Singapore has a few power Stationss which rely on external imports of fossil fuel to bring forth electricity. Harmonizing to figure 1, electricity ingestion is Singapore has been on the rise and this is a prevalent concern as our state ‘s population is turning.
From figure 2, Singapore has the 2nd largest addition in electrical duties since 2005
1.2 Measures HDB has implemented
To get by with the increasing demand, HDB has been invariably seeking happen advanced ways to use energy expeditiously.
HDB Greenprint and Eco-Town
HDB is looking into different ways to conserve energy like developing Punggol as the first eco-town in Singapore to prove the new thoughts and engineerings. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //app.mewr.gov.sg/web/Contents/Contents.aspx? ContId=1713 ) The purpose is to develop and present effectual planning and constructs for occupants to follow eco-lifestyles. It besides aims to educate people to be portion of ‘go green ‘ attempts. ( HDB, 2010 ) Besides, the HDB Greenprint, a model of end and schemes to steer greener HDB town development and create sustainable places, that introduces the construct of green and sustainable life styles to other towns beyond Punggol. ( MND, 2012 ) . Solar panels and LED lightings will be implemented. The solar energy generated will be used to power lifts, illuming in common countries, and H2O pumps. ( Alphonsus, 2012 )
The standard for the steps include:
Clean signifier of energy
The following tabular array shows the three steps that we reviewed on
Benefits ( include potency )
Figure 4: Solar panels installed on the roof of a HDB block ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.flickr.com/photos/37684278 @ N08/3469848211/in/photostream )
does non take up land infinite ( Figure 3 ) .
harnesses sun ‘s energy, change overing it to electrical energy.
Cost effectual solutions to energy jobs in topographic points where there is no brinies electricity
Need to be placed at sites where there is sunlight for electricity to be generated.
Placement of the solar panels is constrained within certain specific topographic points.
Dependant on conditions and sunshine is merely available in the daytime.
Figure 5: Distribution of energy ingestion of a HDB block ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bri.sg/showcase/led-rd/ )
Installation of LED lightings has significantly help Town Councils lower their energy measures –
Lights wholly contribute to 50 % of energy ingestion in a HDB block ( Figure 5 )
High operating expense costs -have to buy LED in majority therefore doing LEDs expensive
utilizes expensive sapphire-based engineering which contributes to high costs of production
Figure 6: Water pumps
Have minimal decompression sicknesss and adjustments to cut down caput loss due to clash.
Optimizes the H2O system ‘s public presentation and reduces energy cost.
Installed with detectors to trip pump when there is existent demand of H2O. ( HDB, 2011 )
No restrictions – sized right for the block. ( Lester Chia, electronic mail, 11 October 2012 )
Figure 7: Wind turbine
( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.globe-net.com/articles/2012/july/4/bigger-is-better-when-it-comes-to-wind-turbines/ )
Converts kinetic energy from the air current into mechanical energy
Clean as it does non let go of nursery gases into the ambiance
Does non devour fossil fuels
Singapore ‘s conditions conditions do non hold strong air current forms that the windmills need to get in order to bring forth power.
Set-up cost of constructing a windmill is dearly-won therefore non leting for easy execution
Figure 8: Hydroelectric dike
( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.solarpowernotes.com/renewable-energy/hydroelectric-power/hydro-power-plant.html # .UIfEq8WHfMg )
Converts kinetic energy from traveling H2O to chemical possible energy when stored in a battery which so translates into electricity.
Able to change over 90 % of the available energy from electricity, more executable than most efficient dodo fuel workss which are merely 60 % efficient.
Could non construct dikes near HDB flats as a consequence of non holding a consistent big organic structure of H2O
1.5 Analysis on the restrictions of the steps that HDB can look into
Although both suggested steps produces clean energy, HDB is unable to construct windmills as Singapore ‘s conditions conditions does non hold strong air current forms that the windmills need to get in order to bring forth power. Therefore, it is non being able to bring forth adequate power that is sufficient for usage. Furthermore, the set-up cost of constructing a windmill is dearly-won therefore non leting for easy execution by the relevant governments and is non cost efficient. On the other manus, HDB may look into utilizing the hydropower engineering which Marina Barrage is presently profiting from. However, since they could non construct dikes nearby HDB flats as a consequence of non holding a consistent big organic structure of H2O, the thought of constructing dikes can barely be implemented.
