Graphic Design as a Visual Communication Tool in Business and Public Information Sector
Graphic design is the use and manipulation of visuals and images in order to communicate specific messages. It has been expressed in many different forms like magazines and other printed media, websites, films and other videos, signage and even product packages and displays (Graphic Design, 2006).
It is already a given note, even without the formality of research, that graphical design has been used by different sectors to their advantage—that it has contributed much to the achievement of many different sectors’ objectives. To politics, graphic design is a means of disseminating propaganda; to businesses, their advertisements; to public information, it is a “one-move-reach-all” means of delivering information. It has always been an important tool in visual communication because of the speed to which it can be transmitted and the ease to which it can be used and manipulated. The advancement of different sectors can only be the impact of graphic design.
This paper aims to give an overview of the impact of design on different sectors and how it created such impact. The paper will touch on sectors like graphic design in the business sector and public information. Because graphic design is most popularly applied in the business sector through their advertisements and business forms, the most of this paper will focus in that sector.
To effectively discuss the impact of graphic design on such sectors, it is necessary to discuss first important concepts like the communication process, symbols and receiver or generally, human psychology. It is believed that the applications, effectiveness, and thus, the impact of the design are functions of these concepts. In other words, these concepts cannot be separated from graphic design because these are what make the “soul” of graphic design.
The writer believes that the impact of graphic design on different sectors is already a given knowledge and cannot be explained effectively through direct enumeration of the repercussions of the use of graphic design in different sectors. The writer believes that such can be discussed, only be discussing the “how?” In effect, the impact of graphic design will be explained through the use of examples and applications, analyzing how its principles integrate with different concepts in communication, symbology and psychology. From the integration of these concepts with graphic design the reader will be able to deduce the impact of graphic design on the different sectors exemplified in this paper and even on other sectors that are not mentioned. As a corollary of this integration and the exemplifications, the reader could also see the effectiveness of graphic design as a visual communication tool, relative to literature and words and realize the psychology behind graphic design as applied to different sectors.
The Communication Process
Among the most important aspect in peoples’ interpersonal experiences is their ability to communicate effectively. In each person’s experience, one can easily deduce how important effective communication is especially if one wants to maintain an agreeable relationship with others. As it is known by all, miscommunication can be a root of many problems especially interpersonal ones. To prevent problems arising from miscommunication, one must understand how to manipulate both the context and the medium in which messages are transmitted through. And to be able to manipulate these, one must have at least a basic understanding of the communication process. In 1948, a model of communication process was formulated:
Figure 1: Shannon’s (1948) Model of the communication process
According to this model, the communication process has 8 components: the source, the one who conveys the message; the message, one that is conveyed by the source and received by the receiver; transmitter, which is the mode or medium of sending the message; the signal which flows through the medium and is interpreted; the noise which represents all barriers of communication; the receiver which is the object through which the message is received and the destination, the person whom the receiver intends to convey the message to (Foulger, 2004).
Language, the communicators’ defensiveness, misreading of body language, noisy transmission, receiver distortion, power struggles, self-fulfilling assumptions, language-different levels of meaning, hesitations, assumptions, erroneous translation, perceptual biases, interpersonal relationships and cultural differences are the barriers to effective communication (Wertheim, n.d.,).
For maximum efficiency in message transmission, it is very important to minimize the effects of these barriers to communication as these may have a cumulative effect on the message. This is especially important if there is no direct interaction between the sender and the receiver of the message that is when there is no face-to-face interaction or the circumstances do not allow two-way communication. Circumstances such as these include advertising and public announcements where the choice of medium and the design or method of transmission is very critical in effective conveying of the intended message. Such circumstances do not allow feedbacks from the receivers as well as the opportunity for the senders to explain their message to the receivers.
Symbols are representations of concepts. The process of associating concepts with certain physical or non-abstract concepts is called “tokenization”. The “tokenization” of concepts is very conventional, that is, for some reason, the representations may or may not resemble the concept it represent but can still emit the same behavior or reaction among most people (Symbol, 2006). A very good example of this is the “tokenization” of abstract concepts such as “justice,” “peace,” and “life.” The symbol of “justice” is the scale; peace is most commonly represented by a flying bird, most specifically, a dove; and life is usually symbolized by an egg (e.g. eggs during easter), a recognition of Jesus Christ’s coming back from the dead by the Christians.
