1. The reason Ammaniti has started with the quote by Jack London is because he is trying to show us what is going to happen in this book and will involve real evil. The literal meaning of falling into darkness is that Michele literally falls into a hole, which is full of darkness, and the symbolic meaning is that true evil is in the hole.
2. Michele had to choose to ethier help his sister or keep going with the race so that he wouldn’t have to perform the ‘forfeit’. At first he kept running the race but then he turned around to find that Maria wasn’t following so in the end he went back to help his sister. Because of this you can find that Michele is ignorant at first but after he goes back you find that is caring and worries for his sister.
3. Ammaniti recreates the atmosphere of being children by putting in monsters, witches and ogres that the children believe are real as well as a group of children together and if they lose something having to pay the price by doing a forfeit which is normally inappropriate.
4 .Michele thinks of Tiger Jack when he was heading back home after starting to ride to the hole. He thinks of Tiger Jack and this person supports him to go back to the hole but also helps him face the pigs.
5. The reason Michele finds Filippo is because he saved Barbara from showing her parts to everyone