1.6 Inspiration: TOTO Faucet with a hydroelectric power generator
It occurred to us that the demand of seeking sustainable energy resources is existent ; given the limited beginnings of energy supply we rely on, it will non be plenty for our turning population. From figure 2, Singapore electrical duties are one of the highest in the universe. Bing little with limited infinite and supply of natural resources, Singapore is disadvantaged as it lacks multiple sustainable energy workss like windmills and hydroelectric dike. Since bulk of the Singapore population corsets in HDB flats and each flat has a few H2O armored combat vehicles both on rooftop or land floor, we would wish to suggest our thought that utilises hydropower engineering utilizing the H2O armored combat vehicles as the H2O supply. From our study ( annex A ) , 96 % of the respondents responded positively towards installation of this device in the spigot. Therefore, we believe that we can spread out the thought to a more big graduated table undertaking, put ining it at HDB alternatively.
2.1 Undertaking Aims
1. A To determine the signifier of clean energy HDB can utilize to accommodate to which is cost-effective and allows for easy execution
2. To come out with a elaborate proposal for DAltMech
3. To work out the cost-benefit analysis of accommodating the DAltMech engineering
4. To reexamine the proposal based on the interviews and study gathered
Chapter 3 Merchandise proposal ( DAltMech )
3.1 Inspiration Leading Our Proposed Idea
Figure 7: TOTO ‘s self-sufficient spigot ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.totousa.com/Green/Products/EcoPowerFaucets.aspx )
TOTO is the universe ‘s largest plumbing merchandises maker. They provide a complete line of commercial and cosmetic plumbing fixtures and adjustments. ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.totousa.com/WhyTOTO/AboutTOTO.aspx ) . The engineering that inspired us was the self-sufficient spigot engineering, the TOTO EcoPower Technology. This engineering works by tackling energy from the H2O fluxing through the pat to bring forth electricity ( Figure 7 ) which is so stored in the rechargeable cells that power the Smart Sensor System ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.totousa.com/Green/Products/EcoPowerFaucets.aspx ) . Our thought uses the engineering similar to TOTO EcoPower spigot that utilises the hydropower engineering. Henceforth, accommodating the mechanism of how EcoPower works but, in a different state of affairs where a turbine wheel would be placed in the chief pipes of the H2O armored combat vehicles on the rooftop of HDB flats. ( Figure 8 )
3.2 How DAltMech works
Figure 8: Flow chart of how DAltMech works
Inspired by the TOTO EcoPower engineering, we decided to accommodate it and implement it for a much larger graduated table such as in HDB flats. Alternatively of implementing it at the pat, we decided to implement it at the pipe which connects our family H2O spigots to the chief H2O armored combat vehicle on the rooftop of the level ( Figure 9 ) . DAltMech adapts this engineering which helps in tackling energy utilizing the H2O flow from the H2O armored combat vehicles at the top of the HDB edifices. ( Figure 8 & A ; 9 )
3.2.1 Location of DAltMech
Figure 9: Water armored combat vehicles on top of HDB flats
Water flow in the H2O pipe connected to the H2O armored combat vehicles ( figure 9 ) occurs whenever there is H2O use from any unit in the edifice. This H2O flow produced will so turn the turbine wheel, which will bring forth electrical energy. The electrical energy generated will so be transmitted across a wire connected to an external power storage, which can hive away the electrical energy over clip ( figure 8 ) .
Figure 10: Layout of how the power grid is connected to the HDB level
Hence, the power generated by the wheel in the H2O pipe at the rooftop ( Figure 9 ) can be used to power the corridor illuming for the whole block ( Figure 11 ) . Thus the corridor illuming need non depend on the chief electrical supply from the power grid ( Figure 10 ) .
