Introduction A virus is defined as an infective agent that consists of a nucleic acid molecule inside of a protein coat. Viruses cannot be seen by light microscopy because of their very small size..They require a host cell to replicate itself, due to it being non-living.First case of the West Nile Virus The West Nile Virus (WNV) had its first detection in Africa, it wasn’t anything major, but still, it confused scientists world wide. The first recorded case was in female in Uganda, Africa, 1937 when it was isolated from a feverish patient due to the West Nile Disease, which is caused by the West Nile Virus. The patient only showed a fever and not any of the other symptoms that are associated with the disease. According to this first case in Africa, the virus mainly was involved in the central nervous system.West nile virus in America The West Nile Virus made its way over to North America in 1999, in Queens, New York. There were eight cases recorded around the same time, all with in a sixteen mile radius of each other. The eight patients all got suddenly sick after engaging in outdoor activities. Seven out of the eight patients had developed severe acute flaccid paralysis in the presence of encephalitis. Originally, the researchers thought that the patients had an arthropod-borne virus encephalitis. This would soon be proven wrong after birds in the New York area were reported with the same symptoms as well. How it infects the human body The West Nile Virus, Phlebovirus Rift Valley fever virus and is in the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the family Flaviviridae. WNV is spread to humans by infected mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. Birds are natural hosts for the West Nile Virus, which makes it easy to pass on to humans. After a mosquito feeds on an infected bird, the virus circulates in their blood for a few days. This eventually leads to the virus getting into the mosquito’s salivary glands. When mosquitoes bite, the virus could be injected into humans and animals, which can cause the virus to multiply and become an illness. WNV can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals and their blood along with other tissues. There is no target age for this virus.Symptoms The symptoms for people infected with WNV only show in about 20% of people who have the virus. Those 20% show symptoms because the contracted the West Nile Fever, These patients suffer from high fevers, body and headaches, nausea, vomiting, sometimes a skin rash, and swollen lymph nodes. 80% of the people with WNV do not show signs. They will only start to show symptoms if their disease becomes severe, also known as a neuroinvasive disease. If the disease becomes severe, the patients will experience the normal symptoms as well as neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, and paralysis. Only one in one hundred fifty people with WNV experience those symptoms. The incubation period is usually three-fourteen days. This disease is fatal once it infects your brain.Entering the Central Nervous System WNV enters the central nervous system by multiple mechanisms which include axonal retrograde transport, along with peripheral neuron into the spinal cord, or hematogenous transport across the blood brain. The virus enters the central nervous system and travels up the spinal cord to reach the brain and cause brain inflammation, encephalitis. Detection and possible cures The West Nile Virus is detected with multiple different tests which include, virus isolation by cell culture, IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and viral detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. There are vaccines, but they only work on horses. There is no current vaccine for humans, only supportive treatment for patients with neuroinvasive WNV. The supportive treatment involves hospitalization, intravenous fluid, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. The way to prevent getting infected to ward off mosquitoes and to stay away from stranger’s blood.Conclusion The West Nile Virus cure/vaccination has come very far, but researchers still have so much to accomplish. Even though there has been extensive research on the virus itself, a vaccination still need to be made to protect the people of the world that are susceptible to the virus.
Introduction encephalitis. Originally, the researchers thought that
Analysis of IT Issues in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 EssayAnalysis of IT Issues in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 Essay
In 2002, the 107th Congress of the United States of America passed the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 which emphasizes the integration of Information Technology (IT) practices among corporate entities in
Movement and Space within “Portraits and Repetition,” by Gertrude Stein EssayMovement and Space within “Portraits and Repetition,” by Gertrude Stein Essay
Gertrude Steins’ “Portraits and Repetitions,” facilitates the paradigm of linguistic displacement between subject and listener delineated by the dynamic and effectual relationship of the interrelated, rhythmic patterns characterized by the
In virtually any field be it medicine, urban planning, law, or economics, students are always introduced to the Doctrine of Unintended Consequences. The field of Education is no exception. When