Motivation – Chapter Summary
The chapter provides detailed analysis of motivation and its core principles. The author pays special attention to theories of motivation: Behavioral Learning Theory, Motivation and Human Needs, Attribution Theory, Self-Regulated Learning, and Expectancy Learning. The chapter also highlights such issues as whether motivation should be enhanced and promoted, how it is possible to achieve motivation and to make the primary focus, how to implement rewards systems, and how to make students motivated to learn. Apparent strength of the chapter is that it provides recommendation how to motivate students to study academic materials.
It is noted that motivation plays crucial role in teaching instructions and, therefore, it can be used to make every student want to study new materials. Nevertheless, the meaning of the term “motivation” is very slight to measure it. Actually, motivation depends on many factors: student’s personality, learning incentives, difficulty of tasks, teacher’s behavior and settings. In psychology motivation is defined as “an internal process that activates, guides, and maintains behavior over time”. Simply saying, motivation is stimulus to act and to perform certain tasks with the desire to be rewarded. Motivation influences desires and needs of a human.
Theories of motivation are of great importance because their aim is to explain the reasons why people feel motivated to act. Further, attention is paid to learning strategies. It is admitted that to motivate students one needs to make background and experience interrelated, to foster goal setting, and to use learning programs that make study relevant and easily understandable. The central idea is to provide all students with opportunities to “be recognized for learning”. Also the author recommends avoiding payment for attendance; instead, it is better to create friendly environment, and to introduce appreciation system for all students.