Figure 11: How the power stored in the battery would be used for powering the corridor lightings
3.2.2 Placement of the wheel
Figure 12: Placement of the turbine wheel
Figure 13: Side position of wheel in the horizontal pipe
The more frequent use of the H2O armored combat vehicles on the rooftop would connote that the power generated by the wheel would be more as compared to implementing the wheel at the land floor. The wheel would be placed in the horizontal pipe ( figure 13 ) that is connected to the H2O armored combat vehicle ( figure 12 ) .
3.2.3 Size of the wheel
Figure 14: Cross-sectional country of wheel in pipe
This H2O pipe at the rooftop of a HDB level ( figure 12 ) has an internal radius of 20mm ( figure 13 ) . The internal radius of the pipe ( figure 12 ) is 20mm ( Lester Chia M.H, personal communicating, 14 September, 2012 ) . Thus the diameter of the wheel could be made at 36 millimeter ( figure 14 ) so to avoid contact with the interior wall of the pipe, which will ensue in energy loss due to clash and wear and tear of the pipe.
3.2.4 Nozzle constituent
Figure 15: Location of the nose and wheel
Figure 16: Placement of nose and wheel constituents
Making usage of the nose which jets H2O at the H2O pails of the Pelton wheel ( Figure 16 ) , the nose will be placed in the constituent pipe right before the horizontal pipe ( Figure 15 ) . With mention to calculate 17, the H2O flow from the nose will hit the smuggler with pails which is the chief constituent that converts the traveling energy of the traveling fluid into rotational energy that turns the turbine shaft. Since the nozzle marks H2O onto the wheel from the left side, this would ensue in the turbine turning clockwise. ( Figure 17 )
Figure 17: How the nose is angled tangentially to Pelton wheel
Figure 18: How the spinning of the Pelton turbine wheel generates energy ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=2lrLtesjbtg & A ; feature=youtu.be )
The spinning of the turbine would ensue in the coincident spinning of the Pelton shaft ( Figure 18 ) which is connected to the generator as they are connected to each other. ( Figure 17 ) Hence, this will bring forth power from the H2O flow that causes the wheel to whirl. The power generated would so be stored in a battery for use.
3.3 Materials used for DAltMech
Turbine and wheel
Figure 19: Pelton turbine wheel ( http: //www.microhydropower.com/our-products/pelton-wheel/ )
We are utilizing the Pelton Turbine wheel in DAltMech ( figure 19 ) . It consists of a wheel with a series of disconnected pails set around its rim ; a high speed jet of H2O is directed tangentially at the wheel ( hypertext transfer protocol: //w3.tm.tue.nl/fileadmin/tm/TDO/Indonesie/Hydro_Power.pdf ) . This causes the H2O to go forth the wheel at a lower velocity, connoting that most of the kinetic energy has been converted to electrical energy, taking to high efficiency of 90 % ( http: //www.renewablesfirst.co.uk/pelton-and-turgo-turbines.html ) .
We decided to accommodate these characteristics for our wheel due to the high efficiency it creates. Furthermore, the Pelton wheel is able to be used for do-it-yourself application as it can hold a diameter of 10cm ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.microhydropower.com/our-products/pelton-wheel/ ) .
This shows that the wheel can be made little plenty to suit into the pipe, therefore doing our undertaking executable.
Figure 20: LV750 by HI-POWER
The generator we are utilizing is the LV750 by HI-POWER ( Figure 20 ) . It is HI-Power ‘s latest and most efficient low-tension brushless lasting magnet generator ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nooutage.com/lv1400.htm ) . The infinite it occupies is 12 square inches, which means that it does non take up excessively much infinite and can be installed on HDB rooftops. It can bring forth a maximal power of 750W ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.homehydro.com/lv1500.html ) .
Figure 21: Durathon battery ( hypertext transfer protocol: //geenergystorage.com/ )
The battery we are utilizing is the GE Durathon Battery ( figure 21 ) . It can hive away up to 577V of energy and present a power of up to 16.7 kilowatt over 6 hours.
