an experience safety and wellness officer or building house. ( The inquiries will be designed to accomplish the 4th aim )

Chapter 4: Datas Analysis

After collect all the required informations from questionnaire, the information collected will be analyzed in the descriptive statistic method. The questionnaire will be presented in more item by prepare in tabular array or chart to happen out the frequence and per centum. Therefore, the informations analyzed and the consequence presented will assist the findings procedure in a more concise manner.

Chapter 5: Decision and Recommendation

This chapter is to do a decision of overall thesis. The purposes, aims and job statement which established in the chapter 1 will be identified and some recommendation will be introduced in this chapter to do an betterment to this research subject.

1.12 The Procedure of Research


Implementing of Occupational Safety and Health Act ( OSHA ) in Malayan building Industry


To place the effectivity and efficiency of execution safety and wellness Act ( OSHA ) on site in building industry

To place the grounds of implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act ( OSHA )

To find the types and Preventive and Precaution step of assorted jeopardy at building site

To find the barriers of execution of Safety and Health for site in building industry



Secondary informations

Literature reappraisal beginnings to be collected from



Magazines or newspaper

Mention books

Beginnings from cyberspace

Primary Data

Conduct questionnaire and interview with the respondents either building house or safety and wellness officer

Data analysis or Data aggregation

Presented in descriptive Statistic Method or chart

Decision and recommendation

Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

Health and safety is an of import issue that every building industry should take it earnestly to site. The accident will go on in any clip in the building undertaking which we can non foretell it. Harmonizing to Khalid ( 1996 ) , building industry is a really complex procedure and it should promote on a good direction scheme to decide in cut downing the rate of accident in building industry. Therefore, every party should take responsible on it to guarantee that every employee is in safety and wellness status. In decision the Torahs and the ordinances were enacted to minimise the jeopardies of safety and wellness hazard.

First, this chapter will explicate the aim that written in the chapter 1. There are the barriers, and grounds implementing Occupational Safety and Health ( OSHA ) on site, and besides types and preventative and safeguard step of assorted jeopardy at building site. Before survey in deepness on the aims, it is indispensable to acquire a basic cognition on the legislative assembly model of Occupational Safety and Health Act ( OSHA ) that enforced by Department of Occupational Safety and Health in every building industry require to implement this Act during building period. Therefore, the definition of Occupational Safety and Health Act will be studied in old chapter in order to cognize and hold a better apprehension on this act that every building industry either little house or large house must hold this act.

However, the following portion of this chapter will explicate the first aim of this research, which are the barriers of implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act in building industry. In this portion, the surveies will include human behaviour, Lack of Enforcement by Authority, Poor Safety direction, Safety Campaign, Sizes of Firm, Lack of Multimedia system, hapless quality equipment and hapless quality control.

In extra, this portion will be described the ground why building industry must implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act during carried out the building work. Harmonizing to Rafiq M. Choudhry ; Dongping Fang ; Helen Lingard ( 2009 ) , the building has the higher rate of accident among all industries. This is because the employer ‘s mistake in support an oculus out on issue Safety and Health to their worker before transporting on traveling work. As a consequence, the authorities has enforced OSHA Act to every building industry and questionnaires are conducted in this research to measure it is applicable for building industry and at the same clip it is besides to turn out the theoretical that province in literature reappraisal. Therefore, it is of import for them to protect themselves. The surveies of ground implementing Occupational Safety and Health will include efficaciously safety civilization, cost of Accidents, reduces contractor ‘s hazard, repute of company and safety public presentation

Last portion of the chapter is about the types and Preventive and Precaution step of assorted jeopardies at building site. This is because, different type of jeopardy at building can take to accident and hurts happen. For illustration, Construction hazards that such as electricity, digging, scaffolding and such on are the chief causes of human deaths or accident happen. In order to forestall the accident and hurts happen on the building site, it is necessary to place and measure the manner of preventative and safeguard for jeopardy at building site. Therefore, the accident and hurts of workers can be prevented and besides cut down the hazard of jeopardy happen.

2.2 Occupational Safety And wellness Act in Construction Industry

2.2.1 Definition

The Occupational Safety and wellness Act is an act which are supplying the legislative model to guarantee that the safety, wellness and public assistance among all Malayan work forces and to protect others party against hazards to safety or wellness which in connexion with the activities of the individuals at plants. ( Naw Zi, 2011 ) .This Act was gazette on 24th February 1994 and it is known as the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994.

