The wrongful intrusion into a person’s private activities by other individuals or by the government. Tort law protects one’s private affairs with which the public has no concern against unwarranted exploitation or publicity that causes mental suffering or humiliation to the average person. The right to be left alone is not always superior to the rights of the public and it may or may not exist or may exist to a lesser degree with regard to the life of a public figure, such as a politician or other person in whom the public has a rightful interest..
The right to personal privacy is encompassed as an aspect of liberty protected against government interference by the Constitution’s dueprocess clause. Some of the personal decisions protected from unwarrantedgovernment interference include decisions relating to marriage, procreation, contraception, family relationships, child rearing, and education. -Dharun Ravi won’t be deported back to India for spying on his gay roommate with a webcam at Rutgers University two years ago, federal authorities say.
The 20-year-old former student was convicted on 15 counts, including invasion of privacy and bias intimidation, for watching Tyler Clementi kiss another man. Clementi killed himself by jumping off the George Washington Bridge a few days later. Ravi was sentenced to 30 days, but his lack of criminal record apparently saved him from deportation; in fact, he’s getting out tomorrow after just 20 days for good behavior. (http://www. newser. com/story/148375/student-wont-be-deported-for-spying-on-gay-roomie. html)
2. Virus. A virus (from the Latin virus meaning toxin or poison) is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the cells of other organisms. Viruses are too small to be seen directly with alight microscope. Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea.  Since the initial discovery of tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898,  about 5,000 viruses have been described in detail,  although there are millions of different types.
Viruses are found in almost every ecosystem on Earth and these minute structures are the most abundant type of biological entity. 5] The study of viruses is known as virology, asub-specialty of microbiology. Unlike prions and viroids, viruses consist of two or three parts: all viruses have genes made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic information ;all have a protein coat that protects these genes; and some have an envelope of fat that surrounds them when they are outside a cell. Viroids do not have a protein coat and prions contain no RNA or DNA. Viruses vary from simpl ehelica land icosahedral shapes, to more complex structures.
Most viruses are about one hundred times smaller than an average bacterium. The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution ,viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity Viruses spread in many ways; plant viruses are often transmitted from plant toplant by insects that feed onsap, such asaphids, while animal viruses can becarried byblood-suckinginsects.
These disease-bearing organisms are known asvectors. Influenza virusesare spread by coughing and sneezing. Thenorovirusandrotaviruses, common causes of viralgastroenteritis, are transmitted by thefaecal-oral routeand are passed from person to person by contact, entering the body infood or water. HIVis one of several viruses transmitted throughsexual contactor byexposure to infected blood. Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminatesthe infecting virus. These immune responses can also be produced byvaccines,which giveimmunityto specific viral infections.
However, some viruses including HIVand those causingviral hepatitisevade these immune responses and causechronic infections. Microorganisms also have defences against viral infection, such asrestriction modification systems. Antibioticshave no effect on viruses, but severalantiviral drugshave been developed. * Disruption that paralysed the computer networks of broadcasters and banks in South Korea appears to have been caused by a virus, an official close to the investigation has told the BBC. The official said it was believed a “malicious” code was to blame for the system failure.
He said investigators were trying to identify and analyse the virus. Last week, North Korea accused the US and its allies of attacks on its internet servers. In the latest incident, two South Korean banks, Shinhan Bank and Nonghyup, and three TV stations KBS, MBS and YTN, all reported that their networks had suddenly shut down on Wednesday afternoon. The BBC’s Lucy Williamson in Seoul says that, for one of the world’s most networked populations, South Korea has had more than its share of cyber attacks. North Korea has been blamed for several breaches over the past few years, she says.
Initially, South Korea’s Communications Commission suspected a cyber-attack. However, the BBC was later told that experts had concluded it was not a denial-of-service attack, of the kind South Korea has experienced in the past. (http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/world-asia-21855051) Copyright infringement Copyright infringement (or copyright violation) is the unauthorized or prohibited use of works covered by copyright law, in a way that violates one of the copyright owner’s exclusive rights, such as the right to reproduce or perform the copyrighted work, or to make derivative works.
For electronic and audio-visual media, unauthorized reproduction and distribution is also commonly referred to as piracy (an early reference was made by Daniel Defoe in 1703 when he said of his novel True-born Englishman : “Its being Printed again and again, by Pyrates. “) The practice of labeling the act of infringement as “piracy” actually predates copyright itself. Even prior to the 1709 enactment of the Statute of Anne, generally recognized as the first copyright law, theStationers’ Companyof London in 1557 received aRoyal Charter giving the company amonopolyon publication and tasking it with enforcing the charter.
Those whoviolated the charter were labeled pirates as early as 1603. The legal basis for this usage dates from the same era, and has beenconsistently applied until the present time. Critics of the use of the term “piracy” to describe such practices contend that it is pejorative and unfairly equates copyright infringement with more sinister activity, though courts often hold that under law the two terms are interchangeable. * Justin Bieber and Usher are being sued for at least ?6. 4 million in a copyright infringement case.
Two Virginia-based songwriters, Devin Copeland and Mareio Overton, claim the song ‘Somebody To Love’ contains numerous lyrical and stylistic similarities to a song of the same name that they wrote in 2008. The pair filed a lawsuit in federal court last Thursday (May 2), with the claim that numerous songwriters and producers conspired to copy their song. According to the lawsuit, Copeland and Overton’s song found its way into the hands of representatives of Usher who then passed it on to the singer’s mother, then serving as his manager.
It also contends that she then had a telephone conversation with Copeland in 2009. The complaint goes on to state videos of Usher performing a demo of ‘Somebody To Love’ on YouTube date back to as early as 2010. The song was later given to Bieber to record for his album ‘My World 2. 0’, with Usher providing backing vocals on the track. ‘Somebody To Love’ reached number 33 in the UK Official Singles Chart in 2010. Read more at http://www. nme. com/news/justin-bieber/70176#K0ZOu2zAOGCBxCvA. 99 Project in Ethics