I have many laws for human rights

I would like to express the gratitude upon the relationship do low-income non-elite individuals have to the norms structuring global politics? There are the people from around the globe who have a potential to work extra ordinary in the various fields such as engineering, medical, management, social sciences etc which might be beneficial for the whole world but unfortunately, in many developing countries the non-elite individuals can’t participate for structuring the international norms in the world of globalization as they haven’t been provided a chance to discover due their low income. Hence, International organizations are playing their role to build a good relation between the low income individuals with the government structure in order to improve their standards for making international norms. The main concept of the right to development is an inalienable human rights by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribution to, and enjoy economic, social, cultural and political development in which all human rights and fundamental freedoms can be fully realized. However, there are many of the international organizations are working just to make sure that each state must be remain sovereign and its development towards advancement and have many laws for human rights as well. Furthermore, it is to be noted from the most developed countries behavior against the third world is not equalized and yet again as a result of that public start a protest against their government and in international form as well and their protest could be related to anything which they genuinely deserved under the system. United Nations General Assembly ratified a Human Rights Council resolution concerning the promotion and protection of human rights in the context of peaceful protests. This clearly establishes how the nation states affect the global legal norms. Public either elite or not they have a right to participate in various fields which for the advancement of the state and government in building a relation on international level as far as global politics is concerned. However, under the normative discussion the main concern is that the public protests from the countries can impact directly and in directly to politics by low level income not elites.My research paper will analyze that today International powers are shifting. Whereas, political, economic and military threats can reformed and presenting new challenges to global politics and for international organizations who protect human rights and international norms as a result of that human rights are considering limited up to a certain level specially in the countries like south east Asia, Mexico and some others developing countries so because of this increasing the gap betweenelite and non-elite individuals the international norms are not to be discriminated to some extent in certain areas. However, the international norms also have a directly and in directly impact to low-income non-elite individuals through the part of society that consists of organizations and institutions which will be discussed in this research paper in a relationship to international norms.Theoretical FrameworkIn this section I would use the social constructivism framework for my analysis of this research paper as it provides the tools to inquire into aspects like norms, ideas, values and identity formation in international affairs.Literature ReviewThis section gives a critical overview of what has been discussed on the matters of relationship do low-income non-elite individuals have to the norms structuring global politics? This section will be divided into three parts; where I will outline literature discussing that how international norms to be made having a relationship with low and high income individuals and a global challenge facing low income individuals and system transformation.The Emergence of Norms for Global AdvocacySocial change has always started with a person (or a small group of committed people) who shares a common belief about an issue she or he wants to pursue to affect normative change. Such individual als, or “norm entrepreneurs,” play a critical role in the three stages of Fennimore and Sikkink’s (1998) “norm life cycle”: norm emergence, norm cascade, and internalization. Those authors point out that, at each stage, change is “characterized by different actors, motives, and mechanisms of influence” (p. 895). In the campaign process, norm entrepreneurs specifically “identify a problem, specify a cause, and propose a solution, all with an eye toward produc ing procedural, substantive, and normative change in their area of concern” (Keck and Sikkink 1998, 8). Persuasion is at the heart of this process, as the aim is to persuade leaders and build public support about a particular norm. To this effect, common advocacy tools include (1) using media, (2) lobbying, (3) mobilizing grassroots, (4) building coalitions, and (5) using the legal system (Accen ture Foundation 2009). These tools have been used for hundreds of years, dating back tohistoric campaigns such as Britain’s antislavery campaign and the women’s suffrage movement that inspired many subsequent campaigns (including the antiapartheid campaign in South Africa and the civil rights movement in the United States).In this view, IGOs constitute and regulate behaviour through three mechanisms: classifying problems, actors and actions; fixing meanings by establishing how to solve it and by whom; and, articulating and diffusing norms and rules. “IGOs define problems for other actors (by classifying them as such), specify which actors have responsibility for solving those problems, and use their authority to