The ordinance of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 are based on the self-regulation strategy. It was the primary duty in order to guarantee that the safety and wellness of work prevarications with those who are make the hazards and those who work with the hazards. Through self-acting strategy that was designed to accommodate for the peculiar industry or organisation, this Act which are besides aims to set up the effectual safety and wellness organisation and public presentation. This construct of the self-regulation encourages audience, cooperation and engagement of employees and direction are put more attempts in order to upgrade the criterions of safety and wellness at the workplace and besides the environment.The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 is enforced by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) , a authorities section under the Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia.

Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) will guarantee through the enforcement and promotional plants such that the employers, freelance individuals, interior decorators, importers, providers, makers, and employees they ever pattern safe and wellness work civilization, and there are ever to follow with existing statute law, guidelines and codifications of pattern. ( Lawyerment.2001 )

Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) will besides explicate and reexamine the statute law, policies, guidelines and codifications of pattern pertaining in the occupational safety, wellness and public assistance as the footing to guaranting the safety and wellness at work. This section is besides the secretariat to National Council for Occupational Safety and Health ( NCOSH ) , a council established under subdivision 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. The National Council for Occupational Safety and Health shall hold the power to make all things expedient or moderately necessary for those minor expenses to the transporting out of the objects of this Act. ( Lawyerment.2001 )

2.3 Barriers of execution of safety and wellness for Site in building industry

Safety is critical issue which can do problem in concern when accident happens. Health and safety in work is an issue which will impact to all the concerns to worldwide. Therefore, implementing Occupational safety and wellness ( OSH ) of the direction system its present a legal demand in many states. Although, the execution of safety act is enforced at building site, but at that place still have barrier found in building site. All the parties involved must take their earnestly attending toward the barriers in order to forestall the failure for those safety execution programs at building site. .

2.3.1 Human Behavior Attitude of site Management Team

Site direction squad is most of import feature in unafraid workers safety and life in building site because of their negative attitude that they did non take attention about safety facets in building site by supplying insecure topographic point, old personal safety protection equipments ( PPE ) to their workers result in barriers of implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act in building site. They besides consider that puting in safety facets is a waste money and increases building undertaking cost. ( Rosli.2008 ) Worker Attitude

Harmonizing to Teo and Phang ( 2005 ) , the survey found that the attitude of workers is an of import function in following safe work patterns at workplace. The attitudes of the building workers is besides one of barrier that cause employer implementing Occupational Safety and Health in building site and consequence in an accident happen. There are two classs of worker found in building industry which are foreign and local workers. But bulk is foreign workers which they come from Indonesia, Vietnam, Myanmar Philippines and Thailand. Their attitude is influenced by their ain place state civilization. For illustration, they have bad wont or attitude toward making work such as drink intoxicants, smoke, and take drug during working clip. As a consequence, accident happens in the minute due to their bad behaviour, deficiency of experience and cognition about Safety and Health in transporting out the building works during building period.

2.3.2 Lack of Enforcement by Authority

Authority is an of import feature in implementing safety Act in building site. They need to take their duties in cheque and guarantee the full safety facets are carry throughing the demand of OSHA Act 1994. Therefore, Department of Occupational Safety and Health ( DOSH ) was enforced to guarantee all the workers are holding a safety working environment workplace. However, this party has deficiency of the serious committedness, insufficient of the work force and the budget allotments caused by deficiency of monitoring, safety audit and enforcement so result in unsuccessful of implementing Safety Act in building industry. ( Rosli.2008 ) Besides that, Authority do non take serious legal action under Malaysia jurisprudence and do the rate of accident addition. They should take legal action in punishment to the employer who does non follow the OSHA Act that enforced by authorities. So that, they will non be done the same error once more nevertheless accident rate can cut down it.

Harmonizing to ( Koehn.1996 ) , Occupational Safety and wellness Administration ( OSHA ) specifically required that employers such as contractor are responsible for supplying workers a topographic point of employment free from recognized jeopardies. This may be interpreted as a safe topographic point at which to work.

