Mogul dynasty began after a successful invasion of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane’s descendants of India in 1300s. Started in 1500s, Babur named the new empire in India as Moghul (a Persian word for Mongol) after Genghis Khan’s lineage and ruled for a very short period of time.
Different dynasties had formed during the Mogul empire. Babur who successfully established the dynasty but died shortly after his conquest was the first king of the dynasty. His successor and son Akbar at age thirteen ruled for forty-nine years and was identified as the greatest and skillful ruler of the Mogul empire. Being an excellent leader, he made to expand his kingdom by uniting people from different tribes and religion; that even the Rajputs his enemies became his allies. Akbar even supported scholars, poets, artists, and architects regardless of religion or race as long as they were from Mogul empire.
Jahangir succeeded Akbar his father, though not achieved the greatness of wisdom of his father yet, Mogul empire expanded by conquering Mewar and Kangra. Jahangir remained faithful to the principles of fairness, tolerance, thrift, and compromise, which he learned from his father Akbar. His married to a Persian woman led to his defeat and death by his own son (Shah Jahan) who became his successor.
Aurangzeb (nicknamed “World Shaker”), the son of Shah Jahan, ruled with cruelty and brilliance. He seized the throne by force and ruled the empire in the same way. He imposed tax on non-Muslims and took away the rights of the Hindu nobles. His strict leadership made the Mongol empire to fall because of the rise of many rebellions. His attempts to conquer Deccan, his government became corrupt and weak that contributed to the loss of cultural brilliance of the Mogul.
Among the four great dynasties of the Mogul empire, the dynasty that has proven influential in the history of India today is the Auranzeb dynasty. India nowadays is divided by people who belonged to different religion and race. It was disunited during the first reign of Mogul yet they were unified and strengthened by Akbar and Jahangir scheme. Auranzeb being the last king of the dynasty caused these people to rise against the kingdom, such as the Sikhs and Marathas. The disintegration among the people, as well as the Western penetration of the economic activities of the region weakened gradually the Mogul empire.
Perry, Marvin (1988). A History of the World Revised edition. USA: Houghton Mifflin Company.