IntroductionThe following is my assignment on question 3. I will examine four complexities of managing public services and I will discuss the respective challenges faced by public service managers in managing public services in Ireland. I will explain in more details below 4 of the many complexities and challenges that public sector managers have to overcome.Main SectionServicesOne of the major complexities facing any Public Service organisation is the requirement to provide services to the general public. This can be broken down into 4 categories.IntangibilityInseparableVariablePerishableWithin my current organisation, one of the challenges that managers have to deal with is how best to meet the needs of our many customers. We cater to customers who might be computer illiterate, suffer from serious disabilities, customers that would have limited or no English or customers who would prefer to communicate through Irish. It is vital that we provide a service that meets the requirements of all these customers.Time constraints are also a big challenge for managers. Our release dates for our products are publicized well in advance and within an agreed publication schedule. Managers are under enormous pressure to meet these deadlines. If these deadlines are not met, it would be an enormous blow to the organisation and would have a huge effect on our customers who include heads of Government and major national and international organisations. Managers have to deal with the pressure and consequences that come with that. Managers need to be mindful that the time pressures do not affect the quality of the service. Customers have a certain expectation that we can provide an answer or assist them in their query. As most of the interaction with customers is of a human nature, managers need to ensure that staff are provided and encouraged to partake in the necessary training. This ensures that staff have the skills and knowledge to carry out their role and provide a service that the customer expects.Size and ScaleAnother challenge that public service managers face is the scale and size of its customer base. We serve the entire population, therefore our services are available to all. This can result in managers spending a disproportionate amount of time dealing with customers, whose sole aim is to be as disrupting as possible. Another legacy issue is staff promoted solely on seniority. While it could be argued that this is the ideal situation for some acting up positions, for a person to be given a promotion on the basis of being the longest-serving member of staff is totally unfair. With the whole bureaucratic structure in place, this has caused long-term damage to the organisation and means that some of these people are effectively carried by the organisation.Due to the nature of the organisation, there is a need to redeploy staff on a continuous basis. Managers need to ensure that staff flexibility is a key part of their job and also to ensure that staff are trained in various roles so that they can easily take over another person’s role when required.DemographicsAnother key area to consider is demographics. The population of the state has increased (even during the recession) for every year since 1990 and in the last 10 years alone has increased by just under 10% (CSO, 2017 1). While the number of staff employed in my work division over the same 10 year period has shown a decrease. If you factor in an increased workload due to EU legislation, Codes of Practice 2 and the Public Service Reform Plan as well as a greater focus on promoting and publicising our services and products means all this has put extra demands on managers to manage staff and resources more efficiently.While the population is expected to continue to grow to between 5 million to 6.7 million by 2046 (CSO, Population Projections 3), worrying would be the age dependency levels are expected to increase from the current levels of 52.7% (CSO, Census 2016 4) up to as high as 82.4% in 2046 (CSO, Population Projections). If this projection is correct, it would mean close to 50% of the population could be in the aged 65 and over age bracket in 2046 5. This would result in an even greater demand for our services from organisations representing the elderly, disability and carers.Another consideration for managers is the funding coming directly from the exchequer. While the budget fluctuates for each division within the organisation, for an ever growing department with increased demands, the funding it receives from the Government hasn’t changed in the last 10 years and remains the same now in 2017, as it was in 2007, at an estimated 50 million euro (Department of Public Expenditure and Reform, 2017 6 & 7. This has meant managers have to be more careful and economic with any costs.PESTELThe final area I am covering is referred to as the PESTEL model. I will be focussing on the technology challenges that public sector managers need to keep pace with. One of the key challenges in my organisation is the need to develop our products to meet the demands of our customers. This means that managers need to be innovated and explore what systems and technologies are available to bring the organisation to the next level. This requires identifying and researching what technologies are suitable for the division. Finding out the challenges others faced and whether replicating similar products would be feasible. Cost, expertise and time have to be taken into account.Once agreement had been reached by the relevant stakeholders, Managers need to identify the most suitable staff, bearing in mind that these staff members could be the most suitable for other areas as well. Managers are required to train the relevant staff in different programming languages, get approval for new systems and hire external trainers to train staff when required. Managers are also required to promote the use social media, such as twitter and facebook. Finally, for internal IT applications, managers are to the forefront in assessing if existing technology is still fit for purpose. We need to consider whether to renew existing software licenses, upgrade to the latest versions or consider new technology.ConclusionIn conclusion, the above text examined some of the challenges faced by public sector managers in the public sector organisation I work in. This was broken down into 4 main areas, (a) services, (b) scale and size, (c) demographics & (d) PESTEL model. I hope I have highlighted some of the many challenges that public sector managers have to overcome in their current environment.