2.3.3 Poor Safety direction

Poor safety direction in the building site is one of serious issue that cause barrier to implementation OSHA. Site safety direction must proper pull off their safety direction by directing their workers to the safety preparation plan that organize by NIOSH and CIDB. This safety developing plan will sing about the effectual safety facets to workers which need to be careful during work at building site. Therefore, they are more cognizant and better understand about of import of safety at building site. After complete attend the safety developing plan they will be qualify and issued with a safety card are called Green Card issued by the CIDB as which allow and certified them to come in for work at building site. The safety card holder will besides entitle with insurance coverage harmonizing to coverage term and status. ( Rosli.2008 )

2.3.4 Safety Campaign

Ineffective Safety run is a barrier of execution safety in building site. Without an efficaciously safety run, accident and hurt can go on every 2nd. Safety consciousness and safety facets can non be successfully inculcated and efficaciously to transport out if all related parties involved non collaborate with the authorization to make and take serious in advancing safety run. Safety authorizes should be work closely and efficaciously with the company safety direction in order to supplying effectual safety runs to all the workers at all degrees through the twelvemonth to guarantee that safety is given in first precedence and the concern at workplace. ( Rosli.2008 ) For illustration, ocular consciousness, safety commissions, company- sponsored health plan and employee and direction engagement.

The intent of the ocular consciousness is the station marks as the reminded to full worker in the site. Other than that, the ocular consciousness is besides the station which is indentifying the confined infinites. In the building site, the ocular consciousness are besides can one of the signal to remind the worker to have on the personal protective equipment in other to protect their ain safety.

The safety commissions are taking of import portion to forming the plan in order to pull all the public craft either in big building undertaking or little undertaking to present the safety demand. Besides that, safety commissions which can supply more events in order to make the public purpose, to allow every bit much as possible people know the of import of the OSHA.

Besides that, the run shall supported by the all the authorities section together to continue the run. In the run have to give all the parties have involve in the building site give one of head refresh to all concentrate the of import of OSHA.

2.3.5 Sizes of Firm

Harmonizing to Abdul Aziz Hussin ( 2011 ) , larger contractors will execute better in safety execution compared smaller companies which they have greater resources to make so. Larger houses are associated with big undertakings that have more hazards and are typically required to implement Occupational Safety and Health processs. However, little contractors prefer non to include the safety and wellness costs in their stamps, cut downing their ability to cover with possible jobs. In their research besides shown that little houses do non seems to hold the ability or motive to accomplish high degrees of Occupational Safety and Health when benchmarked against larger houses. As a consequence, little building houses may non pull off Occupational Health and Safety hazards every bit efficaciously as larger houses.

Harmonizing to Abdul Aziz Hussin ( 2011 ) , conducted a survey found that, in order to accomplish safe site operations, building practicians need effectual monitoring and controlling of safety during station building and put safety programs as one of the standards to choose contractor. Contractors besides need to direction system in order to supervise their site operation and mensurate their execution in order to extinguish insecure Acts of the Apostless and patterns.

2.3.6 Lack of Multimedia system

Harmonizing to Abdul Aziz Hussin ( 2011 ) , the demands for development for a multimedia system have been illustrated and the of import factors considered for successful execution. The system shall suitable for building site usage and besides the design procedure and must enable to integrating of text, artworks, sound and besides life of practical state of affairss to show best method and safe pattern. This system should be easy accessible to interior decorators and site direction tem supplying the chance for effectual communicating of safety and wellness issues. Through the multimedia system in order to allow every bit many as possible to cognize the intent and map of the OSHA. The multimedia system will supply the high chance to pass on with many people and to present the OSHA to all of us.

Once of the multimedia use in order to upgrade the cognition to all the people know. The multimedia are can be used in the in writing manner which are utilizing the mark board to remind the worker while their work on the building site. The undermentioned figure 1.0 mark board which are used in the building site:

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Figure 1.0: The sample of the Safety signboard to alarm the worker.

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2.3.7 Poor Quality Equipment

Poor Quality Equipment can be one of barrier in implementing OSHA in building industry and affect accident happen. This is because the equipment or machinery that delivers to site is non proper look intoing before carry out the work therefore do accident or hurts of workers happen. When worker is order to make some amendment work for the edifice, they must guarantee and decently look into that amendment work it is safe to transport out by have oning protective equipment to protect them to acquire any hurts. Besides that, deficiency of quality equipment that qualify by SIRIM will besides ensue in accident happens. For illustration, employer must guarantee the machinery or equipment green goods by the maker qualified by SIRIM with a making certification that is proper cheque, examine and safe to utilize before deliver to the building site. The aim of SIRIM is to advance standardisation and quality and supply proficient services for industry and the populace. For illustration, there are some of the stuffs such as light bulb, distribution board, light switches and etc.

