(Note: Underline “human”, “rhesus monkey”, “kangaroo”, “snapping turtle”, “bullfrog”, and “tuna” in the chart).
Number of amino acid differences between human and
Rhesus monkey = 1
Kangaroo = 10
Snapping turtle = 15
Bullfrog = 18
Tuna = 21
(Note: Put the information obtained in #2 inside their respective hexagons in the cladogram).
Yes. The data shows a pattern that confirms that organisms having fewer shared characteristics also have more amino acid differences. These two, independent types of data—shared anatomical features and amino acid differences—reveal the same pattern, indicating a fairly accurate measure of the organisms’ relationship.
Humans are more related to monkeys than ducks are related to chickens.
Yes. Three independent types of data showing the same pattern increase the certainty that the pattern of relatedness between the organisms is accurate.
The identical amino acid sequence for cytochrome-c in chickens and turkeys may be due to chickens and turkeys evolving from the same ancestor. They have the same amino acid sequence for cytochrome-c; however, they may not have identical sequences for other proteins, resulting to them to be of different species. Species is taxonomic group whose members can interbreed, which consequently, chickens and turkeys cannot do.
Based on the number of differences between amino acid sequences, chickens and turkeys are more closely related than Neurospora and Saccharomycetes are, implying that the birds have a more recent common ancestor than the fungi.
Cladograms depict inferred historical branching relationships and degrees of relatedness among organisms, including the relative time sequence in which their evolutionary lines branched off.