Symbols can either be immaterial or material. Immaterial symbols include sounds, words or actions: a “Wang! Wang!” sound can indicate that an ambulance is near; a “ring! ring! indicate that there is a phone call; a “knock! Knock! Sound means someone is at the door; when someone makes a “shhhh” sound, it means he or she wants quiet; and a waving of hand indicates “hi,” or “goodbye.”
Symbols are most oftenly represented graphically. They can represent almost any concept except sound (Symbol, 2006). Material symbols are physical associations involved in the concept it represents through history, convention, culture, religion, properties, uses and characteristics.
For example, a person draws or makes a 3-dimensional heart. Another person might see it as a symbol of love or may see it as it is—a heart. In either case, it is a representation. The person may see it as a symbol of love, associating it the sudden boost in heart rate most experience when they are in love. A person might see it as a representation of the organ that pumps blood because it looks like it. Other examples of symbols include the cross for Christianity, as Christ, the Christian God is said to have died on the cross; Black may symbolize darkness because when the light is out, everything turn black. It may also be associated with “evil” because of the belief that “evil lurks in darkness.”
Symbols are universal. That is, people can associate it with similar concepts because history, characteristics and the experiences to which the people associate the symbols with are basically the same. This can be proven by history when even before the invention of language and literature, prehistoric men could already communicate with each other. This is through the use of symbols, probably by actions and as indicated by mural paintings found in caves, through drawings and pictures. Egyptians had hieroglyphics and also murals which tell stories about their culture, their beliefs and history.
Figure 2 shows, for example, that Akenaten and Nefertiti, the historic rulers of Egypt. This Egyptian art shows that the rulers revere the sun. The arm rays of the sun which are directed towards the two rulers imply the blessing or support of this most powerful god (according to Akenaten) to Akenaten and Nefertiti. It was stated in history books that before the rule of Akenaten, the Egyptians believed that there was another diety that was more powerful than the sun. It was only Akenaten, with his belief on the sun who changed the Egyptians belief about this.
Figure 2. Egyptian art
In 1977, the Voyager aircraft, to which a gramophone with records of images and sounds portrayed on Earth, was sent to space. Before that, 2 other space ships were sent, Pioneer 1 and Pioneer 2 and just recently this year 2006, another space ship, also named Voyager was sent to outside the solar system.
The methodology employed in space programs like the Voyager and Pioneers 10 and 11 illustrate the universality of symbols. These programs are attempts to communicate to aliens the existence of another life in another galaxy, earthlings, by showing earth stories through images and sounds. Obviously at a very distant place and time, images and symbols were sent and not letters of introduction or books to read because such have a higher probability of getting decoded and thus, understood.
Pictures, images used as symbols are universal whereas language and letters are not, is supported by past history and the assumptions implied in certain government projects such as Space probe
Psychology of Graphic Design
In psychology, there is what is called the Information Processing Approach to Cognition. This approach uses certain principles in the analysis of how humans understand different concepts. The general principles include the assumption of limited capacity, the requirement for a controlled mechanism, and the necessity of a two-way flow of information (Huitt, 2003).
The assumption of limited capacity recognizes the constraints in the amount, flow and processing of information. This means that the receiver is never expected to get the full benefit or full understanding of the information being relayed. There will always be a part of the message that is not transmitted effectively. There would always be the presence of barriers to communication as well as the receivers’ limitations which would prevent full understanding of the message relayed (Huitt, 2003).
A controlled mechanism is likewise required to adjust for the differences in previous understanding of the receivers. Naturally, one who is new at a task or is still learning a new task is exposed to a relatively new environment, requiring more effort from him to process information. He or she would have to familiarize himself/herself first before understanding of the message takes place (Huitt, 2003).
The necessity for the two-way flow of information refers to the need to make sense of the information presented. To do this, the person or the receiver gathers data from previous experiences, and from the senses to construct meanings and relationships (Huitt, 2003).
Figure 3 shows the stage model of information processing.