2.3.8 Poor Quality Control

Poor quality control will besides impact in implementing OSHA and do the accident happen. This is due to the review of the installations, deficiency of quality review can ensue accident or human deaths happen. Site direction squad should guarantee and protect worker safety in every minute every second at the building site. For illustration, employer must guarantee that cipher is nearby or under the truck before transporting digging work. Employer must besides curtail their worker to utilize proper protective equipment to make review work at the site.

All the reviews are of import in order to guarantee all the stuffs are repairing to the edifice is under the well processing and safe for usage. The intent of quality control is to guarantee the quality of the merchandise. Sometimes the accident happen causes by the quality of merchandise will do the worker hurt, the quality control is make certain that the all the flexibleness which are install in the edifice are under the good status.

2.4 Reason of Implementing Occupational Safety and Health

The ground for implementing Occupational Safety and Health Act is to forestall hurts and occupational diseases and to cover efficaciously with any accidents or incidents that occur.

2.4.1 Efficaciously safety civilization

Safety civilization is one of the grounds of implementing OSHA in building site. Harmonizing to legion researches, with execution an OSHA Act 1994 in building site can cultivate a good safety civilization, with a good safety civilization an accident or hurts can be prevented.

Harmonizing to B.Fernandez-Muniz et Al ( 2007 ) , safety civilization is a set value, attitudes, perceptual experiences and form of behaviour with sing the safety shared by members of the organisation.Safety civilization emphasizes the part from everyone at every degree of the organisation. It can entity has an impact on all members of the work force and their behaviour at work. A place safety civilization is declarative of an organisation ‘s willingness to develop, alteration and learn from mistakes, incidents, and accidents. It gives appropriate precedence to safety and realizes that occupational safety and wellness has to be managed like other country. A positive safety civilization is making the right thing at the right clip in response to normal or exigency operation. The quality and effectivity of preparation will play an of import function in finding the attitudes and public presentation toward safe public presentation.

Harmonizing to Ahmad et Al ( 1999 ) , building safety direction can have greater attending by set up a better of statute law and committedness from employers and employees. As a consequence, the betterment of the safety and wellness direction which in the building is taken the of import key for all building stakeholders due to heighten a better safety workplace that can better productiveness, cut down building costs, better clip direction and deliverables and increase net income.

2.4.2 Cost of Accidents

Accident can be occurred in workplace anytime and anyhow. When an accident happens toward a building worker in building industry, it will take to the cost of personal hurts and may besides incur far greater costs from harm to belongings or equipment and lost production. For illustration, the overall cost of accidents in the United States is about $ 150 billion. This immense sum of money could hold been invested for modernisation of plants, research and development, installation ascent. ( David.2005 ) Therefore, implementing OSHA Act 1994 in building industries during building site can assist in minimized the cost of accident. This can be done by direction squad demand to set up OSHA Act in the building site by forming a preparation plan to every building worker so that they are more awareness in safety and prevent accident go on

Harmonizing to Bakri et Al ( 2006 ) , accident non merely can do in hold in operations and undertaking deliverables but besides cause to direct and indirectly incur cost. Therefore, Occupational safety and Health Act 1994 ( OSHA ) has required all the building companies to implement a safety and conductive the working environment for those their workers and subcontractors at the building and fiction sites.

2.4.3 Reduce contractor ‘s hazard

Contractor will confront a batch of hazard during accident happen. Hazard such as clip, cost, and life will take to individual hurts or decease, it will so convey a batch of problem to contractor in carries ongoing building work. For illustration, contractor will lost money in paid everything related to worker in accident. However, it besides occurs in loss of clip in continues the undermentioned work as a consequence it lead to building hold because of accident happen. In order to get the better of the job, it is necessary to implementing Occupational Safety and wellness Act in building industries and it is besides a ground of implementing OSHA in building site. By cut downing the contractor hazard, Contractor should make a Safety and Health Awareness in building industry by comply OSHA demand which enforced by local authorization in order to protect workers safety and wellness. On the other manus, Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE ) must be supplying during building period. Thus, accident and contractor ‘s hazard can be reduced.

2.4.4 Repute of company

Repute of company is one of the grounds Implementing OSHA Act. A good repute of building house can made by holding a good safety patterns in building industries.Safety patterns such as organize a safety preparation and instruction for workers, communicating tool between site direction squad and worker, set up a Safety- First Corporate Culture and ocular consciousness. ( David L.2010 ) With this safety patterns, rate of accident will take down. As a consequence, the image of company will reputable in industries. However, safety policy of company is a demand of OSHA Act that enforced by authorities.

