Management Of Risk In Shipping Construction Essay

Transporting industry is in a manner the first planetary industry that correlates states and continents. Harmonizing to the ( U.S Department of Transportation 2004 ) , “ transportation is critical to the state ‘s security, economic system and transit ” . In no uncertainty, the industry has enhanced economic development of maritime states worldwide. Brafelt and Larsson ( 2000 ) , indicated that the industry is extremely regulated with normative demands to guarantee well-designed and constructed ships as it has been recognised that the best manner of bettering safety at sea is by developing international ordinances that are followed by all transporting states from the mid nineteenth century onwards, and a figure of such pacts had been adopted as agencies of cut downing nautical incidents. Consequently, participants in the sector are of the chief concern and involvement that ships transporting their lading is safe within the context of every ocean trip ( i.e. certified to be seaworthy every bit good as guaranting safety of life of crews working onboard at every sea transitions ) . The diagram below illustrates the participant in the sector.

Fig. 1a Maritime Players

Basically, accidents occur at sea when they are less expected, taken for case major marine incidents such as the capsizing of the Herald of Free Enterprise, the fire onboard Scandinavian Star, the stranding of the Exxon Valdez and the going under of the Estonia have had profound consequence on the marine environment ; thereby doing the industry ‘s regulative organic structure ( International Maritime Organisation, IMO ) to gain that in malice of good found ships every bit good as certificated crews onboard, there is still something losing ( The Nautical Institute 1999 ) . Afterwards, surveies on how similar accidents may be prevented have been actively carried out at both national and international degrees ( Wang et al. 2004 ) .

Consequently, the UK Maritime & A ; Coastguard Agency ( MCA ) rapidly responded and in 1993 proposed to the International Maritime Organization ( IMO ) that formal safety appraisal should be applied to ships in order to guarantee a strategic control of safety and pollution bar ( MSA 1993 ; Sekimizu, 1997 and Wang 2001 ) after Lord Carver ‘s study on the probe of the capsizing of the “ Herald of Free Enterprise ” published in the U.K in 1992. Although, the surveies of ( Kristiansen 2005 ) , discussed for some clip whether basic economic mechanism could guarantee safer transportation. However, the industry is still faced either straight or indirectly with excessively many jeopardies ensuing into fatal or entire losingss, as a consequence of inappropriate attack to put on the line direction methodological analysiss in commercial transportation operation. Predominantly, accidents are the effects of extremely complex happenstances. And within the battalion of the causal factors, human mistakes play a dominant function. Therefore, how to show that human mistake has been reduced to allow degree “ Equally Low As Reasonably Operable ” ( ALARP ) is now a topical issue in the marine accident bar. Further to replying inquiries on ( ALARP ) in relation to cut downing human mistakes in transporting operation, hazard appraisal tools and techniques must to be applied through sensible quantitative approximates of the linkages in causal ironss taking to an accident affecting human mistake. Therefore, within the construction of this essay, recent maritime incidents at sea will be analysed with the incidents causal factors being discussed and critically evaluated in order to get at a step of their complexness, and besides seting frontward a proposal for bar of such nautical incidents from re-occurring in the hereafter within the commercial transportation industry.

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Background Report Outline

Prior to the direction of hazards in transportation, it is of import that there is a combined step of the opportunities of some peculiar event occurrence and the effects if it does happen. In this manner, hazard is defined as it involves both the designation of the happening and the likeliness that it will go on ( Chauvel 1997 ) . Harmonizing to ( Lopes 1987 ) ; technically, the word hazard refers to state of affairss in which a determination is made whose effects depend on the results of future events holding known chances. Indeed ( Kristiansen 2005 ) advocated that the theory of hazard bases cardinal in any treatment of safety. He farther went on and referenced to a given system or activity, thereby saying that the term ‘safety ‘ is largely used to depict the grade of freedom from danger and the hazard construct is a manner of measuring it. Subsequently, this is done by agencies of increasing the opportunities of successful action in the face of uncertainness through an betterment of the available information. Though, there is being of hazard in every organizational model. Apparently, the lone manner to pull off hazard efficaciously is for administrations to be good assured that a sensible best pattern of ( ALARP ) is applied within the strategic control of operations against hazards of any sort. Hence, ( HSE 2001 ) attack on tolerability of hazards model ( ToR ) – ( shown in Fig. 1b ) , applied hazard in a wide sense, and non merely including the hazards of injury ( i.e. single and social hazards ) , but besides the perceptual experience of jeopardies associated ethical and societal considerations ( “ social concerns ” ) , such as antipathy to big multiple-fatality accidents. Therefore spliting hazards into three subdivisions, viz. :

