My Paper on STD’s Essay

Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lot like other viruses, including those that cause the “flu” or the common cold. But there is an important difference – over time, your immune systemcan clear most viruses out of your body. That isn’t the case with HIV – the human immune system can’t seem to get rid of it. Scientists are still trying to figure out why. We know that HIV can hide for long periods of time in the cells of your body and that it attacks a key part of your immune system – your T-cells or CD4 cells.

Your body has to have these cells to fight infections and disease, but HIV invades them, uses them to make more copies of itself, and then destroys them. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of your CD4 cells that your body can’t fight infections and diseases anymore. When that happens, HIV infection can lead to AIDS. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromeis the final stage of HIV infection. People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems, which put them at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs).

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You will be diagnosed with AIDS if you have one or more specific OIs, certain cancers, or a very low number of CD4 cells. If you have AIDS, you will need medical intervention and treatment to prevent death. Bacterial vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the name of a condition in women where the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria. It is sometimes accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age.

In the United States, BV is common in pregnant women. Chlamydia Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which can damage a woman’s reproductive organs. Even though symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent, serious complications that cause irreversible damage, including infertility, can occur “silently” before a woman ever recognizes a problem. Chlamydia also can cause discharge from the penis of an infected man. Chlamydia is the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States.

In 2008, 1,210,523 chlamydial infections were reported to CDC from 50 states and the District of Columbia. Under-reporting is substantial because most people with chlamydia are not aware of their infections and do not seek testing. Also, testing is not often done if patients are treated for their symptoms. An estimated 2,291,000 non-institutionalized U. S. civilians ages 14-39 are infected with C. trachomatis based on the U. S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Women are frequently re-infected if their sex partners are not treated.

Herpes. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2. Most individuals have no or only minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. When signs do occur, they typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum. The blisters break, leaving tender ulcers (sores) that may take two to four weeks to heal the first time they occur. Typically, another outbreak can appear weeks or months after the first, but it almost always is less severe and shorter than the first outbreak.

Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely, the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years. Results of a nationally representative study show that genital herpes infection is common in the United States. Nationwide, 16. 2%, or about one out of six, people 14 to 49 years of age have genital HSV-2 infection. Over the past decade, the percentage of Americans with genital herpes infection in the U. S. has remained stable. Genital HSV-2 infection is more common in women (approximately one out of five women 14 to 49 years of age) than in men (about one out of nine men 14 to 49 years of age).

Transmission from an infected male to his female partner is more likely than from an infected female to her male partner. Genital warts Genital warts are soft, wart-like growths on the skin and mucus membranes of the genitals in men and women. Genital warts are a type of sexually transmitted infection (STI). The virus that causes genital warts is called human papilloma virus (HPV). More than 70 different types of HPV exist. Several types of HPV cause genital warts, which may be found on the penis, vulva, urethra, vagina, cervix, larynx, and around and in the anus.

Other types of HPV cause common or flat warts on other parts of the skin, such as the hands. However, warts on the hands or other parts of the body do not cause genital warts. HPV infection around the genitals is common, although most people have no symptoms. Even if you do NOT have symptoms, however, you must be treated to prevent complications and spreading the condition to others. How are teenagers affected and what are there sypmtoms ? HIV/AIDS •Many people do not develop symptoms after they first get infected with HIV. Others have a flu-like illness within several days to weeks after exposure to the virus.

They complain of fever, headache, tiredness, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. These symptoms usually disappear on their own within a few weeks. After that, the person feels normal and has no symptoms. This asymptomatic phase often lasts for years. •The progression of disease varies widely among individuals. This state may last from a few months to more than 10 years. ?During this period, the virus continues to multiply actively and infects and kills the cells of the immune system. ?The virus destroys the cells that are the primary infection fighters, a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells. Even though the person has no symptoms, he or she is contagious and can pass HIV to others through the routes listed above. AIDS is the later stage of HIV infection, when the body begins losing its ability to fight infections. Once the CD4 cell count falls low enough, an infected person is said to have AIDS. Sometimes, the diagnosis of AIDS is made because the person has unusual infections or cancers that show how weak the immune system is. •The infections that happen with AIDS are called opportunistic infections because they take advantage of the opportunity to infect a weakened host.

