The general rules of foundation design are as below ;
- To safely reassign the edifice burden straight from the point of application to the land where the edifice sited and to do certain that the tonss are appropriately distributed through the land ( underneath dirt strata ) .
- Ability and safely to supply opposition of uplift forces exerted by the edifice itself, possible turn overing minutes produced by air current burden
- Capability to defy the the colony force, remission, differential motion and any others possible land or belowground motion due to temblors.
In general technological pattern the column design burden can safely reassign to the land and appropriate distribute through the land by utilizing Pad foundation attack. But, for this 10 floor edifice, the computation that the most to a great extent Clumn C1 burden is rather significant and this decidedly will necessitate a immense size of tablet terms and practically may do massive of overlapping. In add-on, the proviso of support, formwork, building attempt and etc comparatively will increase drastically. Hence, due to this unpractical procedure ( building of immense tablet terms ) , in our experience and in footings of economic position point, we will non follow tablet terms in this 10 floor height edifice.
However, we propose to follow deep foundation via a stacking system as a feasible solution to administer the tonss to a greater deepness dirt where usually will turn up the greatest ultimate bearing capacity. Through the borehole logs study, we analysed that the 29.0m deepness from land degree is sandstone and bed stone strata. While dirt strata between deepness of 2.3m to 7.2m from land degree is consists of house to stiff silty gravelly clay with occasional bowlder. Subsequently 7.2m to 29.0m is stiff flaxen clay.
This deep foundation via stacking system has the economic advantages compare to the overall foundation system. For cases, if compare with raft foundation system where in rule the burden will reassign to the whole piece of raft foundation slab averagely and this is non cost effectual. However, through this pile system the burden particularly big burden can efficaciously administer to the difficult dirt strata via lesser Numberss of column. Therefore the pile system is more economic and practical in footings of building method.
For deep foundation, a batch of building issues possible to due with during the stacking procedure. There are complicated digging where affecting of earthwork support, being of land H2O cause need dewatering procedure and others jeopardies of due to unexpected land contaminate substances. However with this ‘spun heap ‘ is able to work out the above building issues as its design characteristic and advantages as reference below
- High Bending Moment And Crack Resistance
- Inherent strong jointing and dependable welding
- Driving Efficiency
- Large Bearing Capacity
This spun heap able to use in assorted types of dirt status because it is extremely effectual in defying bending minute and axial tensile emphasis.
The welded articulation has a strength at least equal to that of the concrete part of heap.
The impulsive efficiency of this spun heap is due to it hollowed, unit of ammunition geometry, form. Therefore, merely necessitate a smaller cock and later will cut down the working noise and able to accomplish a faster building procedure or better velocity building.
The spun pile concrete compressive strength is transcending 60N/mm2 and this is able to accomplish a consequences of big bearing capacity in it pile subdivision. The Table A below shown the design feature of spun heap.
The below shown the ICP Precast Pretensioned Spun Concrete Piles, Design To Malayan Standard ( MS ) ISO 9002: 1991 and besides by and large comply with JIS A 5335: 1987, Pretensioned Spun Concrete Piles and modified to Suit B.S. 8004: 1986-Foundation and B.S. 8110:1985 ( Pleased refer Appendix I – ICP P. Piles Catalogue for farther inside informations )
Finally, we propose that this spun heap will be chosen to utilize in this pile system because of it characteristic design advantages and besides more practical at building point of position for this 10 storey office edifice. It is besides more reasonable for pre allocating of extra design burden for perchance increased of edifice tallness in the hereafter. Besides it is besides more economical if comparison to others stacking attacks, such as dullard heap and cylinder hemorrhoids.
- Construction Technology 5, Heriot-Watt University
- SCIB Concrete Manufacturing Sdn. Bhd. )
- ICP, Industrial Concrete Product Sdn Bhd )