Exploration Of Galactic Ray Supernova Remnants Biology Essay

New generational very-high-energy telescope arrays have been observing more than 120 TeV I?-ray beginnings. Multi-wavelength observations on these Gamma-ray beginnings have proven to be robust in casting visible radiation on their nature. The coming wireless telescope arrays like ASKAP and FAST may happen more swoon ( extended ) wireless beginnings due to their better sensitivenesss and declarations, might place more antecedently un-identified I?-ray beginnings and set many new marks for future deep studies by very-high-energy ground-based telescopes like LHAASO. We in the paper summarize a list of known Galactic I?-ray Supernova Remnants ( SNRs ) with or without radio emanations so far, which includes some SNRs meriting top precedence for future multi-wavelength observations.

Supernova leftovers, gamma-ray beginnings, Cosmic beams

PACS figure ( s ) : 98.38.Mz, 98.70.Rz, 98.70.Sa

1. Background

Astrophysical daze moving ridges have been considered as efficient gas pedals of Cosmic Rays ( CRs, chiefly composed of karyon, protons and negatrons ) since the 1980 ‘s [ Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] . Based on the inferred Galactic CR energy denseness ( 1a?’2 eV/ cm3 ) and the inferred clip ( ~6×106 year ) that an mean cosmic beam corsets in the Galaxy, the Galactic CRs have a entire power of ~1041 erg /s. By comparing with the supernova energy and rates ( their norm detonation energy of ~ 1051 erg and an inferred Galactic supernova rate of ~ 2 – 3 per century ) , Galactic Supernova Remnant ( SNR ) shocks speed uping charged atoms in the interstellar medium ( ISM ) and circum-stellar medium ( CSM ) are able to bring forth most of the Galactic cosmic rays up to 1015 electron volt. As a cardinal issue to research the beginning of the CSs, we need first understand the comparative efficiency of acceleration of protons versus negatrons every bit good as the maximal energies obtained.

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Chromiums are chiefly composed of charged atoms which are deflected in the magnetic Fieldss, so direct observations on the charged atoms carry no information on their beginning. However, observations of Gamma-ray photons as little constituents of the CRs ( & lt ; 1 % ) play a cardinal function in this issue due to two grounds: Gamma-rays have straight-line extension ; Gamma-rays may be produced by relativistic atoms ‘ interactions.

Fig. 1 diagrams that I?-rays from cosmic beam beginnings are straight-line transit while charged atoms are dei¬‚ected in ISM magnetic Fieldss on their travel from the beginning to the Earth. Two chief I?-ray emanation mechanisms here are: hadronic beginning and leptonic beginning ( for inside informations please mention to the text ) .Credits go to Mr. SU Hongquan for assisting bring forth Figure 1 which in bend benefits from Dr. Aharonian ‘s paper ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nature.com/nature/journal/v416/n6883/full/416797a.html ) .

New generational very-high-energy telescope arrays have detected more than 120 TeV I?-ray beginnings in the Universe in recent old ages. Seeking low-energy set opposite numbers of TeV beginnings plays a cardinal function in casting visible radiation on the nature of the TeV beginnings. Two major I?-ray generators have been identified now, i.e. immature shell-type SNRs and pulsar air current nebulae [ Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] . There are besides other possible campaigners as opposite numbers to some unidentified TeV beginnings [ Mistake: Reference beginning non found, 5,6 ] .

With the coming of new general X ray and I?-ray observatories ( e.g. , XMM-NEWTON, Chandra, HESS, Fermi etc ) , recent observations have shown that SNR dazes are able to speed up atoms to TeV energies [ Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] . Theoretical geographic expedition has revealed that two primary TeV photon emanation mechanisms play major functions in the procedures, i.e. , the decay of impersonal pi-mesons ( Iˆ0 ) by p-p interactions and the inverse-Compton sprinkling of negatrons on ambient photons. These atoms may or may non instantly get away the acceleration and emanation sites due to the presence of magnetic Fieldss in SNR, which depends on the energy threshold of atoms. Part of the charged atoms may be detected after they escape to the interstellar infinite from the speed uping sites when the MHD perturbation which constrains the atoms gets decreased. However, it is still highly hard for us to follow their accelerating sites by observing them because Galactic magnetic Fieldss have changed their waies of transmittal. However, the TeV photons tell us different narrative because they escape straight and transmit in a straight-line manner, which makes it possible to happen the sites of these procedures.