The infections include (but are not limited to) ?pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis, which causes wheezing; ?brain infection with toxoplasmosis which can cause trouble thinking or symptoms that mimic a stroke; ?widespread infection with a bacteria called MAC (mycobacterium avium complex) which can cause fever and weight loss; ?yeast infection of the swallowing tube (esophagus) which causes pain with swallowing; ?widespread diseases with certain fungi like histoplasmosis, which can cause fever, cough, anemia, and other problems. A weakened immune system can also lead to other unusual conditions: ?lymphoma in (a form of cancer of the lymphoid tissue) the brain, which can cause fever and trouble thinking; ?a cancer of the soft tissues called Kaposi’s sarcoma, which causes brown, reddish, or purple spots that develop on the skin or in the mouth. BACTERAL VAGNOSIS Women with BV may have an abnormal vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor. Some women report a strong fish-like odor, especially after intercourse. Discharge, if present, is usually white or gray; it can be thin.

Women with BV may also have burning during urination or itching around the outside of the vagina, or both. However, most women with BV report no signs or symptoms at all. Chlamydia Chlamydia is known as a “silent” disease because the majority of infected people have no symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure. In women, the bacteria initially infect the cervix and the urethra (urine canal). Women who have symptoms might have an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating.

If the infection spreads from the cervix to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry fertilized eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), some women still have no signs or symptoms; others have lower abdominal pain, low back pain, nausea, fever, pain during intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. Chlamydial infection of the cervix can spread to the rectum. Men with signs or symptoms might have a discharge from their penis or a burning sensation when urinating. Men might also have burning and itching around the opening of the penis.

Pain and swelling in the testicles are uncommon. Men or women who have receptive anal intercourse may acquire chlamydial infection in the rectum, which can cause rectal pain, discharge, or bleeding. Chlamydia can also be found in the throats of women and men having oral sex with an infected partner. Genital warts If symptoms do appear then the infected person may notice pinkish/white small lumps or larger cauliflower-shaped lumps on the genital area. Genital warts can appear on or around the penis, the scrotum, the thighs or the anus.

In women genital warts can develop around the vulva or inside the vagina and on the cervix. If a woman has warts on her cervix, this may cause slight bleeding or, very rarely, an unusual coloured vaginal discharge. Warts may occur singly or in groups. The warts may itch, but they are usually painless. Sometimes genital warts can be difficult to spot. In severe cases, it is possible for genital warts to spread from the genitals to the area around the anus, even if anal intercourse has not occurred.

Occasionally, people can confuse skin problems caused by other STDs (such as genital herpes, syphilis or molluscum) with genital warts. Other people may become very worried because they mistake perfectly normal and non-infectious lumps and bumps for genital warts. Conditions that may be confused with genital warts include: Pearly penile papules – small white or skin-coloured bumps that, when numerous, appear in a ring around the edge of the head of the penis.

More rarely, similar papules may be found on the vulva. Angiokeratomas – bright red or purple spots that look a little like blood blisters . Sebaceous glands (also known as ‘Fordyce spots’) – hard white, yellowish or skin-colored little bumps that may be found all over the skin of the penis and scrotum in men, and the vulva in women. Sebaceous glands produce a substance called sebum, which keeps the skin healthy. Pimples or spots – caused by blocked sebaceous glands.

Pimples and spots can form just as easily around the genital area as they do on the face, and may become sore and inflamed in a similar way. All of the above are common, non-infectious skin manifestations that are not sexually transmitted. Any doubt about lumps and bumps on the genitals can usually be resolved by a visit to a doctor or sexual health clinic Herpes The virus starts to multiply when it gets into the skin cells. The skin becomes red and sensitive, and soon afterward, one or more blisters or bumps appear.

The blisters first open, and then heal as new skin tissue forms. During a first outbreak, the area is usually painful and may itch, burn or tingle. Flu-like symptoms are also common. These include swollen glands, headache, muscle ache or fever. Herpes may also infect the urethra, and urinating may cause a burning sensation. People diagnosed with herpes can expect to have several, typically four or five, outbreaks within a year. As time passes, these recurrences usually decrease in frequency.

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