Figure 3. Stage model of information processing (Huitt, 2003)
Based on this model, information processing has a prerequisite. Information must be stored first in the sensory memory to be processed and retrieved to the short-term memory to produce a response, be stored in the long-term memory or be forgotten. This highlights the importance of external stimulus, which for the receiver of the message, should be interesting enough to deserve attention, and familiar, for better and speedier understanding. In addition, repetition of the message is necessary to reinforce the message in one’s short-term memory, increasing the probability of the message’s introduction to the long-term memory and eliciting response (Huitt, 2003)
By integrating the communication process to some theories of learning, we can deduce why pictures, images and symbols are more effective media of communication as well as in creating an advantageous impact on many sectors compared to letters and words.
Communication is the life of almost all sectors. Without which, everything will be in perpetual chaos. That is why it is not enough for the sectors to have a communication. It is important for them to have an EFFECTIVE communication. But barriers to effective communication can never be eliminated completely. For every attempt to transmit messages, there will always be factors that will disrupt the effective transmission from the sender to receiver. The disruptive properties of these barriers can only be minimized by manipulating the mode of transmission (transmitter) to affect the signal’s resistance to the effects of barriers and the noise source.
Media such as those involving letters and words are very sensitive to barriers such as language, misreading of body language, noisy transmission, language-different levels of meanings and erroneous translation. On the other hand, media involving graphics and symbols are more resistant to the effects of these barriers.
Language, for example cannot be a barrier to communication involving graphics and symbols because ideally, graphics should be able to speak for itself. Graphics do not need letters and words to convey messages and are powerful enough to be a language in itself. In this way, graphics are universal.
Whereas a monolingual German cannot understand French or any other language, through the signals that graphics are able to convey, that monolingual person would be able to have an idea about what a graphical French ad is conveying. Using graphical symbols and road signs, a German person would not get lost in France. More than asking for directions, a German would get more help from the images and signs he sees.
In the same way, it is quite interesting to ask how historians are able to gain understanding of the life of prehistoric people when they are ages apart and no books had been available for the record of prehistoric people. The cave murals definitely made a huge contribution. Through these murals, the people today were able to gain an idea about how people lived, how they gathered food, what they believed in and what values they had. Noisy transmission, language-different levels of meanings and erroneous translation cannot be a barrier to effective communication if graphics are used in conveying messages because of its universality. The cave murals have become the medium of communication between people separated by a significant amount of time.
There is no face-to-face interaction in conveying messages through graphics. As a result, misreading of body languages would be impossible as there is no body language involved in graphic design.
If the design would involve movement of cartoons imitating that of a person’s, graphic design would still have the advantage because graphical representations, especially when the artist is very talented can be easily manipulated to exact the desired “body language” necessary to convey the message. Although face-to-face interaction is ideal especially when messages to be sent are critical, emotions and certain mannerisms are sometimes uncontrolled and can lead to certain misunderstandings that could endanger the message to be conveyed. Also, the impossibility of face-to-face interactions when a message is to be transmitted to a very large number of people makes the use of other media such as graphics more ideal.
Some barriers are difficult to manipulate as these do not involve any circumstance that the sender can control. The barriers being referred to are those which nature lies on the receiver’s biases and personality. Although graphical design would be a powerful medium in transforming and changing beliefs, such beliefs, attitudes, biases and the nature of the receiver’s personality are results of his or her own personal or vicarious experiences which are developed not in one day, but a result of a lifetime development. For example, an advertisement meant to denounce racism may mean another thing for people who believe in their superiority over others of different races. These barriers include: defensiveness; receiver distortion; power struggles; receiver distortion; self-fulfilling assumptions; hesitations; perceptual biases; interpersonal relationships; and cultural differences (Wertheim, n.d.,).
The main idea about the relation of psychology, graphics or symbols, and the communication process is that graphics or symbols allow a more effective communication process by allowing the receiver of the message to process a data which are more understandable; a data which he or she can easily process because the mode of transmission itself stimulates something familiar in his brain based on his or her vicarious and actual experiences, past knowledge and the graphical medium’s universal nature (Cull, 1996).
The sensory aspect of understanding is the foundation of graphical representations’ strength over literature and language. Processing information based on literature and language, especially if there is no prior experience or idea about the message conveyed, requires the receiver to actively imagine the data infused by literature and language. Compare how much time is necessary to make a mental picture of a 3-page description of a forest to a small picture of a forest. In addition, prior understanding of certain concepts such as “trees” or “leaves” are necessary for the mind to make the mental picture. Imagination and understanding of the required concepts are necessary to give the receiver at least a vicarious experience about the subject involved which is a prerequisite for the brain to initially process the information. This is based on the information processing model in Figure 3 where it is implied that the external stimuli, in this case, literature and language must affect the senses to begin the processing of information. This cannot be done by literature and language without active imagination to imitate the perceptions of the senses.