identify the right or appropriate kind of solution for the particular problem under consideration” (Barnett and Fennimore, 2004; p.34).”Cultural and social factors that affect developmentAcross the board an established agreement that science, technology and innovation (STI) have a role in helping countries to tackle social challenges such as focusing non elite individuals and its role and development, climate change, pollution and public health. Providing comprehensive solutions for these global and interconnected problems, however, exceeds the capacity of single states or market forces alone. By definition, Grand Challenges involve “a need to cooperate worldwide to create public goods (mitigation of climate change, health), or protect the global commons (the environment, fisheries)” (OECD, 2010, p.165), calling for action that goes beyond the conventional role played by governments. For policy-makers, thus, it is also necessary that to solve the societal challenges and making new mutual polices among them and enhance the impact of solutions.To be more precise, handling the big challenges must have a requirements to discuss these matters in a broader perspective and calls for system transformation (Mowery et al., 2010), an exercise that involves not only “innovation as traditionally studied and stimulated, but also novel ways of assembling and re-assembling heterogeneous bits of work (including traditional innovation) into evolving constellations that address a Grand Challenge” (Kuhlmann and Rip, 2014, p.4). The main objective of policy-making is just a selected change in technology in connection with policy arenas hosting for structuring a government in more advance way. “Other types of policies, actors and discursive spheres” are missed (Weber and Rohracher, 2012). In the same way, when scholarlyattention is placed mainly on the role of governments as providers of R&D and funding, complementary actors and initiatives remain under the radar.Global challenges facing low income individuals and system transformationAround 6.5 billion people population does a world have today where only 20 percent of the world contains a part of wealthiest people or well-developed of the world population. Many of the rest struggle for livelihood. Many exist on a level at or below that ride out by peasants in ancient Egypt or Babylon. The wealthiest countries with the highest per capita incomes are referred to by the United Nations as developed countries. These include the United States, Canada, and mostly the countries from Western Europe, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and a few others. The non-wealthy states are referred to by the United Nations as the developing countries and include a diverse set of nations. Some, such as Vietnam, Argentina, and China, are growing very rapidly, while others, such as Haiti, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone are actually experiencing negative growth rates of real per capita income. Stated above there is one another category or group of nations of the countries which is called the newly industrialized countries (NICs) which include South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. These countries grew rapidly in the four decades after 1960 and typically have per capita incomes close to 50 percent of those found in the developed nations. Some of the other countries in Southeast Asia are close behind the NICs. These include Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. According to the main heading it is to be observed by international organizations experiences that the problem of raising per capita income in a under developing country as one of economic development recognizes that the whole structure of its economy often needs to be transformed to create economic growth. Therefore, such kind of tasks are quite complex and involved countries get remained undeveloped so that today from despite decades of effort by their governments (often requested to get an aid from developed countries) to get them on a path of sustained economic growth so that to some extent it get possible to provide a reasonable income to their people to set norms.The consequences of low income levels can be severe. In rich countries like Canada and the United States, variations in rainfall are reflected in farm output and farm income while in developing countries, variations in rainfall are often reflected in the death rate. In these countries, many peoplelive so close to a ration level that slightly variation in the food supply bring death by deprivation to large numbers. Other, less dramatic characteristics of low income people that include deficient diet, poor health, short life expectancy, and illiteracy.The formation of Grand Challenges as a main focus for STI policy at national and international levels, and the acceptance of the disparate natures of these collective problems (JIPP, 2012; OECD, 2011), have bringing out a series of studies for undertaking to understand and improve their governance. The need to engage heterogeneous actors and manage their interaction has brought the issue of regulation and cooperation to the fore (Edler, 2010; Prange-Gstöhl, 2010), while the governance of transnational programmes have been evaluated on their ability to support priority setting, financing, knowledge sharing, outreach and capacity-building to aid problem solving and diffusion (OECD, 2012).The role of IGOsA discussion that global political economy is directly and in directly is being influenced by international organizations and establishments. Hence, the role of IGO’s is to be considered a vital, has long interested International Relations scholars. A comprehensive and deep research have