Unacceptable ; hazards regarded as unacceptable except in extraordinary fortunes ( such as wartime ) , whatever their benefits. Activities doing such hazards would be prohibited, or would hold to cut down the hazards whatever the cost.

Tolerable ; hazards that are tolerated in order to procure benefits. In this part, hazards are kept every bit low as moderately operable ( ALARP ) , by following decrease steps unless their load ( in footings of cost, attempt or clip ) is grossly disproportional to the decrease in hazard that they achieve.

Broadly acceptable ; hazards that most people regard as insignificant. Further action to cut down such hazards is non usually required ( HSE 2001 ) .

Fig. 1b Tolerability of Risk Framework ( ToR )

( Beginning: HSE 2001 )

Harmonizing to the UK Maritime Accident Investigation Bureau ( MAIB 2000 ) , it is apparent that over 80 % of most nautical incidents occurred as a consequence of human mistakes originated from organizational based mistakes, vas ‘s categorization system or as a consequence of vas ‘s regulative model. With an rating ( Rassmussen 1997 ) compared with accident records as quickly guided attending to the human-machine interface jobs, and hence forced it to come in the sphere of human mistake analysis, operator modeling, and show design, affecting besides psychological competency ; ( Moore and Roberts 1995 ) from history of transportation, it is obligatory that ship crews must be good certificated before traveling to sea, and which ship-owners and operators have non been concentrating on the regulative demands that certify their ability to safely pull off the operation of their ships. However, in the reappraisal of ( Perrow 1999 ) , it was indicated that the mistake bring oning character of the system in transporting prevarications in the societal organisation of the forces onboard, economic force per unit area, the construction of the industry, insurance and troubles in international ordinances. Undoubtedly, ( Fang et al. 2004 ) confirmed that in order to better and advance maritime safety, the adopted Formal safety appraisal ( FSA ) by the IMO was introduced to the Marine industry and set it into usage, and members were asked to be actively involved in the research on ship safety. In the twelvemonth 2009, the one-year study on the accident probes by the MAIB gratefully confirmed that the figure of nautical human deaths has remained low, and the figure of hurts to crew has shown a important decrease.

Presently, within the model of the IMO, International Safety Management Code ( ISM Code ) , Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for mariners 1995 ( STCW’95 ) , International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships ( MARPOL 73/78 ) , International convention for Safety of Life at Sea ( SOLAS 74 ) and ISO 9001:2000 criterions are being put frontward as techniques associating to accomplishing nautical safety, hazard and crisis direction within the industry.

The context of Safety Regulatory in Transporting

Soon within the IMO ; a broad-based, long-run attempt affecting non merely the Marine Safety Committee ( MSC ) and Marine Environmental Protection Committee ( MEPC ) , but all of its proficient subcommittees ( 11 subcommittees in all ) , in which about all undertakings and developments are being examined in a “ human factors ” visible radiation ( Moore and Roberts 1995 ) . Surely, the program has by now produced the ISM Code for the safe operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention at big. The ISM Code Section 1.2.2: – stated “ Safety direction aims of every transportation company should, bury alia:

Provide for safe patterns in ship operation and safe working environment ;

Establish precautions against all identified hazards ; and

Continuously better safety-management accomplishments of forces ashore and on board ships, including fixing for exigencies related to both safety and environmental protection ” ( IMO 2002 ) .