Harmonizing to OSHA Act, the statute law requires that all the employers with have more than five employees, to explicate a written Safety and Health Policy of their workplaces. It besides makes compulsory for employers with more than 40 workers to set up a Safety and Health Committee at their workplace. The safety policy must be clear that safe work patterns are expected of all employees at all degrees at all times. So that, employee will execute their responsibilities with safety foremost in their heads. With this safe policy, workers will hold mindset in protect their safety and unrecorded and rate of accident will diminish. Thus, safety policy is the ground of implementing OSHA Act.

Harmonizing to Ahmad et Al ( 2000 ) , contractors has questioned that the importance of passing money on safety facets during building can give benefit to them with the effectual safety direction system were will much more than the cost spent. However, it can besides avoid in hold undertaking, machines and equipments breakdown and judicial proceeding. The safety system are besides facilitates the direction in carry oning for those any accident probe at workplace

Harmonizing to Hinze and Harrison ( 1981 ) , large building company can assist in cut down the hurt rate at building site. The success of the large company in undertaking safety volitions facets in order due to the fact that there are safety competence certification holders exist the among its workers their non defying any on the job degree.

2.4.5 Safety public presentation

Safety public presentation can be produce by implementing Occupational Safety and Act in building industries. First of wholly, a good safety public presentation can be create by holding a making site direction in good pull offing and oversing all the building workers. So that, the worker ‘s safety and life can be to the full protect and guaranteed. For illustration, employer need to supply the personal protective equipment ( PPE ) such as safety helmet, safety boots, safety baseball mitts and vesture to employee to forestalling hazards of accident happen at the same clip protect their safety and wellness excessively. Besides that, corporate between employee and employer is besides of import in protect safety and wellness. It can advance an effectiveness safety public presentation and increase the work productiveness. This can be achieved through the duty of the each party engagement.

The below is the duty and duty of party who is apt to Safety and Health Act: WorkSafeBc ( 2011 )

1. Employer


Ensure that the wellness and safety of the employer ‘s workers and other workers are present at the workplace.

Establish occupational wellness and safety policies and an OHS plan.

Duties and functions in supplying a safe and healthy workplace.

Provide specific way and delegate authorization to those responsible for wellness and safety.

Provide workers with the information, direction, preparation, and supervising necessary to protect their wellness and safety.

Provide and maintain protective equipment, devices, and vesture, and

Make a true transcript of the Workers Compensation Act and the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation readily available for reappraisal by workers.

Hazard control

Identify possible jeopardies through regular reviews and either eliminate or command the jeopardies without hold.

Remedy any workplace conditions that are risky to worker wellness or safety.

Develop written safe work processs.

Encourage workers to show concerns and suggest betterments on wellness and safety issues, for illustration, through safety negotiations, meetings, or audience with worker representatives.

2. Supervisor

Harmonizing to Occupational Health and Safety Regulation, a supervisor is a individual who instructs, directs and controls workers in the public presentation of their responsibilities any worker who work at site are duties and under control to supervisor. Supervisors should give same precedence for wellness and safety as productiveness or quality control. They must cognize and follow with occupational wellness and safety demands.


Ensure the wellness and safety of all workers under their direct supervising.

Know the WorkSafeBC demands that apply to the work being supervised and guarantee that they are followed.

Ensure that workers under their supervising are made cognizant of all known or moderately foreseeable wellness and safety jeopardies where they work.

Consult and cooperate with joint commission members or worker wellness and safety representatives, and cooperate with others transporting out occupational wellness and safety responsibilities.

Ensure that the appropriate personal protective equipment and vesture are provided, decently worn when required, and decently inspected and maintained.

Investigate insecure conditions reported to them and guarantee that disciplinary action is taken without hold.

3. Worker

Workers have general duties for their ain wellness and safety and that of other workers. In add-on, they have the duty to decline insecure work ; prejudiced action can non be taken against them for declining to make insecure work.


Cooperate with the joint commission or worker wellness and safety representative, WorkSafeBC bar officers, and any other individual transporting out occupational wellness and safety responsibilities.

Learn and follow safe work processs.

Be watchful to jeopardies, and study jeopardies or jobs to the supervisor or employer.

Use the protective vesture, devices, and equipment provided.

Perform work in a safe mode. Do non prosecute in horseplay or work while impaired by intoxicant, drugs, or other causes.

Duty to decline insecure work

Garbage to make work that they have sensible cause to believe would make an undue jeopardy to the wellness and safety of any individual.

Immediately describe an insecure state of affairs to their supervisor or employer.