In conveying messages using graphical representations, even if the receiver has no prior experience or knowledge about the message being conveyed, because of the universality of symbols, the receiver could easily gain an idea about the message being conveyed. No active imagination would be required to gain a sensory experience of the subject because the mode of transmission itself is already a sensory experience that could be associated to the object being represented by the graphics and naturally be integrated into the message conveyed. The receiver’s understanding of the message of course is still dependent on some factors that can hinder effective communication as discussed above.
These strengths of graphics as discussed in the previous paragraphs have made the use of graphics a powerful tool in politics, business (through advertising), and public information. In politics, there are editorial cartoons which satirize critique or simply provide public information.
Impact of Graphic Design on Business Sector
In businesses, advertising, usually with the use of graphics is a powerful tool in increasing (or decreasing) profits. Advertisements are powerful tools of marketing. In fact, the control of advertisements has been part of businesses’ marketing strategy. It has the power of persuading the public towards or against certain products.
Logos, annual reports and any other publications or medium can be exploited by businesses to promote their products, win respect and admiration by providing ideas and a positive business image (The Graphic Design Handbook for Business, 2005). Effective control of such forms can work towards their advantage by shaping public opinion and giving them the opportunity to stand out and thus gain more profits.
The consumers would not want to know that they are being manipulated. In persuading people, one very critical rule often neglected by some is the importance of subtlety. Sometimes, being rash and direct would produce opposite results because such methods would often hurt people’s pride and cause them to raise their defenses.
This knowledge is used by graphic artists and advertisers in the creation of their ads and messages. For graphic artists, they should make a design that does not directly affect the minds of the people. On the other hand, the graphic must be tactically designed to target the subconscious needs of the consumers.
Abraham Maslow provided a classification of human needs. Based on this classification, human motivation can be assessed. Businesses and graphic designers can tailor their designs and advertisements from this classification to fit the needs of their targets (Buyer Psychology, 2006):
Figure 4. A representation of Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs
At the base of the pyramid, meaning, the primary and most essential human need is the physiological need. This need includes foods, clothes, shelter and all bare necessities. Next is the safety need. In order to live in peace, people need stability, personal security, and financial security. Third among the hierarchy of needs is the Belonging need. A person needs protection from the loneliness he may be bound to feel. The feeling of attachment to groups such as, family, organizations, and clubs may do this. Esteem and Self-actualization needs comprise the fourth and the peak of the pyramid. Esteem needs include accomplishments, status and respect from others. Self-actualization includes self-fulfillment and the achievement of higher needs (Maslow’s Heirarchy of Needs, 2006).
To cite an example, a check mark on a shoe would not make a person be as skilled in basketball as the basketball player who wears them in advertisements. But surely, it creates a perception of such skill among the kids who wear them. Most of the time, it only creates a perception of prestige. This company has just made millions out of making efficient application of the hierarchy of needs by shaping their message in their ads to the most critical need of their targets: the sense of belongingness in teens.
The importance of subtlety can be applied in most company logos. Take a minute and try to look and understand the underlying message of the Coca-Cola sign in Figure 5. For those who are not familiar with Coca-Cola, the Coca-Cola Company is one of the leading manufacturers of softdrinks, internationally.
Figure 5. Coca-Cola Logo
Probably, the most obvious element of this logo is the picture of the bottle. Naturally, given the product of the Coca-Cola Company, soft drinks, they would put a picture of a bottle of their product in their logo. This is to remind the people what the company’s product is.
In a way, it also reminds the people how their product look and of course, a distinctive characteristic of their product,—the bottle which is somewhat shaped like a mirror-imaged “S” or as others put it, “like the shape of a woman.”
This is not the only thing to be observed in the picture of the bottle. Notice that the bottle in the logo has no label placed on where it is normally placed as bought in stores. Instead the label is placed at the center of the logo with its disproportionally larger (relative to the bottle) size like being stamped on the picture of the bottle. This implies the company’s attempt to make a brand that is trying to become a monopoly in the beverage industry by indirectly shaping the minds of the consumers into thinking “Coca-Cola” when the term is actually “soft drink” or “carbonated beverage.”