Observations in the wireless, X-ray and I?-ray frequency bands are so far the best manner to entree non-thermal acceleration processes in SNR. Although analyzing I?-rays emanations may indicate to the sites of the atom acceleration, the atoms are either hadrons or leptons due to bing two chief mechanisms. So far, we might hold detected the two categories of TeV I?-ray photons from SNR, but we can non claim that we have solved the CRs ‘ origin issue before we may clearly separate them.

Analyzing evolved SNRs of older than 103 year seems conveying new hopes because evolved SNRs have really different features comparing to immature SNRs. [ Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] have revealed that the I?- and X-ray emanations in an evolved SNR are expected to be dominated by the decay of impersonal pi-mesons and by the synchrotron radiation of secondary negatrons from charged pi-meson decay, respectively.. So detecting both I?- and X-ray emanations from many swoon wireless SNRs might supply cardinal grounds that Galactic CRs originates from SNRs ‘ speed uping charged atoms.

Recently, we have given grounds of CRs arising from old SNR utilizing multi-wave observations. Based on a new distance-measurement method, [ Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] provided experimental grounds back uping that the old SNR W41 encounters a GMC to breathe TeV I?-rays ( HESS J1834-087 ) . In this instance, the CR protons could spread merely partway into the cloud, ensuing in p-p to Iˆ0 decay TeV I?-rays, so TeV I?-rays in W41 chiefly have hadronic beginning. Further, [ Error: Reference beginning non found ] discovered a new swoon SNR G353.6-0.7 with age of 27000 year, whose wireless and X-ray morphologies closely match the lineation of HESS J1731-347, one antecedently unidentified extended TeV beginning. Deep research utilizing new consequences from XMM-Newton and SUZAKU X-ray observations, and Delinha CO observations demonstrated that G353.6-0.7 may be coinciding with CO clouds. Based on the likely association between the X-ray and gamma-ray emanations and likely association between the CO cloud and the SNR, [ Error: Reference beginning non found ] argued that the drawn-out TeV emanation originates from the interaction between the SNR daze and the next CO clouds.

Our survey has shown that it is extremely likely that evolved SNRs, every bit good as immature SNRs, play a cardinal function in turn outing that SNRs are the beginning of the Galactic CRs. Especially, about half of the detected Galactic TeV I? -rays beginnings so far have no low energy-band ‘s opposite numbers. For upcoming very-high-energy telescope studies, more such unidentified TeV beginnings will be foundi??e.g. CTA, LHAASOi?‰ . To place the unidentified TeV beginnings becomes progressively of import. However, it is hard to make this by utilizing current wireless and X-ray instruments as a consequence of their limited sensitiveness, if the TeV beginnings are weak SNRs. In fact, there is a disagreement between the figure of known SNRs ( 276 ) and the figure predicted by theory ( above 2000 Galactic SNRs ) . This has been considered the consequence of choice effects in current sensitivity-limited studies, which favor the find of the brighter leftovers ( e.g. [ Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] ) . Survey information from observations that combine high sensitiveness and declaration with low wireless frequences are going the rich modern hunting-grounds for new SNRs. Some new SNRs have been discovered from the 90 centimeter Very Large Array study of the interior Galaxy [ Error: Reference beginning non found ] i?? the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey ( CGPS ) of the outer Galaxy [ Error: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] i??the Southern Galactic Plane Survey [ Error: Reference beginning non found ] , and a Sino-German 6 centimeter polarisation study of the Galactic plane [ Error: Reference beginning non found ] .

