The whole physical anatomy of the human body is composed of muscles that actually give form and shape for the physiology of the body and support its mobility. This collection of muscles is collective known as the muscular system. Tissues that compose the muscles in the human body are also differentiated into three categories mainly based on their function and ability. The first of which are the cardiac muscles which is also known as the involuntary muscle. This concept is mainly because of the nature of the said muscle wherein its movement is beyond the control of the individual possessing it. This is mainly located in the cardiac area primarily the heart where it continuously functions without moments of rest.
The tissues of the said muscle have more developed mitochondria compare to the other muscle to support its continuous and enduring process. This is considered to be very much importance since it actually holds the primary life-support system of every individual. Second in the list is the skeletal muscle whose main function is for mobility and support. This type of muscle is voluntary wherein the person can control its movement. It is commonly located in adhesion with the skeletal system thus allowing movement control of the bones in the human body. Third is the smooth muscle which is also involuntary in nature. This is commonly found in the walls of the vital organs giving them support and aiding their movement for their specific functions (Adams, 2004; Simon, 2000).
All of the muscles in the human body regardless of their types share the same functional characteristics such as excitability, contractility, extensibility, and elasticity. These characteristics are mainly intended to aid their specific functions according to their types wherein some characteristics are mainly emphasized among the others. For example, smooth muscle whose main purpose is to aid movement is very elastic and extensible in nature so as to allow free movement. To actually perform movement, these muscles are generally excitable and contractible in their own shape and form to generate transition among the muscles.
Movement and transitions are actually generated in the human muscles through the sliding filament mechanism which is innate in the biological nature of the muscles. This mechanism is starts with nervous stimulation of to signal the muscle for movement and their necessary action. The stimulation will invoke repetitive and sequential relaxation and contraction in the muscle affecting the myosin and actin protein sheet to produce contraction. The sarcomere or the basic units of the muscle is composed of three different filaments namely the thick, thin and elastic, and different bands subdividing the said filaments into regions. The A-band is the region encompassed by two Z-lines in its ends and within it is a paler region known as the H-band. Within the H-band is M-line which actually disappears during muscle contraction. The I-band is the region beyond the A-band as divided by the Z-line which both contains thin and thick filaments. During muscle contraction, the A-band maintain its length while the I-band shorten thus with the shortened filament length, a muscular contraction is produce and collectively produces movement (Herzog, 2000).
At most cases during muscle contraction, homeostatic imbalance in the muscular aspect and its attributes leads to common problems such as cramps and lactic acid buildup. Common nature of homeostatic imbalance is the is insufficiency of water and salt leading to cramps and decreased perfusion and oxygenation leading to lactic acidosis or lactic acid buildup (Wood & Walker, 2003). This is it very much important to maintain the homeostatic balance in the muscular system by having enough rest, exercise, water, and minerals acquired through balanced nourishment.
Adams, Amy. The Muscular System – Human Body Systems. Greenwood Press. ISBN: 0313324034. 2004.
Herzog, W. Skeletal Muscle Mechanics: From Mechanism to Function. John Wiley & Sons. 1st Edition, ISBN: 0471492388. 2000.
Simon, Seymour. Muscles: Our Muscular System. HarperTrophy. New Edition, ISBN: 0688177204. 2000.
Wood, Elaine & Walker, Pamela. Understanding the Human Body – The Skeletal and Muscular System. Lucent Books. 1st Edition, ISBN: 1590183347. 2003.