( hypertext transfer protocol: //geenergystorage.com/images/ge/PDF/DurathonBatteryDCMWhSpecheet.pdf )
3.3.4 Cost of Materials
The tabular array below shows the cost of each constituent and the entire cost:
Cost of installing
Figure 22: Table of the several cost of the constituents
3.4 Projected power generated
The jutting power we have calculated is 528.3kWh. It is able to power up 65 % of the power consumed by LED visible radiations. Please refer to Annex B ( Part 1 ) for the elaborate computations of the jutting power generated.
3.5 How DAltMech addresses the demands of HDB
The LED visible radiations in HDB consume a sum of 800kWh of power per month ( Lester Chia M.H, personal communicating, 14 September, 2012 ) . Given the power generated by our wheel in one month is 523.8 kWh, it can be used to power up 65 % of the power consumed by LED visible radiations. Thus it can assist HDB to salvage 65 % of the electrical measures.
Chapter 4 Review of DAltMech
4.1 Location of the DAltMech turbine wheel
Figure 23: Water supply to assorted floors of a 12-storey block
After an interview with HDB applied scientist Mr Lester Chia, he gave us a general layout of the HDB edifice and its constituents ( calculate 24 ) . A usual 12-storey HDB edifice will hold a H2O pump located at the land floor ( Figure 23 ) This pump would supply H2O for families in the first four floor. ( Lester Chia M.H, personal communicating, 14 September, 2012 ) Through this interview, we realised that there is another pipe in which we can put the turbine wheel. He mentioned that this pipe has a larger internal radius of 50 millimeters whereas at the pipe at the chief H2O armored combat vehicle on top of the edifice has an internal radius of 20 millimeter. This bigger pipe is located at the land floor while the little pipe is located near the H2O armored combat vehicle.
With these two pieces of information, we could put the turbine wheel at the pipe which H2O is merely pumped from land degree to the H2O armored combat vehicle. Thus we hypothesize a larger internal radius will give a larger H2O flow rate, which in bend will bring forth a larger sum of electricity ( http: //www.articlesbase.com/environment-articles/hydro-energy-using-the-power-of-water-for-your-electrical-needs-5957734.html )
Figure 24: Layout of HDB edifices and its constituents
However, the sum of electricity generated is based on how fast the turbine wheel can turn which in bend is dependent on the velocity of H2O flow ( http: //www.articlesbase.com/environment-articles/hydro-energy-using-the-power-of-water-for-your-electrical-needs-5957734.html ) .
The downside of this is that by put ining the wheel in the pipe which H2O is merely pumped from land degree to the H2O armored combat vehicle, it will take to a decreased H2O speed as proven by the Equation of Continuity.
Through our computations, we found out that it is more worthwhile to put in the wheel in the H2O pipe from H2O armored combat vehicles as it is able generate more power.
Please refer to Annex B ( portion 2 ) for elaborate computations.
4.2 Position of DAltMech turbine wheel
Figure 25: Location of the wheel
Figure 26: Vertical arrangement of the wheel
The Pelton wheel is placed vertically in the pipe, with the pails confronting the H2O flow to forestall any obstructor to the H2O flow ( figure 26 ) . If the wheel is placed horizontally, the H2O would merely be hitting against the wheel and the wheel will non turn as expeditiously, taking to take down power end product ( figure 27 ) . A nose is used to direct the H2O flow to the pails. When H2O comes in contact with the pails, force per unit area is exerted, turning the turbine. It is placed at the horizontal pipe ( figure 25 ) alternatively of the perpendicular one as there will be dorks that obstruct the turning of the turbine when it comes in contact with H2O. This renders the undertaking to be less efficient.
Figure 27: Energy efficiency of DAltMech
Figure 27 shows the efficiency of each constituents of DAltMech. As electricity flows through the turbine, generator and wheel, some energy will be loss to the surrounding. After some computations ( mention to Annex B portion 3 ) , we realised that the concluding energy stored in the battery is about 442.04 kilowatt. This sum can assist provide approximately 55 % of the energy that LED lightings require. Therefore, this renders our thought efficient as we are able to assist decrease the sum of energy that we rely on from the brinies.