a result which reflects in two approaches: rationalists, holding a state-centric approach and focusing on the conditions by which states accept international establishments; and constructivists, considering a large number of actors and networks and the importance of normative endorsed (Seabrooke, 2010). To classify, a rationalists theory take state engagement with establishments and IGOs are supposed to be get dependent on the expansion which they can benefit from them (Keohane, 1989; Simmons and Elkins, 2004); on the other side a theory of constructivists, exposed the limits of instrumentality and highlight a logic of appropriateness, in which norms and ideas are central (Finnemore and Sikkink, 1998; March and Olsen, 1998).The Growing Gap between the non-elite and eliteThere are several reasons why there is a growing gap between the poor and the rich within societies. These reasons normally are interrelated. The major factors that are seen to affect the growing gap include innate ability, culture, education, globalization, labor markets, policy, taxes reforms, technological changes, racism, gender, inequality in salaries and wages. A major causeof the growing gap between the poor and the rich within modern economies is the wage determination by the capitalist market. The job wages are determined by demand and supply in the capitalist market. For instance, in a situation where there are many workers who are willing to do a job for a desirable time, then the supply of labor will be high for that job. On the other hand, there will be a low demand for a job in case there are few persons willing to do the job. When the supply is high and the demand is low for a job, there will be a low wage.Apart from this market related factors which impact the inequality of the wages, government facilitated initiatives can as well decrease or increase inequality. Policy makers and social scientists debate the effectiveness and relative merits of every strategy of inequality regulation. Typical initiatives of several governments that can reduce the growing gap between the poor and the rich include public education which can increase the skilled labor supply and reduce the income inequality because of education differentials. Implementation of progressive taxation that will result to the rich being taxed relatively more as compared to the poor; hence the amount of income inequality in society will be reduced. Minimum wage legislation initiative will raise the income of the poorest workers. Products subsidization initiative will result to services and goods being provided cheaply to everybody.MethodologyThis section will provide a solid backbone for the entire research paper, and will lead to a strong results section. The data generated by the main Political personalities, Journals and official case studies of the following research. This paper will use qualitative content analysis to conduct the study. This is because to develop the meaning and to understand the low income individuals in relation to international norms.The issue of economic inequality is related to the ideas of equity: equality of outcome and equality of opportunity. There are various numerical indices for measuring economic inequality.There are many reasons for economic inequality within societies, and they are often interrelated. Acknowledged factors that impact economic inequality include, but are not limited to:• Inequality in wages and salaries;• The income gap between highly skilled workers and low-skilled or no-skills workers;• Labor markets;• Globalization;• Technological changes;• Policy reforms;• Racism;A major cause of economic inequality within modern economies is the determination of wages by the capitalist market. In the capitalist market, the wages for jobs are set by supply and demand.DelimitationsThe data will not be extensive but only serve as an example of use of the methodology which will answer this papers research questions. Due to the limited time and space of this paper, it will notseek to conduct an in-depth analysis of the issue at hand. Instead, it will give a very brief overview of what different theories related to international norms and how the international organizations such as United Nations take a stand for human rights and reduce the gap between elite and non-elite individuals.AnalysisThis section will analyze the materials chosen which is stated aboveNorm Cluster”, JWT, and R2PThe construction, evolution, dispersion, and effect of norms in the international system are one of the most studied topics in International Relations scholarship (Winston, 2017:1). However, the literature on norms is sometimes conflicting as how it treats state choice and norm dispersions because it is mainly categorized in theories which underline the perpetuation and those that allow for change in the process of norm adoption and application (Ibid). For this purpose, and to understand the structure of norms in better way, Winston (2017) created a form of “norm cluster” where she tried to argue that a norm consists of a problem, a value, and a behavior. This idea also converge with Beitz´s normativity of human rights as he expressed that how the states can behave while depending on problem, value, and behavior (2009:126). According to Beitz views that the problem arises when human rights are infraction, the value as an account of international responsibility for human rights, and the behavior as guiding political action by official representative (2009: 140).According to social constructivists; Wiener (2017), norms create meaning through construction of intersubjective understandings of who and what things are. While understanding the statement which is mentioned above that