How far were the divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of the Tsarist rule in the years 1881-1905 Essay

How far were the divisions among its opponents responsible for the survival of the Tsarist rule in the years 1881-1905?

In the years 1881-1905 the Tsarist regime was facing large amounts of opposition from many people. The peasants and lower classes caused uprisings, their aims to remove the Tsar from power, while some educated middle class went on strike in an attempt to reform the regime. Many people were revolting and 3 main political groups emerged. The divides in these political groups were heavily responsible for the survival of the Tsarist rule, however there were other factors responsible such as the repression in Russia, which lead to the eventual removal of all opposition groups, and the loyalty of the Tsars supporters, which meant that his power was still stronger than the opposition he was facing.

One of the main reasons the Tsarist rule continued during the tome 1881 until 1905 was due to the splits in the political groups. The were 3 main groups, the Social Revolutionaries, the Liberal and the Social Democrats. Each group had a different aim, strategy and target group. The SR’s targeted the peasants and lower class, while the liberals were only interested in the educated middle class. Each groups strategy was very different, the liberals went on strike, while the SR’s took a more violent approach. The power each group had individually was not enough to threaten the Tsar, however these differences in aims and beliefs within the 3 main groups meant that they could not combine the groups and work together to bring down the tsar. They were unable to unite their cause and were weaker because of it. Furthermore, there was discontent within the political groups. In 1903 the SD’s could no longer function as a single group and split into the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. The division weakened the groups more meaning the Tsar could continue to rule.

The 1905 concessions were also partly responsible for the survival of the Tsar during the time period. The concessions caused further divisions and weaknesses within the opposition groups. The introduction of the Duma, a new state parliament, pleased many of the liberals. Some of the liberals aims were met by this new parliament and they believed that the Tsar had begun to reform. Therefore the many of the liberals stopped revolting, thus weakening the remainder if the group. The November manifesto, which would phase out the land payments placed upon the peasants was very popular. This helped reduce the number of lower class and peasants that would be against the Tsar. Most of the peasants were content with this mew change and left the opposition groups, once again making the remaining groups weaker and less organised.

Although the divides in the political groups were mostly responsible in helping the Tsarist rule survive, the support and loyalty of those who still believed in the Tsarist regime were partially responsible. The army and the Okhrana stayed loyal to the Tsar throughout 1881 until 1905. Their loyalty meant that the Tsar still had power and control in Russia. The Okhrana infiltrated many of the oppositions group meetings and arrested many people. This massively reduced the numbers and power of the opponents, which helped the Tsar survive. The Elites also stayed loyal to the Tsarist regime as they benefited from the rules and would not want change as so many of the lower class did. Having the elite remain loyal to the Tsar meant that he could use the power they gave him to his benefit and further reduce any damage the opponents could do to his rule.

Another reason responsible for the survival of the Tsarist rule is the repression that the Tsar reintroduced. Once the Tsar had Russia back under complete control the Tsar made it so that almost nothing had changed. The repression made it so that the Duma were powerless and that only the elite had any say in the Duma. The repression also meant that any political opposition would be crushed. All of the Tsarists’ opponents were removed within 8 months of the repression being reintroduced. The black hundreds, loyal right wing forces, were very effective in removing any political opposition.

In conclusion, the divisions among the opponents were mostly responsible for the survival of the Tsarist rule in 1881 to 1905 because the groups had no power or means of reaching their aims. However the support and loyalty of right wing forces and army and the repression in Russia were also partially
responsible for the survival of the Tsarist regime as they kept him powerful and stronger than the opponents.