2. Current Statistics Consequences

New general infinite and ground-based high-energy telescopes have detected many gamma-ray beginnings. Most Galactic gamma-ray beginnings are likely associated with SNRs/PWNs. Table 1 shows all Galactic TeV SNRs/PWNs ( Table 1 ) and Table 2 is the Galactic GeV SNRs/PWNs and unidentified TeV beginnings, based on all accessible observations and mentions so far. We focus on the GeV/TeV beginnings with wireless emanations. We have merely selected the SNRs with GeV/TeV emanation in the catalog compiled by Ferrand & A ; Safi-Harb [ Error: Reference beginning non found ] ( see hypertext transfer protocol: //www.physics.Umanitoba.ca/snr/SNRcat ) , which includes all the high energy SNRs in the Galaxy. We have added the TeV beginnings non looking in Ferrand & A ; Safi-Harb ‘s catalog but looking in the TeV catalog ( see hypertext transfer protocol: //tevcat.uchicago.edu ) . Some TeV beginnings have non been identified by other moving ridge set observations so far. We have besides given/calculated fluxes of the Gev/TeV SNRs with the unit of Crab. In add-on, we have made notes if a SNR is in the LHAASO ‘s field of position as a fillip for the LHAASO design. In the tabular arraies, the 2nd column is the “ SNR ID Gal. name ” which unambiguously identifies the object ( with its Galactic co-ordinates ) . The columns “ RA ( 2000 ) ” and “ Dec ( 2000 ) ” give the location ( Right Ascension and Declination of the J2000 ) . The column “ LHAASO ” shows whether the SNR/PWN is in the field of position of LHAASO. The 6th column “ name ( Gamma-ray ) “ are gamma-ray beginning names. The 7th column is the morphology type. Columns eight and nine are the age and distance. column 12 ” SNR/MC ” shows if there exists an interaction between SNR daze with next molecular clouds. Symbol “ ? ” hints an uncertainness in TeV beginnings ‘ categorization and association relationship.

2.1.Current Catalogue of Gamma-Ray/SNR Associations: GeV/TeV Galactic SNR

Table 1 lists 61 TeV gamma beam beginnings, which are likely identified as SNRs/PWNe. Most of them are discovered by H.E.S.S. , 21 instances of which are in LHAASO field of position. 28 instances of TeV beginnings have likely shell constructions ( 20 are considered certain, and 8 have non been identified ) . 32 of TeV beginnings have been considered as PWN ( 28 are certain, and 4 are possible ) . 28 instances are composite ( 11 are confirmed, and 17 are possible ) . Association with a molecular cloud has been reported in 28 instances, and 4 instances are considered improbable. Most of them with measured distances are nearby, i.e. 32 of 52 instances have distances less than 6 kpc. Many SNRs are really immature, i.e. 17 of 39 instances with known ages have ages less than 3 thousand old ages.

Table 1: TeV Galactic SNRs/PWNe which have wireless or X ray opposite numbers

SNR ID

Gal. name

RA

( 2000 )

Dec

( 2000 )

LHAASO

Name

( Gamma-ray )

Type

Age

( kyr )

Distance

( kpc )

Radio size

Gamma-Flux

( Crab Units )

SNR/

Megahertz

Referees

1

G0.0+0.0 ( SGR A East )

17h 45m 44s

-29° 00 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1745-290 ( GT )

S?

8

8.5

2.5′-3.5 ‘

0.05 ( a‰?0.165TeV ) ( H, V, C, MA, F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

2

G0.9+0.1

17h 47m 21s

-28° 09 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1747-281 ( T )

C

PWN

1.9 ( S ) , 5 ( P )

10 ( S ) ,13 ( P )

8 ‘

0.02 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

3

G5.7-0.1?

17h 58m 49s

-24° 03 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1800-240C ( T )

35-45

9 ‘ – 12 ‘

0.01 ( 0.3-5TeV ) ( H )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

4

G5.9-0.37

18h 00m 26.4s

-24° 02 ‘ 20.4 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1800-240B ( GT )

S?

C?

35-45

0.02 ( 0.3-5TeV ) ( H, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

5

G6.14-0.63

18h 01m 57.8s

-23° 57 ‘ 43.2 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1800-240A ( GT )

S? C?

35-45

0.02 ( 0.3-5TeV ) ( H, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

6

G6.4-0.1 ( W28 )

18h 00m 30s

-23° 26 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

( GT )

C

35-45 ( S )

1.8 – 1.9 ( S )

48 ‘

( H )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

7

G6.5-0.4

18h 02m 11s

-23° 34 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1801-233 ( T )

Second

18 ‘

0.02 ( 0.3-5TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

8

G8.7-0.1 ( W30 )

18h 05m 30s

-21° 26 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1804-216 ( GT )

S? PWN

10-50

4 ( S, P )

45 ‘

0.25 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H, C, F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

9

G11.2-0.3

18h 11m 27s

-19° 25 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1809-193 ( T )

C

a‰¤2 ( S ) ,

24 ( P )

a‰? 5 ( S )

5 ( P )

4 ‘

0.14 ( a‰?0.25TeV ) ( H )

Nitrogen

10

G12.8-0.0 ( W33 )

18h 13m 37s

-17° 49 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1813-178 ( T )

C?