include whether or not the item in question is tangible or intangible such as obligation is admired. Whereas, defining a problem, there should be at least one look at the value because material and social facts are understood in relation to the values of a society in order to be seen as good or bad. Hence, it is to be contend that actions are always justified by references in widely held values (Winston, 2017:3). Norm-building is therefore the process of constructing a bridge between the constitutive and the constraint functions of norms such that acombined statement is reached: “Given this problem, the values dictate this behavior” (Winston, 2017:4).However according to Wiener´s (2016) norm ownership, the norm belongs to R2P get failed because it is mainly focuses on the dominating processes. Hence, she suggests that research should pay more attentive with creativity in coming future so that it get link between the ‘is’ and the ‘ought’ of norms in critical norms research in International Relations theories.Social Norms and Moral Principles to Reduce Poverty and Improve EquityIt is completely unfairness that rising inequality and the correlation perception of inequity will directly impact to global politics significantly in 2013. The sensation affects both elite and non-elite individuals, and is supposed in different forms, in democracies, oligarchies and autocracies. If the percentage of wealth that remains in the hands of a tiny number of people becomes extremely large, while median wealth has fester, social problems are impending. When such kind of problems may occurs so in that cases of high levels of unemployment and conditions of fiscal rigor, the problem is inflamed. This characterizes the situation in most of the world at present. Recent research suggests that high measures of income inequality are strongly correlated with dangerous social pathology, while greater equality of income correlates with better social indicators. The areas considered include health, educational performance, child well-being, trust and community life, social mobility, teenage births, obesity, drug abuse, violence and imprisonment.The extent to which this threatens social harmony and political stability within states, and frustrates collective action on a global scale poses a difficult challenge today. Classical reconstruction of policies based on taxes and social security systems, are both more constrained and less effective in the face of high levels of national debt, significant fiscal austerity, the impact of information technology on skills requirements, and labor mobility across borders, not least because of the mobility of capital, and widespread use of integrated manufacturing supply chains.A right based approach to non-elitesUN committee agreed a statement on low income individuals and the international covenant on Economics, Social and Cultural rights. The statement has been made available to all conference participants however, few points are to be concise which are given below:The human rights community has been slow to identify what a human rights approach adds to the struggle for poverty eradication. This is partly self-criticism because it extends to the committee on which I sit. First attempt by a UN body to make the conceptual links between low income people and human rights. Whereas, Human Rights provide a framework of norms, standards or rules upon which detailed anti-poverty policies, programmes and projects can be constructed. Rights can help to ensure that essential elements of anti-poverty strategies, such as non-discrimination, equality, participation and accountability, receive the sustained attention they deserve.The strategies against low income individuals is very much in progress. There is no map and there are few sign posts.ConclusionAfter grasping all the pros and cons it is quite clear from the above elucidation that around 6.5 billion people are living around the globe and the states are categorized Developed, developing and under developing so therefore, world is facing the big challenging against the people who have a low income and strongly impacting to global politics. Indeed many of the international organizations such as United Nations have a very important role in relation to economic, social and cultural rights for structuring global politics while using the normative tools. International norms regulate state behavior on the international level. Just like domestic norms, they are also subject to change. Some international norms are incredibly persistent while others, at some point, become rapidly or incrementally abolished with or without substitution by others. While research places much emphasis on the creation of norms and their impact, many approaches neglect the other side of the coin. Why are some norms challenged, and quickly and completely eradicated, possibly even without being replaced, while others are only subject to incremental curbing, and yet others persist? Why do some formerly embedded norms lose their prescriptive status andguiding impact on actors? Which variables trigger these processes of change? Which dynamics can we observe and how can they be explained? Most importantly, the necessary condition for the degeneration of norms is that some actors experience a mismatch between their preferences, beliefs or identities, on the one hand of international norm. Also, it happens in organizations with adjudication and enforcement mechanisms, as well as in contexts in which such centralized mechanisms are absent. In some instances, an initial norm violation triggers a non-compliance cascade by all actors (instead of sanctioning behavior) so that the norm in question loses its prescriptive status.