“Motivating the employee of current situations requires a well developed organization vision, with a vibrant leadership and a refined human resource development team to execute staff supervision. With the short-lived reward and punishment system or ‘carrot and stick’ tactic to management, there arises a need for understanding the motivational strategies, which would work with employees,” says Harper,1991. Hence, motivation becomes an important function, which a manager has to perform for getting things done from his employees.
Manager’s orders carry no meaning unless they are effectively followed and implemented by their subordinates. The subordinates shall follow these instructions only if they are both able and willing to do the task. The purpose of motivation is to create conditions in which people are willing to work with zeal, initiative, interest and enthusiasm so that the goals of an organization are achieved effectively. According to Steers and Porter, motivation is, “The force that energizes behavior, gives direction to behavior and underlines the tendency to persist. Motivation is a complex task because the factors that motivate an individual to work are themselves very complex and complicated. Financial incentives maybe important for one worker while non-financial incentives may be important for others. The manager must therefore, be well equipped in the skills of determining as to what motivates the human behavior. In fact, motivation is an aspect of management where managers themselves need to be trained before they motivate their subordinates to execute the organizational tasks as per their orders and direction.
However, if people are motivated by themselves, then it is easier to the increase organization’s ability to compete. Culture as Motivational strategy The culture serves as most influential motivating strategy. The culture helps the employees to understand their role in the organization and the expectations of the management from them. It also helps in identifying the member’s attitude and actions regarding tasks, role, people, power and change. By understanding the culture of an organization, the employee would be able to resolve the internal problems and analyze the external challenges.
Hence, when culture of an organization is obvious and easy approachable then it serves as an eminent motivational strategy. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Strategies Prior to 1980, most of the organizations where following Extrinsic factors to motivate the employees. The situation of the current organizations would need both Intrinsic and Extrinsic factors to achieve their goals. Intrinsic factors of motivation include self-esteem, expertness, triumph, job enrichment, self-discipline, challenge, and combined decision-making. Acknowledgment by peers and customers will also be a powerful motivating element.
Extrinsic motivating factors include performance-based hike in payment, financial and non-financial incentives, additional benefit, compliments and feedback, open discussions, performance management and incentives for group management. Motivating an employee with intrinsic factors will provide higher job satisfaction. In addition, innovative and creative job with advanced implication along with recognitions and rewards would also be an effective motivator. The current organizational conditions require such kind of motivation to improve the efficiency of its employees.
Generation of X and Y components McGregor a major theorist has applied the fundamental content of the theory of Maslow to leadership and management theory. Maslow believes there are two basic kinds of managers. He has categorized manager’s behavior in theory X and theory Y. Theory X (Type A) personality assumes employees as lazier, incapable of handling responsibilities, unreliable. They are generally negative personality. Whereas, the other type of manager, (Theory Y) assumes employees as a reliable personality and capable of handling responsibility with high level of motivation.
The important assumptions underlying the Theory X are the employee by nature is indolent and has inherent dislike for work; he will not work if possible. Dislike for work implies that employees need to be directed and controlled through active intervention by management. It also implies that they must be persuaded, rewarded, punished and threatened with sanctions so that they put in sufficient efforts for accomplishing organizational objectives. An average employee is inherently resistant to change and passive to organizational needs.
He lacks ambition, avoids responsibility and prefers to be led. The above assumption guide management behavior and thinking. There are managers who follow the “hard” approach involving coercion and threat (usually disguised), and close supervision and control in dealing with their subordinates. Management can even be “soft” attempting to direct by being permissive, i. e. , relationship-oriented and satisfying people’s immediate needs. Hard approach often leads to consequences like restriction of output, militant unionism, and antagonism and attempts to thwart management objectives.
However, this cannot be an efficient strategy as in long run this may create higher level of stress among the employees resulting in conflicts or abdication. Soft approach, on the other hand, may lead to indifferent performance and abdication of management in favor of harmony. Employee may, at times, develop the habit of expecting more and giving less. The fundamental opposition of theory X is that it is inadequate to consider the subject of motivation. It is acknowledged that satisfied need ceases to motivate any employee for further growth.