Indirectly, the logo is a tool that continuously and untiringly says “any bottle (softdrink) is/should be Coca-cola.” With repetition, a consumer would then easily associate “soft drinks” with “Coca-Cola.”
Obviously, the water droplets on the logo are put there to make an association between the product and “thirst.” This element of the logo evokes a refreshing characteristic on the product. Just by looking at this can stimulate thirst or perception of thirst. And the color of the background, which is red, is a common color in any food establishment or in this case, food product because of its reputed psychological effect which is to stimulate guttural activity.
Sometimes, the Coca-Cola logo does not come with the bottle, the red background and the water droplets: the name Coca-Cola with its distinctive typography could be shown independently (Coca-Cola has many identifying symbols). This exemplifies the effectiveness of their marketing strategy, which is to associate the generic product which is soft drink to the name. Imagining the Coca-Cola logo without the bottle, red background and the water droplets, one can notice that the mind will produce only one object: a bottle of soft drink.
Impact of Graphic Design on Public Information Sector
In public information, the senders take advantage of the ease to which information can be sent through graphic designs. The speed is very critical in aspects such as these. Aside from the effectiveness to which it can convey messages and ease it affords the senders in communicating their messages, it is also very efficient.
Graphical design is also very critical as a public utility. Especially in road signs, it is important that messages must be clear enough and easy to read or convey the message. In roads, a second of misunderstanding can spell death.
In driving schools, one lesson that is taught to students is the importance of looking at mirrors. But with this lesson is the emphasis that it SHOULD only take the driver one or two seconds to look and understand what he or she sees in the mirror and be able to make decisions out of it. This also applies to road signs. It should only take the drivers one or two seconds to understand it.
Unfortunately, not everyone can speed-read so the use of words in road signs should be limited to one or two words. This is where the importance of graphics comes in. Compare Figures 6 and 7.
Slow down, pedestrians may be crossing
Figure 6. A traffic warning
Figure 7. A traffic sign
Figure 6 is a traffic warning and may require the drivers to be close to being able to read it and thus understand it. This is a very critical sign and as the warning says, requires the driver to SLOW DOWN. If the driver takes so much time reading and understanding the warning, then “slowing down” would not happen and a possible accident may take place. This is because most readers process written statements by letters (which they have to see individually) and from there form an understanding of the statement. Signs only require seconds for simultaneous processing by the mind of the message and its possible implications.
The examples described above illustrate the effectiveness of graphics as a visual communication tool. But surely the use of graphical representations in business, politics and public information does not guarantee effectiveness. As anyone might have thought, graphical designs are not equal. One advertisement may convince anyone about the reliability of one product but not the other.
These are the reasons why companies take time and spend large amounts in hiring graphical designers to produce effective graphical designs. Anyone can produce a design but the effectiveness in communicating messages is the key in all graphical representations.
Graphical design involves technicalities that require much study and experience. It involves not simply designing for the sake of having a design but also much consideration of many different factors including the message to be conveyed, the target group to the deliver the message to and the most effective way of delivering the message based on known symbols and principles not only of design but also of communication and advertising.
Based on the success of the Coca-Cola Company, it will be assumed that much of its success is a result of the effectiveness of their communication strategies which in part is contributed by the design of its advertisements.
The following paragraphs will analyze how these advertisements apply some principle of advertising and relate this to the probable success of its communication strategies. Particularly in this analysis, Coca-Cola’s probably most popular advertisements will be utilized: those with Santa Claus.
Figure 8. Things Go Better With Coke Ad
The guidelines provided by Professional Advertising in judging the quality of the design and its probability of bringing a business, customers will be the basis of the analysis. Attention, imagery, contrast, difference, number of customers, use of quality photos and illustrations, and colors are the elements to which the quality of an advertisement can be judged.
Coca-Cola’s advertisements have contributed so much to the popularity of Santa Claus. Similarly, the image of Santa Claus could be said to have contributed to Coca-Cola’s image and popularity.
Because Santa Claus is already a legend himself, Coca-Cola’s decision to use his person in their advertisements is undeniably a wise decision. After the attention received by a series of Santa Claus advertisements, most of which showing Santa Claus holding Coca-Cola bottles, there was an increase in Coca-Cola consumption from bottles compared to consumption from soda bottles.