PWN

1.2 ( S ) ,5 ( P )

4.7 ( P )

3 ‘

0.06 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H, MA )

Nitrogen

11

G15.4+0.1

18h 18m 02s

-15° 27 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1818-154 ( T )

S?

14′-15 ‘

0.018 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

12

G18.0-0.7

18h 25m 41s

-13° 50 ‘ 20 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1825-137 ( GT )

PWN

4 ( P )

0.17 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

13

G21.5-0.9

18h 33m 33s

-10° 35 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1833-105 ( T )

C

PWN

0.7-1.07 ( S ) ,4.8 ( P )

4.7 ( S, P )

4 ‘

0.02 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

14

G22.7-0.2

18h 32m 46.83s

-09° 21 ‘ 54.5 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1832-093 ( T )

S?

26 ‘

0.007 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

15

G23.3-0.3 ( W41 )

18h 34m 45s

-08° 48 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1834-087 ( GT )

S?

PWN?

100 ( S )

3.9-4.5 ( S )

27 ‘

0.08 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H, MA, F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found,

16

G25.5+0.0

18h 37h 38.4h

-06° 57 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1837-069 ( T )

PWN?

0.132 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

18

G29.7-0.3 ( Kes 75 )

18h 46m 25s

-02° 59 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1846-029 ( T )

C

PWN

0.9-4.3 ( S ) ,0.725 ( P )

5.1-7.5 ( Tian )

3 ‘

0.02 ( a‰?0.25TeV ) ( H )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

20

G32.8-0.1 ( Kes 78 )

18h 51m 25s

-00° 08 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1852-000 ( T )

S?

4.8 ( S )

17 ‘

? ( H )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

21

G35.6-0.4?

18h 54m 53s

02° 33 ‘ 25 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1858+020 ( T )

Second

30 ( S ) ,160 ( P )

3.7-10.5 ( S ) ,8 ( P )

11′-15 ‘

0.018 ( 0.5-80TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

22

G40.5-0.5

19h 07m 10s

06° 31 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1908+063, MGRO 1908+06 ( GT )

Second

20 ( P )

3.2 ( P )

22 ‘

0.17 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H, V, MI, A, F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

23

G43.3-0.2 ( W49B )

19h 11m 08s

09° 06 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1911+090 ( GT )

C

1-4 ( S )

8 – 11 ( S )

3 ‘ – 4 ‘

0.005 ( a‰?0.26TeV ) ( H, F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

24

G49.2-0.7 ( W51 )

19h 23m 50s

14° 06 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1923+141 ( GT )

C?

PWN

10 ( S )

5.5 – 6 ( S )

30 ‘

0.003 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H, MA, F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

25

G54.1+0.3

19h 30m 31s

18° 52 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

( T )

PWN

2.5-3.3 ( S ) ,2.9 ( P )

5.6-7.2 ( S ) ,5 ( P )

1.5 ‘

0.025 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( V )

Yttrium?

26

G65.1+0.6

19h 54m 40s

28° 35 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

0FGL J1954.4+2838 ( GT )

Second

4-14

9.2 ( S )

50′-90 ‘

0.23 ( =35TeV ) ( MI, F )

27

G74.9+1.2 ( CTB 87 )

20h 16m 02s

37° 12 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

VER J2016+372 ( GT )

C?

PWN

6.1-12 ( S )

6 ‘ – 8 ‘

0.01 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( V, A )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

28

G75.2+0.1 ( Cisne )

20h18m 35.03s

36°50’00 ”

Yttrium

MGRO J2019+37 ( T )

PWN?

a‰?10 ( S ) ,4 ( P )

0.67 ( =35TeV )

( MI )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

29

G78.2+2.1 ( gammaCygni )

20h 20m 50s

40° 26 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

VER J2019+407 ( GT )

Second

6.6 ( S )

1.5 ( S )

60 ‘

? ( V, F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

30

G106.3+2.7 ( Boomerang )

22h 27m 30s

60° 50 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J2229.0+6114 ( GT )

C?