However, the adopted Formal Safety Assessment ( FSA ) by the IMO has proved to be a systematic formal and incorporate appraisal attack towards accomplishment of maritime safety ( Hu et al. 2006 ) . The FSA can be used as a tool to better the steps and ordinances or to do new 1s on the footing of analysis of current ship design and technology techniques, ship ‘s operation and control, criterions and ordinances of safe direction, together with the combination of the realistic demands ( Hu et al. 2006 and Wang 2001 ) . But in position of ( Trbojevis and Carr 2000 ) , while design criterions and proficient solutions have improved, major accidents continue to happen as a map of failure in the Safety Management System ( SMS ) of some administrations. From their surveies, the analysis of the implicit in causes of failure are progressively viewed as arising non in the failure of the frontline proficient and human control system, but in the safety direction patterns which are supposed to maintain them in topographic point. They farther stated the chief aims of a good SMS which provides an confidence that: I. ) hazards are identified and evaluated, ii. ) Suitable controls are in topographic point to pull off these hazards, and iii. ) Line direction has duty for those undertakings that guarantee controls are effectual at all times. Besides, the Health and Safety at Work Act ( HSWA 1974 ) , besides gave a foundation for offshore safety ordinances on the UK Continental Shelf ( UKCS ) . The Act imposes on every employer a responsibility “ to guarantee, so far as is moderately operable, the wellness, safety and public assistance at work of all their employees ” and “ to carry on his set abouting in such a manner as to guarantee, so far as is moderately operable, that individuals non in their employment who may be affected thereby are non exposed to hazards to their wellness and safety ” ( HSE 2001 ) .

The procedure of Risk Management in Transporting

Hazard Management ( RM ) is an iterative procedure with the purposes of alarming hazard degrees, doing determinations about accepting or changing hazards every bit good as curtailing and keeping hazards within tolerable bounds at proportionate cost ( HSE 2001 ) . Undeniably, it is basically a learning procedure ; hence, its success is finally seen to hold been demonstrated through an effectual response to incidents ( Kristiansen 2005 ) . On one manus, ( HSE 2001 ) asserted that RM is the procedure of choosing appropriate hazard decrease steps and implementing them in the ongoing direction of the activity. On the other manus ( FreightMetrics 2003 p.4 ) , argued that RM does non needfully connote hazard decrease. In fact, its aim is NOT to cut down hazard, but more significantly to quantify and command hazard. Further to ( FreightMetrics 2003 ) , RM is a three-step procedure, viz. :

Hazard Modeling: Identifying the underlying hazard factor and patterning their kineticss,

Hazard Measurement: Quantifying the impact of hazard factors on fiscal consequences.

Hazard Management: Controling hazard with risk-informed determination devising.

As a consequence, the attack to measuring hazard is another modern-day issue within the direction ( FreightMetrics 2003 p.4 ) . On one manus ( Trbojevis and Carr 2000 ) , hazards can be qualitatively assessed by the usage of a hazard matrix. This typical matrix has rows stand foring increasing badness of effects of a released jeopardy and columns stand foring increasing likeliness of these effects. ( See Fig. 1b )

Fig.1c Risk Matrix

Beginning: ( Trbojevis and Carr 2000 )

Subsequently, ( HSE 2001 ) asserted that hazard appraisal can outdo be applied in three attacks described as Qualitative, Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative methods. In add-on, this aimed at hazard decrease and the cardinal trial is one of sensible practicableness, therefore, it is up to the undertaking director to make up one’s mind on the appropriate attack for the occupation. These attacks is shown in ( Fig. 1d )

Fig. 1d Risk Assessment Approaches

( Beginning: HSE 2001 )

Brafelt and Larsson ( 2000 ) affirmed that even though equal safety criterions and environmental protection is a civilization in many companies but this, by itself, is non plenty. Furthermore, good safety direction requires a committedness through all degrees of a company ‘s hierarchy and effectual communicating channels between the direction ashore and those on board ship are a requirement of safe operations. Therefore, in decision to accomplishing effectual RM, it is imperative to Think THE UNTHINKABLE! as stated by “ Murphy ‘s Law ” ; anything which can travel incorrect will travel incorrect! ” Therefore, invention is required to derive competitory advantage in RM and it is besides advisable for every member of staff in the administration be actively involve and take portion in the hazard direction procedure.

