Extended users might choose di erentretailers based on

Extended Abstract – A smart city is a concept of cities that adopt informa-tion communication technologies (Smart ICT), such as the Internet-of-Things,cloud computing, big data to improve and manage the planning, constructionand smart services of cities. Many of the challenges and opportunities of emerg-ing and future smart cities can be addressed by means of cloud computing.Cloud computing is driven by o ering on-demand resources from the pool ofvirtualized resources to solve elasticity and scalability for large-scale computa-tional objectives, such as real-time massive data streaming, and energy dynamicpricing that is shifting peak demand to a di erent point in time when the energyprice is lower.A cloud-based platform will be instrumental in minimizing network complex-ity and providing cost-e ective solutions as well as increasing the utilization ofenergy. Smart grid and smart city services cloud be deployed in di erent wayslike in a hybrid cloud, community cloud, private cloud.As a step into this direction, we study dynamic pricing strategies in smartcities to formulate and model a simple modelisation of maximizing the pro tof an intermediate company which acts as an electricity broker for the end-user while orchestrating the management of smart-meters data which is storedand computed across multiple cloud providers. In the model, the objective is tobuild a prototype reecting the price contributions of the intermediate company(include electricity type, cloud storage, compututation) and see how to make itevolve over time to adapt to the demand. The users energy demand changes withthe price to maximize their individual utility, and users might choose di erentretailers based on the provided prices. The intermediate company will choosethe lowest cost of energy resources based on clients energy usage demand inreal time. Dynamic pricing aims at reducing the overall energy consumption,the capacity of end use customers to change their electricity usage from theirnormal or current consumption patterns in response to market signals is mainlyabout shifting consumption to a di erent point in time.Furthermore, in our model, the intermediate company needs to pay the billsof cloud service which is a part of the total cost. If the metering indicators andbilling modes can be known for di erent types of cloud services, customers willhave the tools for choosing, using and evaluating cloud services, and be givenguidance to understand why such bills need to be paid. The metering indicatorsand billing modes also help cloud service providers get foundations for cloud ser-vice metering and pricing, settlement between di erent cloud service providers.During the studying, we have come to know that standardization in the areaof metering and billing lags behind research, there isnt any published standard-ization involve in metering indicators and billing principles for cloud service.Therefore, in our study we focus on researching the market requirements forthe metering indicators and billing principles of cloud services to highlight anddetermine gaps between industry practices, market requirements and currenttechnical standardisation e orts at ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 38 committee in orderto pave the way to establishing standards in metering indicators and billingprinciples for cloud services this while keeping in mind privacy and data pro-tection risks and regulations enforced by ISO JT1/SC 27 and EU General DataProtection Regulation e ective May 2018.Keywords: Smart Cities, Cloud Computing, Dynamic Pricing, TechnicalStandardisation, Billing PrinciplesThis research was conducted in collaboration with ILNAS – the Institut Lux-embourgeois de la Normalisation, de l’Accrditation, de la Scurit et qualit desproduits et services (ILNAS) under the authority of the Minister of Economy,Luxembourg.