PWN

10 ( P )

0.8 ( S ) ,3 ( P )

24 ‘ – 60 ‘

0.05 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( V, MI, F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

31

G111.7-2.1 ( Cas A )

23h 23m 26s

58° 48 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J2323.4+5849 ( GT )

Second

0.316-0.352 ( S )

3.3 – 3.7 ( S )

5 ‘

0.03 ( a‰?1TeV )

( V, MA, F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

32

G119.5+10.2

00h 06m 40s

72° 45 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

CTA 1 ( GT )

Second

PWN

13-17

1.4 ( S )

90 ‘

0.04 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( V, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

33

G120.1+1.4

00h 25m 18s

64° 09 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

Tycho ( GT )

Second

0.440

2.5-5 ( S )

8 ‘

0.009

( MA, F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

34

G184.6-5.8

05h 34m 31s

22° 01 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

Crab ( GT )

C?

PWN

0.958

1.5-2.5 ( S ) , 2 ( P )

5 ‘ – 7 ‘

1 ( H, V, MA, MI, A, F )

Nitrogen

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

35

G189.1+3.0 ( IC443 )

06h 17m 00s

22° 34 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

MAGIC J0616+225 ( GT )

C

PWN

30 ( S, P )

0.7 – 2 ( S )

45 ‘

0.03

( V, MA, MI, F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

36

G195.1+4.3

06h 32m 28s

17° 22 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

Geminga ( GT )

C?

PWN

0.25 ( P )

0.23 ( 35TeV )

( MI, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

37

G205.5+0.5 ( Monoceros )

06h 39m 00s

06° 30 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J0632+057 ( GT )

Second

30-150

0.8 – 1.6 ( S )

220 ‘

0.03 ( a‰?0.4TeV ) ( H, MA, V, F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

38

G263.9-3.3 ( Vela X )

08h 34m 00s

-45° 50 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J0835-455 ( GT )

C

PWN

0.25-0.3 ( S ) , 0.29 ( P )

255 ‘

0.75 ( a‰?0.45TeV ) ( H, F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

39

G266.2-1.2 ( Vela Jr. , RX J0852.0-4622 )

08h 52m 00s

-46° 20 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J0852-463 ( GT )

Second

0.6-4 ( S )

0.2 – 2.4 ( S )

120 ‘

1 ( 0.3-20TeV ) ( H, C, F )

?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

40

G284.3-1.8 ( MSH 10-53 )

10h 18m 15s

-59° 00 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1018-589 ( GT )

Second

PWN

10 ( S )

2.9 ( S ) ,3 ( P )

24 ‘

? ( H, F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

41

G292.2-0.5

11h 19m 20s

-61° 28 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1119-614 ( T )

Second

PWN

a‰¤ 1.7 ( S ) 1.6 ( P )

8-8.8 ( S ) ,1.6 ( P )

15′- 20 ‘

0.04 ( 0.5-10TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

42

G304.1-0.2

13h 03m 0.4s

-63 11 55

Nitrogen

HESS J1303-631 ( T )

C?

PWN

7 ( P )

0.17 ( a‰?0.38TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

43

G309.9-2.5

13h 56m 00s

-64° 30 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1356-645 ( GT )

C?

PWN

2.5 ( P )

0.11 ( 1-10TeV )

( H, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

44

G313.3+0.1 ( Rabbit )

14h 18m 04s

-60° 58 ‘ 31 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1418-609 ( GT )

C?

PWN

5.6

0.06 ( a‰?0.3TeV )

( H, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

45

G313.6+0.3 ( Kookaburra )

14h 20m 09s

-60° 45 ‘ 36 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1420-607 ( GT )

C?

PWN

13 ( P )

5.6 ( P )

0.07 ( a‰?0.3TeV )

( H, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

46

G315.4-2.3 ( RCW 86 )

14h 43m 00s

-62° 30 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1442-624 ( T )

Second

2-10 ( S )

2.4 – 3.2 ( S )

42 ‘

0.1 ( a‰?0.48TeV ) ( H )

?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

47

G318.2+0.1

14h 54m 50s

-59° 04 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1457-593 ( T )

Second

3.5-9.2 ( S )

35′- 40 ‘

? ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

48

G320.4-1.2 ( RCW 89, MSH 15-52 )

15h 14m 30s

-59° 08 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1514-591 ( GT )

C

PWN

1.9 ( S ) ,1.7 ( P )

3.8-6.6 ( S ) , 5 ( P )

35 ‘

0.15 ( a‰?0.28TeV ) ( H, C, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

49

G327.1-1.1

15h 54m 25s

-55° 09 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

( T )

C

11 ( S )

9 ( S )

18 ‘

0.015 ( 1-10TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

50

G327.6+14.6 ( SN 1006 )

15h 02m 50s

-41° 56 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1502-421/HESS J1504-418 ( T )

Second

1.006

2.1 – 2.3 ( S )

30 ‘

0.01 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H )

Nitrogen

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

51

G332.5-0.3

16h 16m 24s

-50° 53 ‘ 60 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1616-508 ( T )

C?