Chapter 2

MANAGEMENT OF COMMERCIAL AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF SHIPPING OPERATION

Concept of Management in Commercial Transportation

With mention to the surveies of ( Gatfield 1999 ) , it was affirmed that the commercial transportation companies have traditionally been really conservative. In add-on, the industry is long-established to be of a bad and as such should be actively engaged in the direction of hazard in order to cut down to minimum the figure of incidents which both threaten the safety and protection of our environment. At the minute, all transportation companies have been made aware of the demand for hazard direction and eventuality planning at considerable times ( Thai and Grewal 2006 ) . In relation to the surveies of ( Celik et al. 2007 ) , the influences of rapid alterations in assorted parametric quantities such as engineering, hazards, policies, and schemes in competitory market conditions have been caused to seek new attacks in footings of direction procedures at transporting companies in order to carry through the sustainable development in nautical transit industry. Harmonizing to ( Hetherington et al. 2006 ) , it is affirmed that there have been new betterments in some ships design and navigational AIDSs which have reduced the frequence and badness of transporting incidents ; however, the decrease of failures in engineering has revealed the underlying degree of influence of human mistake in accident causing. In contemplation of this, recent research surveies on effects nautical hazard attack made it apparent that human mistake is the primary beginning of most incidents at sea ( MAIB 2009 ) .

Requirements for Entire Management of Safety in operation

In position of the surveies of ( Goulielmos et al. 2008 ) , safety is a great analogy for understanding quality ; in fact, everything about safety relates to the absolutes of quality direction. Subsequent to the fact that theories of houses are conceptualisations and theoretical accounts of concern endeavors which explains and predicts their constructions and behaviors ( Grant 1996 ) ; ( Machlup 1967 ) , stated that every “ theory of the house ” is an abstraction of the real-world concern endeavor which is designed to turn to a peculiar set of its features and behaviors. Harmonizing to ( Chauvel 1997 ) , quality must go the basis of a civilization that will unify the forces ; and holding learnt the virtue to work decently, they will desire to make so. However, comparative to the surveies of ( Cooper and Phillips 1995 p.3 ) quality in transportation is presented within the context of TQM as “ a ship direction doctrine, for the ship-owner and captain, trying to associate ship service quality to charterers ‘ satisfaction, by commiting planned and uninterrupted quality betterment ” . In position of ( Ross 1993 ) TQM is an incorporate direction doctrine and set of patterns that emphasizes, among other things, uninterrupted betterment, run intoing clients ‘ demands, cut downing rework, long-range thought, increased employee engagement and teamwork, procedure redesign, competitory benchmarking, team-based problem-solving, changeless measuring of consequences, and closer relationships with providers. Basically, every merchandiser transportation companies requires competent staff to depute occupation duties. On the long tally, to accomplish entire direction control of the commercial and safety facets of transportation operation, the effectivity of services must be determined by their safety facet ( Goulielmos et al. 2008 ) . This includes ; execution of Safety policy in TSM, conformity with ISM Codes and Safety Management criterions ( SMS ‘s ) , and besides rehearsing good ship Safety Culture within the administration. Further to their surveies ( Goulielmos et al. 2008 ) , the concluding comment indicated that despite the similarities acknowledged in the procedure and techniques involved while endeavoring for safety and endeavoring for quality, and holding ‘injected ‘ safety direction with the values and patterns of TQM, bookmans and practicians have produced a much-improved version of a direction attack, ( i.e. that of TSM ) . In no uncertainty ( Cooper and Phillips 1995 ) advocated that TSM is thought to bring forth betterments in all countries of an administration ‘s operation, including quality. Furthermore, the construct of TSM was argued and declared as a direction scheme that provides “ a focal point on safety and offers a realistic manner frontward at less cost and confusion ” . In support of this fact ( Chauvel 1997 ) affirmed it is imperative for the commercial transportation companies to implement the undermentioned aims in order to accomplish entire direction:

Policy statement ; this is done by specifying the direction public presentation criterion every bit good as incorporating the statement inside the company policy.

Personnel orientation ; this goes by to briefing direction staff on the programme construct and purpose every bit good as obtaining their committedness to the programme.

Progression of forces career through preparation ; this has to be in line with their aspirations and possible to heighten the work-force expeditiously, and maintaining it so throughout the technological developments needed to better quality end product.

Management engagement ; this is done by puting a good illustration from top direction staff downward.