( WorkSafe BC,2011 )

2.5 Types and Preventive and Precaution step of assorted jeopardies at building site

Hazards can be harm and cause of hurts to anyone during working environment. The more the jeopardies present in building site, the greater the opportunity that there will be accident. Harmonizing to M. Hunter Christopher ( 2011 ) , building site are the most potentially risky and accident- prone parts of any on the job environment. Hazard that caused by accident happens due to human mistake and improper managing in safety direction during building site. Alternatively of cut down and forestall accident and deleterious happen in building site, it is necessary to take action toward jeopardy in forestalling it happen. There are many type of jeopardy found it building site such as electrical, noise, digging, destruction and so on. The top six building site jeopardy that found by OSHA are electrical, digging and trenching, autumn, staircase and ladder, scaffolding and heavy building equipment.

2.5.1 Electrical

Electricity is widely used and common jeopardies face by people in the building site. This jeopardy largely happens to workers who are work continuously with electricity in day-to-day footing such as power line workers, linemans and electrical applied scientists. The common jeopardies associated with electricity such as electric daze, electric Burnss, electrical fires and detonations and electric arcing are the causes lead to accident or human deaths. Therefore, the direction needs to take consideration toward this electrical jeopardy by follow the electricity at work ordinance that enforced by wellness and safety Executive to forestall the accident happen. In order to forestall or cut down accident occur on the building site, the direction should set the first-aid process for handling electric daze and such posting place must be positioned nearer to the electrical junction boxes or isolation switches. However, burning by high-potential electricity is the jeopardy cause decease. To forestall this accident go on at the building site, the best manner bar for power line workers to be a safe working distance off from the power lines. Other precautional steps which are include the guarding and insulating of the vehicle from which they might work. This would assist to forestall the electrical accident jeopardies from wounding them while during working.

2.5.2 Excavation and trenching

OSHA has recognized that digging and trenching is the largely risky in building site operation. United States Bureau of Labor and Statistics ( USBLS ) has recorded down 271 worker has cause by human deaths in the trenching and cave-ins from 2000 until 2006 twelvemonth. These jeopardies are preventable yet hurts was related to those jeopardies are still go oning on site. Therefore, both employer and employee have the chance to follow safety criterions and usage protective equipment to minimise jeopardies while impinging and unearthing.

2.5.3 Fall

Falling from the staging over the six pess or a fixed ladder over 20 pess is the most unsafe and which are common building site jeopardy. Falling from high topographic points such as a ladder, scaffolding and roofs history are more than around 50 per centum of the accidents that happen at the workplace. The usual cause of this incident is stealing, stumbling and utilizing unstable ladders. There are many of grounds for autumn jeopardies and to extinguish such hazards, employers they must hold a autumn protection plan as portion of any overall workplace safety and wellness plan. The workers shall be trained to place and measure the autumn jeopardies and be to the full cognizant of how to command exposure to such hazards every bit good as cognize how to utilize autumn protection equipment decently.

2.5.4 Stairway and ladder

Harmonizing to OSHA ‘s building safety and wellness criterions, staircases and ladders there are major beginnings of hurts and human deaths among the building workers. These are recorded to the hurts are serious plenty to set a worker out on ill leave. OSHA registered about 24,882 hurts and 36 human deaths annually that are related to the falling from staircases and ladders while used at the building site. To forestall such accidents and hurts, the employers and employee must follow with OSHA ‘s general regulation for the safe usage of ladders and staircases.

2.5.5 Scaffolding

Every twelvemonth, there are about 60 workers are die by falling from scaffolding ; one out of five building site falls are fatal. The most possible hazard of staging is due to traveling scaffold constituents, scaffold failure related to damage to its constituents, loss of the burden, being struck by suspended stuffs, electrical daze and improper set-up. Construction workers who are assemble and dismantle staging and work platforms at building sites face the hazard of serious hurts due to falls. The scaffolding jeopardy is addressed by the stated OSHA criterions. They give specific demands for the maximal burden, when to utilize staging, brace and the usage of safety rails.

2.5.6 Heavy Construction Equipment

Approximately 100 building site workers die on each twelvemonth due to the heavy building equipment. The chief causes of such accidents includes: the land workers struck when a vehicle is rearward or altering way ; the equipment rollovers that injure the operator ; mechanics run over when brakes are non decently set ; and land workers crushed by falling equipment from backhoes, pails, and other traveling building vehicles. To forestall all sort of the hazard, workers should follow all building safety guidelines in order to extinguish the exposure to such hurts and accidents.