Since there exists hierarchy of needs, employee moves from satisfaction of lower needs to the satisfaction of higher needs. Once physiological and safety needs are satisfied, social needs, ego needs, and need for self-actualization respectively become the most important motivators. Management by direction and control (theory X), regardless of its hard or soft approach, is ineffective to motivate employee whose important needs are social and egoistic. Once lower order needs are satisfied, rewards, promises, incentives, or threats and correction the devices used by management under theory X, cease to motivate people.
Theory Y compensates the inadequacy created by the theory X. The manager (usually Type B personality) falls under Theory Y handles employees based on employees need. The important assumptions of theory Y are Employee is not inherently passive or resistant to organizational needs. Manager does not consider incentive, threat or external controls are not the only means of motivating people to work for organizational objectives. Manager assumes that the motivation, readiness to direct behavior towards organizational objectives, capacity for assuming responsibility are all present in the employees.
They are responsible for their own work objectives. Under proper organizational conditions and methods of operation, the employee would exercise self-control towards achieving his own goals and those of the organization. The fundamental implication of the Theory Y is that full advantage of the personal and professional potential of employees can be taken by motivating them to accept organizational objectives, more particularly when their physiological and safety needs are well satisfied.
Besides, it is also true that Theory Y makes use of all the motivation techniques that are precluded by theory X the socio-psychological restrains imposed by it. However, shifting to Theory Y from theory X would be a difficult task. In the view of above, Theory ‘Y’ is preferable. However, it has to be applied gradually. The basic problem in most of the organizations is that of securing commitment of workers to accomplish organizational goals. Worker’s commitment is directly related to the satisfaction of their needs.
Theory ‘Y’ places emphasis on the satisfaction of the needs of the workers and it does not rely heavily on the use of authority as an instrument of command and control. It assumes that workers exercise self-direction and self-control in the realization of the goals to which they feel themselves committed. Because of these reasons, Theory ‘Y’ is realistic and frequently used at different levels in most of the organization. Importance of motivation in an organization Modern organizations work through physical, financial and human resources. The utilization of physical and financial resources depends on the willingness of people to work.
Motivation enables people to convert physical and financial resources into useful products. It helps management to get the best of humans as well as non-human resources. Employee efficiency and productiveness can be improved with proper motivation. Also motivation enables employees to work enthusiastically. As we know, performance is a product of not merely ability to do task but willingness to do the same with zeal and enthusiasm. Motivation bridges the gap between the ability to work wholeheartedly, to increase the overall efficiency and output.
Thus, ultimately, helps in reducing the cost of operations. According to ken Blanchard, Ph. D. , author of one-minute manager and an expert in employee productivity, “timely feedback on the performance is one of the best motivational techniques. He says, many managers go wrong in providing feedback when an employee meddles up. He further adds instant feedbacks on the productive performance is highly effective than the criticisms. ” Motivation provides employee clarity about his career growth that is it help employee understand his goals very clearly.
It makes employees to move in a desired direction and earn rewards. In organizations where managers try to understand the need of employment and institute appropriate incentive systems, accomplishment of goals is very easy. If employees are not properly motivated, no useful, purpose can be served by planning, organizing and staffing functions. Motivation brings employee closer to the organization. The needs of employees are met through attractive rewards, promotional opportunities, etc. Employees begin to take more interest in organizational work. Their morale is high.
They begin to think that the enterprise belongs to them and the there is no difference between them and the interest of enterprise belongs to them and there is no difference between management and workers. Attractive motivational schemes satisfy the needs of employees. As a result, commitment to organizational work increases. Employees do their task loyally and enthusiastically. They are not tempted to leave the organization. This means reduced employee turnover. Further, satisfaction on the job means reduced absenteeism. Employees attend to their work regularly and sincerely to earn rewards.
The organization benefit because it is able to maintain a stable workforce. The skill and competence of employees continue to be available to the organization. This enhances the image of the firm and helps it to secure of competent people. Conclusion Thus, the success of an organization ultimately depends on how effectively managers are able to motivate their subordinates. Effective motivation succeeds not only in having an order accepted but also in gaining a determination to see that it is fulfilled efficiently and effectively. According to Allen, “poorly motivated people can nullify the soundest organization. ”