Quality betterment programme ; this clarifies that everyone that every member of staff of within the administration have to strife towards error-free public presentation.

Quality betterment commission ; by implementing this aim, it helps to develop and steer the quality betterment attempt to decide systems jobs adversely impacting direction and service quality.

Quality measuring ; this goes by supplying timely information on the current and possible non-conformities in a mode that permits nonsubjective rating and disciplinary action.

Mistake cause designation ; this nonsubjective provides forces with a vehicle for pass oning mistakes and job state of affairss to senior direction for action.

Aims ; this engages all forces in a uninterrupted quality programme to better the planetary public presentation of the company.

Corrective action ; this provides a systematic method of for good deciding jobs on a timely footing.

Quality cost control ; this helps in quantifying the cost of mistake and the cost of activities necessary to forestall, appraise and redress mistake as a agency of cut downing the entire cost.

The consequences of pragmatically practising the declared aims stated in ( Chauvel 1997 ) , will in no uncertainty heighten TSM every bit good as TQM within the commercial transportation companies.

Hazard and Crisis Management techniques and Organisational Failure

Harmonizing to ( Harrald, Marcus and Wallace 1990 ) “ Crisis Management ” involves appraisal of hazards, finding the manner to accomplish the lowest possible ( or an acceptable ) degree of hazard, set uping systems and processs to keep the system at an acceptable degree, fixing ( eventuality be aftering ) to cover with possible events, and pull offing response organisations and actions whenever accident occurs. Subsequently, ( Borodzicz 2005 ) indicated how risk happening should be perceived or managed ; in the context of his position, these could be centred on communicating, systemic or cultural, risk homeostasis and socio-technical or isomorphous attacks. A state of affairs whereby these stated attacks are non punctually practised will ensue into defects within the administration ‘s direction systems and thereby presenting the likeliness accident happening. A really good illustration of related nautical accident that showed defects in “ safety civilization ” is that instance of the capsizing of “ Herald of Free Enterprise ” ( HFE ) dated 6th March 1987 as critically evaluated by ( Goulielmos and Goulielmos 2005 ) . Further illustration was noted from the analysis of the hit of two ferries traversing Dover “ Diamant ” and “ Northern Merchant ” . From the analysis of the findings, ( Barnett n.d ) pointed out that if an administration ‘s shore-based direction squad pays “ lip service ” to its ain operating policies and processs by neglecting to implement good safety civilization on the vass and, at the same clip, tacitly accepts or wagess aberrant behavior, so the single officers onboard will follow a similar cultural attitude. More significantly to the analysis of the findings that followed the capsize of HFE ( Goulielmos and Goulielmos 2005 p.484 ) advocated that direction of the administration failed from Board of Directors down to immature directors as they did non gauge decently their duty and their exact responsibilities for guaranting the safe direction of their ships. Further to this, it is obvious that they lacked proper consideration about the administration of the HFE for the Dover-Zeebrugge crossing. Hence, with mention to ( HSE 2001 ) , the techniques applicable to Risk and Crisis Management within commercial transportation companies can be summarised as follows:

Hazard Identification ( HAZID )

Hazard and Operability ( HAZOP )

Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis ( FMECA )

A structured what-if checklist technique ( SWIFT )

Hazard Identification

Harmonizing to ( HSE 2001 ) , “ jeopardy ” is defined as a state of affairs with possible for doing injury to human safety. In most instances it appeared to be physical. Thus “ Hazard Identification ” ( HAZID ) is defined as a qualitative exercising chiefly based on adept opinion of placing jeopardies, and forms the indispensable first measure of a hazard appraisal ( HSE 2001 ) . Further to this, accent on two chief intents for placing jeopardies was given. First, to obtain a list of jeopardies for subsequent rating utilizing other hazard appraisal techniques ; secondly, to execute a qualitative rating of the significance of the jeopardies and the steps for cut downing the hazards from them. With mention to ( Fig. 1d ) in page 8 of this essay, it is apparent that HAZID is an indispensable constituent of all hazard surveies ( HSE 2001 ) .