4.4 Improvements to DAltMech
Another type of wheel that we can see is the Turgo wheel ( Figure 28 ) .
Figure 28: Turgo turbine wheel
The tabular array below shows the comparing between Pelton and Turgo wheel ( figure 29 ) .
90 % efficient
90 % efficient
( hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turgo_turbine )
Water strikes the blades at 180 grades
Water strikes the blades at 20 grades
Costss $ 150
Costss $ 95 ( hypertext transfer protocol: //h-hydro.com/ )
Figure 29: Table demoing comparings between Pelton and Turgo wheel
From the tabular array, both wheels are 90 % efficient, which means that there will be no difference in power loss if either wheel is used. For the Pelton wheel, H2O strikes the blades at 180 grades, which consequences in the dismissed fluid interfering with the incoming H2O flow ( http: //w3.tm.tue.nl/fileadmin/tm/TDO/Indonesie/Hydro_Power.pdf ) .
For the Turgo wheel, H2O strikes the blades at 20 grades. This enables the H2O to turn the wheel and issue instantly without any intervention. Therefore, the Turgo wheel can hold a smaller diameter than the Pelton wheel for the same sum of power to be generated. This will take to a lower cost of wheel and installing. Lower cost is peculiarly of import as if DAltMech were to be implemented for all HDB flats as a batch of nest eggs will be reaped away. This fulfills one of the standards that we had established: cost-effective engineering.
4.5 Cost-benefit analysis
The power generated by DAltMech is able to counterbalance for more than half of the power consumed by HDB LED visible radiations. Since it is able to cover both the cost of execution and compensate for more than half of the power consumed by HDB LED visible radiations, it should hence be implemented. ( Please refer to Annex B, portion 4 for a elaborate cost-benefit analysis )
Through this invention, it will assist Singapore to derive international acknowledgment as an invention hub of advancing greener environments. It could besides raise the consciousness among Singaporeans on the issue of lifting electrical duties and what is being done to conserve fossil fuels. HDB edifices will so be indirectly less dependent on power Stationss that rely on dodos fuel ingestion. In the long tally, this can take to lesser pollution as less fossil fuel is burned. These are the non-monetary benefits that will follow Singapore as she progresses farther. Through this, we have met our aim of coming up with the cost-benefit analysis of accommodating the hydropower engineering to DAltMech.
Chapter 5 Decision
One of the strengths of our undertaking is that after thorough research and computations, we found that our thought is executable as it is able to power up approximately 65 % of the HDB lightings in a block if it were to be installed in one H2O armored combat vehicle. Thus it can assist HDB to cut down on 65 % of the electrical measures.
Another strength of our undertaking is that it is cost efficient and the fact that it is non restricted to geographical restraints renders the undertaking easy to implement. Our proposed thought can be installed and suited to Singapore ‘s landscape. If it were to be implemented in all HDB flats, it will non alter the whole Singapore landscape drastically.
One restriction of our undertaking is that due to security grounds, we were unable to entree the rooftop of our HDB flats where the H2O armored combat vehicles are located. Thus we were unable to take existent exposure of the pipes at that place and mensurate them ourselves. There is besides a possibility of other pipes on the roof which are larger in diameter. We could so put a larger wheel at that place and bring forth much more energy.
Another restriction is that the costs of care are hard to gauge. Thus the overall cost DAltMech will be higher than expected, taking to a possibility that the nest eggs generated DAltMech will non be able to cover the cost of execution throughout its life of 10 old ages.
5.3 Future Directions
The electrical measures saved can be used for Research & A ; Development to develop better lodging for the people. Furthermore, as HDB plans to construct more houses to suit more people in the hereafter, our proposed thought can assist to cut down the sum of money paid for the energy consumed by the LED visible radiations, which in the long tally can assist HDB salvage up a big sum of money despite its high initial capital costs. In the national context, if most HDB edifices decided to implement our thought, it can significantly cut down the sum of electricity provided by the power Stationss, taking to cut down air pollution and conserving the dodo fuels for future coevalss as good.