I chose human cloning because I think it’s a really interesting topic to learn more about. Cloning has been a dream for scientists for many years. They want to make a identical copies of themselves, other people or animals. Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning, which is the reproduction of human cells and tissue. It does not refer to the natural conception and delivery of identical twins. The possibility of human cloning has raised dramatically. Two commonly discussed types of theoretical human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world. Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. Scientists estimates the cost of human cloning to be at least $50,000, hopefully dropping in price to the vicinity of $20,000 to $10,000., Wwhich is the approximate cost of in vitro fertilization, although there are other estimates that range from $200,000 to $2 million. Several European countries, including France, Germany and Switzerland, have banned the creation of cloned human embryos for reproductive or therapeutic purposes. England, Singapore, Sweden, China and Israel allow cloning for research, but prohibit it for reproduction. Although you may think that human cloning might be illegal everywhere in the world it is actually legal in the United States. With few exceptions, human cloning in general is legal in the US. More specifically, therapeutic cloning of the type done in Oregon to produce embryonic stem cells is legal in most states in the US including California. Just a handful of states ban therapeutic cloning. Health Problems. Cloned embryos that survive pregnancy can be born with a variety of birth defects and other health problems. According to the FDA, one phenomenon seen in cloning is that cloned humans tend to be larger than normal at birth, with unusually large organs.Catholics are especially also against human cloning that no one should mess with the creation of god and his works. They want god to make all people in his likeness not make copies of people and live not very long. Complete not what God would want us to do. Catholic have been against human cloning for a very long time, not just hear in the United States but also in other countries. Over the last 50 years, scientists have conducted cloning experiments in a wide range of animals using a variety of techniques. The main reason that the scientists at Roslin wanted to be able to clone sheep and other large animals was connected with their research aimed at producing medicines in the milk of such animals.In 1979, researchers produced the first genetically identical mice by splitting mouse embryos in the test tube and then implanting the resulting embryos into the wombs of adult female mice. Shortly after that, researchers produced the first genetically identical cows, sheep and chickens by transferring the nucleus of a cell taken from an early embryo into an egg that had been emptied of its nucleus. Besides cattle and sheep, other mammals that have been cloned from somatic cells include: cat, deer, dog, horse, mule, ox, rabbit and rat. It was not until 1996, however, that researchers succeeded in cloning the first mammal from a mature cell taken from an adult animal. After 276 attempts, Scottish researchers finally produced Dolly, the lamb from the udder cell of a 6 year old sheep. Two years later, researchers in Japan cloned eight calves from a single cow, but only four survived. In 2001, when it became apparent that animal cloning may become a commercial venture to help improve the quality of herds, FDA requested livestock producers and researchers to keep food from animal clones or their offspring out of the food supply. Since then, FDA has conducted an intensive evaluation that included examining the safety of food from these animals and the risk to animal health. Based on a final risk assessment, a report written by FDA scientists and issued in January 2008, FDA has concluded that meat and milk from cow, pig, and goat clones and the offspring of any animal clones are as safe as food we eat every day. Scientists are working on ways to improve the technology. For example, when two genetically identical cloned mice embryos are combined, the aggregate embryo is more likely to survive to birth. Improvements in the culture medium may also help. Genes, environment, and their interaction play critical roles in animal health and disease, and our scientists are continuously breaking new ground and deepening our understanding of the animal world through advancements in this exciting field. Genetics research not only furthers understanding of which animals are at risk for particular diseases, but ongoing discoveries can also lead to the development of diagnostic tests and potential gene therapies, resulting in earlier disease intervention and improved health outcomes.I have learned more information about genetics of animals and humans. It helps me understand a little bit more for what we are learning about. Now I can see and image on diagrams better that I did before typing this essay. I know what is the difference between animal and human cloning. Finally, I have learned a lot from doing this essay because now I know how this process involves genetics and how it is done.
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