Hazard and Operability ( HAZOP )

Harmonizing to the ( Lloyd ‘s Register 2008 ) , HAZOP is a survey design with reappraisal technique normally used for hazard designation, and for the designation of design lacks which may give rise to operability jobs largely within the offshore industry. Furthermore, it uses guide words consistently to place divergences from normal conditions to be farther examined by skilled forces.

Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis ( FMECA )

Harmonizing to ( HSE 2001 ) , FEMCA is a systematic method of placing the failure manners of a mechanical or electrical system. As being a component-level reappraisal of a design, placing failure manners and their effects, ( Lloyd ‘s Register 2008 ) asserted that each failure is later analysed to find if it would be detected by the user/operator before doing an incident or harm or whether extenuation controls are in topographic point to forestall harm, escalation, etc.

A structured what-if checklist technique ( SWIFT )

With mention to ( Lloyd ‘s Register 2008 ) , a structured what-if checklist ( SWIFT ) is similar to HAZOP. Merely that SWIFT uses pertinent divergences from normal operation, brainstormed by the squad for a figure of inquiry classs. Furthermore, SWIFT survey will see a system as a whole or in larger subdivisions than HAZOP and can be up to three times more clip efficient than HAZOP.

Chapter 3

Probe OF RECENT MARITIME INCIDENTS

Background

Sing the IMO ‘s perceptual experience on “ safety civilization ” , ( Havold 2010 ) advocated that an administration with a good “ safety civilization ” is the 1 that gives appropriate precedence to safety and realizes that safety must be managed in the same manner as other countries of the concern. Therefore, inappropriate organizational attack to “ safety civilization ” will in no uncertainty consequence into defects within the direction system every bit good as giving rise to likeliness of accident happening. From the recent studies by the MAIB, UK on maritime incidents 2010, three out of these most recent lists of maritime accidents shall be analysed and discussed in this essay for the intent of placing the causal factor of the accident.

Table1. Merchant vessel Investigation studies 2010

Vessel name

Vessel type

Accident type

Accident day of the month

Bro Arthur

( No 9/2010 )

Oil/Chemical

Oil tanker

Fatality of a shore worker in No.2 lading armored combat vehicle while alongside at Cargill Terminal, Hamburg

19-02-2010

Ever Elite

( No 8/2010 )

Container

vas

Uncontrolled descent of an adjustment ladder while the vas was in San Francisco Bay, ensuing in one human death

10-09-2009

Saetta/Conger

( No 3/2010 )

Merchant Oil tankers

Collision between meitnerium Saetta and mt Conger on completion of a ship to transport reassign 9.5 stat mis south east of Southwold, UK

10-08-2009

( Beginning: MAIB 2010 )

Accident instance study 1 “ Fatality of a shore worker in cargo-tank No.2 onboard Oil/Chemical oiler Bro Arthur while aboard Cargill Terminal, Hamburg, Germany ” ( MAIB Report No 9/2010 ) .

Context of the Incident

At approximately 2258hrs on 19 February 2010, onboard oil/chemical oiler Bro Arthur while aboard Cargill Terminal, Hamburg. One out of the hired squad of three German shore workers arranged to “ brush ” lading residue in No.2 lading of the vas fell to the underside of the armored combat vehicle while go outing on completion of the “ sweeping ” operation, he was fatally injured and subsequently died.

However, from the post-mortem toxicology study, it was identified that the casualty was under the influence of assortment of prescription and illegal drugs which would caused terrible damage. Nevertheless, grounds suggests that he fell from the slippery perpendicular ladder of the No.2 lading armored combat vehicle as a consequence of safety harness or autumn arrestor non being provided by the vas. Within the context of the accident, the MAIB probe study listed 14 safety issues that must hold contributed to this fatal incident ( MAIB 2010 p.42-44 ) .

Analysis of the state of affairs

The incident occurred as a consequence of inappropriate organizational construction of SMS pattern within Bro Arthur ‘s regulative model. Hence, the safety civilization is defective with issues related to superficial hazard appraisals and insufficiency of safety equipments carried onboard ( i.e. deficient Personal Protective Equipments ( PPE ) , and communicating appliances ) .

