It as millet and sorghum (10 g

It was considered that autoimmune diseases were rare but epidemiological studies shows that it affects 3–5% of the population. Among these, autoimmune thyroid disease and type I diabetes (T1D) are most common. However, there are nearly 100 distinct autoimmune diseases exists. some of them are organ speci?c such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Some of them show immunological malfunction involving multiple organs such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) 16

 

 

 

Background

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Increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD) such as obesity, allergies, autoimmune diseases over the last decades for unknown reasons. In Asia Pacific region NCD-related deaths rate is very high. Mortality rate is 55% of total life in the South East Asia region each year and 75% in the Western Pacific region 17. Such a rapid increase suggest that environmental factors are involved. In 2012, air pollution caused more than 6 million deaths from cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Other key environmental risk factors are second-hand tobacco smoke, exposure to chemicals, radiation and noise, and occupational risks. Evidence shows that early life exposure to risk factors like chemicals and air pollutants, might increase NCD risk throughout the life course 18 A major change in Western countries is the diet with the western diet being rich in fat, simple carbohydrate, low in dietary fibre and contains additive. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation 19. Such changes have been shown to affect not only the host but also the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota release metabolites impacting on host immunity and thus health. In a study it was reported that Italian children was having less beneficial gut microbiota compared to African children. Italian diet is composed of mainly proteins, animal fat, sugar-sweetened drinks, and refined carbohydrates (5.6 g fibres/day). On the other hand, African diet is rich in plant polysaccharides such as millet and sorghum (10 g fibres/day). Commensal bacteria love to consume complex carbohydrates and produce metabolites like butyrate, which downregulate the activation of proinflammatory NF-kB (Figure 2) 20.