In addition, people started to purchase numbers of Coca-Cola in bottles for their home consumption. To keep up with trend, Coca-Cola released an advertisement showing Santa Claus retrieving Coke from a refrigerator. A copy of this advertisement is shown in Figure 9.
Figure 9. Coca-Cola ad: Santa caught retrieving Coke from the refrigerator
The use of Santa Claus has created for Coca-Cola an image associated with jolly, good, pleasant experience. This image has been propagated through ubiquitous large images in trucks and billboards during Christmas which evoke a distinct feeling that could only be associated with the integration of the Christmas season and Coca-Cola. No other company is able to utilize the image of Santa Claus and his popularity and in return add to the popularity of Santa Claus itself, than Coca-Cola. At present, as much as Coca-Cola is associated with Santa Claus, Santa Claus has been likewise associated with Coca-Cola (The Coca-Cola Company).
Compare the Coca-Cola advertisements to the advertisements of other companies in the same league. Which has continued its legacy since the beginning until present? Which company has retained its image in the same way as Coca-Cola? None of the other advertisements stayed in the minds of the public as much as this Coca-Cola ad. We can attribute this to Coca-Cola’s effective use of contrast and their effort to be different from the others.
In addition to these, none of the Coca-Cola advertisements has produced any illustration of poor quality. As a matter of fact, all illustrations especially those involving Santa Claus could evoke a smile to anyone who happens to see a Coca-Cola ad. Also, the use of Santa Claus and his red clothes further emphasize the company’s trademark color as well as evoke the spirit of Christmas.
Also, going back to the Stage Model of Information Processing in Figure 3, it can be said that Coca-Cola has recognized the importance of repetition in reinforcing their product to the minds of the general public. Graphical representations of Coke can be seen almost everywhere. The result is the reinforcement and association of the product to specific values like pleasure and refreshment in the public minds, which continuously boosts their sales.
The advertising tactics of Coca-Cola have utilized most of the elements of advertising: imagery, attention, contrast, difference number of clients, color and the use of quality photos and illustrations– their effective use of graphic design is just about making them billions.
Effectiveness of Graphic Design
In using graphic design as a visual communication tool, the effectiveness of the design to communicate the message is the measure of its quality. In ensuring the quality of graphic designs, one must consider the technicalities involved especially those linked to the psychology of the receivers of the messages: their motivations and weaknesses; the methods on using such information to the advantage of the design, and thus the company; what barriers might affect the transmission of the message, the elements of design and in those involving persuasion like business advertisements, logos, business forms, flyers, editorial cartoons and other political tools, the principles of advertisement.
Graphic design’s advantages over literature do not guarantee the success of the design or ensure its ability to convey its message effectively. Graphic design is not designing for the design’s sake. It has its own function and that is to communicate messages in the most efficient, powerful and most subtle way by manipulating different principles ranging from design to communication, advertising, psychology and sometimes even symbology.
Figure 10 summarizes how the use of graphic design has contributed to the advantage of different sectors, as discussed in the examples in this paper.
Sender à graphic design à receiver à impact
Figure 10. Graphic Design as a communication tool, integrates different concepts to create an impact
Figure 10 is an illustration of how different concepts: communication, psychology and symbolism integrate to create an impact. To create an impact, a message MUST reach the receiver, but in order to reach the receiver, the message must first pass through the different barriers. The sender (the different sectors) sends their message using graphic design (as symbols) to reach the receiver. But the transmission of the message is hindered by many barriers. By its very nature, with the speed in which it can convey messages, with its universal nature and as it targets the senses and needs, with its capability to manipulate the human psyche and its ability to provide at least a vicarious experiences, graphic design as a communication tool provides an easy way to attack and break the barriers and thus reach the receiver more effectively. Obviously, as more barriers are broken, the more opportunity for sectors to reach their targets, convey their message and create the impact. As illustrated by the different examples, this is how graphic design impacts the different sectors: It clears the path of effective communication. The impact of graphic design to different sectors is towards progress.
The discussion given in this paper has provided the reader with an idea on how graphic design, by nature, continues to be a huge impact in different sectors such as politics, business and public information. Communication is to sectors as food is to living things. Graphic design as a communication tool is thus a necessity for different sectors. Obviously contributing much to the success of these sectors, graphic design, by its very definition is not only a communication tool but also a tool for success.
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