This incident besides indicated that forces onboard have no sailing experience on oil/chemical oiler, although they are experient mariners. Therefore ; they non familiar with lading armored combat vehicle cleansing processs onboard oil oilers, holding in head the importance of safety harness, PPE, how to utilize safety recovery equipment every bit good as a designated ship officer to supervise the No.2 lading armored combat vehicle cleaning procedure.

The direction of the vas ‘s operating company has non monitored the vas ‘s SMS patterns consequently. It appeared that crews ‘ exigency drills were scheduled last in August 2008. Indeed, no safety drill is being scheduled for the twelvemonth 2009 or for 2010. As a affair of fact, crew acquaintance with casualty recovery equipment during exigency drills would hold improved the opportunities of lasting the injured individual.

Accident instance study 2 “ Uncontrolled descent of M/V Ever Elite ‘s adjustment ladder while she was underway in San Francisco Bay, ensuing in one human death ” . ( MAIB Report No 8/2010 ) .

Context of the Incident

At approximately 0505hrs on the 10th of September 2009, an able mariner from a UK registered container ship Ever Elite drowned in San Francisco Bay, while the vas was nearing Oakland container terminus in California subsequent to breakage of the lower subdivision of the adjustment ladder he was standing on after the hoist gear box failed and he fell into the H2O and drowned because he did non utilize either fall arrestor or lifejacket. However, the able mariner ‘s organic structure was spotted by an attach toing jerk after the accident occurred and was recovered onto a pilot launch.

With mention to UK MCA publication ( COSWP p.1 ) , subdivision 1: stated that all working onboard should be cognizant of their responsibilities and the rules regulating the counsel on safe pattern which they are required to follow. Thus, set uping the adjustment ladder without ( PPE, autumn arrestor and lifejacket ) while the vas is underway was unnecessarily risky ; accordingly, a safe system of work has non been developed for the fact that no responsibility officer was present at the scene ( MAIB 2010 ) . From the probes conducted ( MAIB 2010 ) listed 14 safety issues that must hold contributed to this fatal incident ( MAIB 2010 p.47-48 ) .

Analysis of the state of affairs

From the analysis of this state of affairs, it appeared similar to the old ( Bro Arthur ) in footings of inappropriate Safety Management System pattern onboard. With all indicants, the figure of lacks identified onboard the Ever Elite refering safety direction and planned care systems, safety equipment, and exigency response casts uncertainty on the safety civilization underpinning the vas ‘s operation ( subdivisions 2.7 ; 2.8, MAIB 2010 p.45-46 ) . However, the accident is seen to hold been caused by the onboard forces “ Safety Culture ” because they are non accustomed to the relevancy of safety equipments as a consequence of the deficiency of regular safety drills. Had the vas conducted regular and realistic man-over-board drills and developed ship-specific checklists, the likeliness of these actions and the demand to salvage the information on the VDR being overlooked, would hold been reduced significantly ( Section 2.7 MAIB 2010 ) .

In add-on, the direction of the vas ‘s operating company played a function in the accident because they failed to supply onboard Ever Elite safety equipments that meets the UK regulative demands. From the probe of ( MAIB 2010 ) , safety harness, autumn arrestors and lifejacket found onboard the Ever Elite would non hold achieved the purposes of safety harness ( i.e. to understate the hazard of hazard of hurt to the wearer by suspending them in an unsloped place thereby guaranting their safe recovery ) but instead cause than to forestall hurt of the wearer.

Accident instance study 3 “ Collision between mt Saetta and mt Conger on completion of a ship to transport reassign 9.5 stat mis south east of Southwold, UK ” ( MAIB Report No 3/2010 ) .

Context of the accident

At approximately 1342hrs on the 10th of August 2009, a hit incident occurred during unmooring maneuvering between a Marshall Islands ‘ registered oiler “ mt Conger ” and a Grecian registered oiler “ mt Saetta ” on completion of a ship to transport ( STS ) transportation operation off Southwold, Suffolk, UK. Subsequent to the reappraisals after the accident, it was noted that the accident occurred as a consequence of “ mt Conger ” chief engine failure. However, no human death was recorded from this accident, merely that “ mt Saetta ” starboard lifeboat and davit were badly damaged while no harm was noticed on “ mt Conger ” except minor pigment abrasions on her bow. Subsequently, the MAIB ( 2010 ) listed 8 safety issues that must hold contributed to this fatal incident

Analysis of the accident

From the analysis of the incident by the ( MAIB 2010 p.26-30 ) . It was observed that the incident occurred as a consequence of the failure to implement good pattern of communicating linguistic communication by the two direction of the vass ‘ operating companies ( CARDIFF MARINE INC. and PRIME MARINE MANAGEMENT ) onboard mt Saetta and mt Conger severally.

The Superintendent on meitnerium Conger did non brief the unmooring operation and going tactics decently to the maestro of meitnerium Saetta alternatively he said to him face to confront on the span wings and with a note indicating that the manoeuvring would be conducted in a similar manner to the old STS transportation with New Challenge, therefore bespeaking over trust on checklists.

From the study, it is obvious that the vas ‘s regulative organic structures has no occupational criterions defined for the Overseers or Masterss in control of STS operations ( Section 2.8 MAIB 2010 ) .

The study besides indicated that inordinate duties of a Superintendent in STS operations are another factor that must hold contributed to the hit. Although, the Superintendent is experienced and with all indicants must hold been fatigued owing less rest clip, but he claimed he is all right.

Proposal for bar of future happening of analysed accidents

Mention LISTS

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hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” id=xFc1oeDgOZ0CHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” oi=fndHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” pg=PA255HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+riskHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” ots=MU-kDwmW8jHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepageHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? hl=en & A ; lr= & A ; id=xFc1oeDgOZ0C & A ; oi=fnd & A ; pg=PA255 & A ; dq=between+hope+and+fear: +psychology+of+risk & A ; ots=MU-kDwmW8j & A ; sig=95EKP7I8OV42vfjkoadhyIZdldU # v=onepage & A ; q=between hope and fright: psychological science of hazard & A ; f=false ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? 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_ob=MImg & A ; _imagekey=B6VF9-3SWSK2N-8-1 & A ; _cdi=6005 & A ; _user=9492273 & A ; _pii=S0925753597000520 & A ; _orig= & A ; _coverDate=12/31/1997 & A ; _sk=999729997 & A ; view=c & A ; wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzk & A ; md5=91e9123267a54045ff2184975849075d & A ; ie=/sdarticle.pdf ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=MImg & A ; _imagekey=B6VF9-3SWSK2N-8-1 & A ; _cdi=6005 & A ; _user=9492273 & A ; _pii=S0925753597000520 & A ; _orig= & A ; _coverDate=12/31/1997 & A ; _sk=999729997 & A ; view=c & A ; wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzk & A ; md5=91e9123267a54045ff2184975849075d & A ; ie=/sdarticle.pdf ” _pii=S0925753597000520HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=MImg & A ; _imagekey=B6VF9-3SWSK2N-8-1 & A ; _cdi=6005 & A ; _user=9492273 & A ; _pii=S0925753597000520 & A ; _orig= & A ; _coverDate=12/31/1997 & A ; _sk=999729997 & A ; view=c & A ; wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzk & A ; md5=91e9123267a54045ff2184975849075d & A ; ie=/sdarticle.pdf ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com/science? 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_ob=MImg & A ; _imagekey=B6VF9-3SWSK2N-8-1 & A ; _cdi=6005 & A ; _user=9492273 & A ; _pii=S0925753597000520 & A ; _orig= & A ; _coverDate=12/31/1997 & A ; _sk=999729997 & A ; view=c & A ; wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzk & A ; md5=91e9123267a54045ff2184975849075d & A ; ie=/sdarticle.pdf ” & amp ; HYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=MImg & A ; _imagekey=B6VF9-3SWSK2N-8-1 & A ; _cdi=6005 & A ; _user=9492273 & A ; _pii=S0925753597000520 & A ; _orig= & A ; _coverDate=12/31/1997 & A ; _sk=999729997 & A ; view=c & A ; wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkzk & A ; md5=91e9123267a54045ff2184975849075d & A ; ie=/sdarticle.pdf ” view=cHYPERLINK “ hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=MImg & A ; _imagekey=B6VF9-3SWSK2N-8-1 & A ; _cdi=6005 & A ; _user=9492273 & A