PWN

6.5 ( P )

0.19 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

52

G335.2+0.1

16h 27m 45s

-48° 47 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1626-490 ( GT )

Second

21 ‘

0.16 ( 0.6-50TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

53

G337.2+0.1

16h 35m 55s

-47° 20 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1634-472 ( GT )

C?

PWN?

1.5 ( S )

14 ( S )

2 ‘ – 3 ‘

0.12 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

54

G338.3-0.0

16h 41m 00s

-46° 34 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1640-465 ( GT )

C?

PWN

4.5-8.2 ( S )

8 – 13 ( S )

8 ‘

0.09 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H, F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

55

G343.1-2.3

17h 08m 00s

-44° 16 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1708-443 ( T )

C?

PWN

17.5 ( P )

2 ( P )

32 ‘

0.17 ( 1-10TeV ) ( H, C )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

56

G344.7-0.1

17h 03m 51s

-41° 42 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1702-420 ( T )

C?

14 ( S ) ,5 ( P )

10 ‘

0.07 ( a‰?0.2 ) ( H )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

57

G345.7-0.2

17h 07m 20s

-40° 53 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1708-410 ( T )

Second

6 ‘

0.04 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

58

G347.3-0.5

17h 13m 50s

-39° 45 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

RX J1713.7-3946 ( GT )

S?

1-10 ( S )

1 – 6 ( S )

55′- 65 ‘

0.66 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H, C, F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

59

G348.5+0.1 ( CTB 37A )

17h 14m 06s

-38° 32 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1714-385 ( GT )

Second

PWN

1-3 ( S )

6.3-9.59

( S )

15 ‘

0.03 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H, F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

60

G348.7+0.3 ( CTB 37B )

17h 13m 55s

-38° 11 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1713-381 ( T )

Second

0.35-3.15 ( S ) ,0.95 ( P )

13.2 ( S )

55 ‘ – 65 ‘

0.018 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

61

G348.9-0.4

17h 18m 07s

-38° 33 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1718-385 ( T )

C?

PWN

4 ( P )

0.02 ( 1-10TeV ) ( H )

62

G353.6-0.7

17h 32m 00s

-34° 44 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1731-347 ( T )

Second

27 ( S )

2.4 – 4A ( S )

30 ‘

0.16 ( 1-10TeV ) ( H )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G359.1-0.5

17h 45m 30s

-29° 57 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1745-303 ( T )

C

20-50

24 ‘

0.05 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

LHAASO: “ N ” means the beginning is non in the field of position of LHAASO. “ Y ” means it should be detected by LHAASO.

Name ( Gamma-ray ) i?sGT: emanations are both measured by Fermi in GeV and other ground-based telescopes in TeV ; G: emanation is measured merely by Fermi in GeV ; T: emanation is measured merely by ground-based telescope ( s ) in TeV.

Type: Composite=C, Shell = S, Pulsar Wind Nebula = PWN.

Age/Distance: Shell=S, Pulsar=P. Distances of CTB 37A/B are from Tian & A ; Leahy ( 2012, MNRAS, online earlier version ) .

Gamma-Flux ( Crab Units ) : H=HESS, V=VERITAS, MA=MAGIC, C=CANGAROO, MI=Milagro, A=ARGO-YBJ, F=FERMI, HE=HEGRA, W=Whipple. Fermi measurings are in the energy scope of 1-100GeV. Crab Unit of measurements: Crab flux [ Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] : differential: 3.45E-11* ( E/1TeV ) ^ ( -2.63 ) cma?’2sa?’1TeVa?’1.

SNR/Molecular Cloud: “ Y ” = Yes, “ Y? ” =likely, “ N ” = unlikely.

The informations used here are largely from website catalogs: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.physics.umanitoba.ca/snr/SNRcat, hypertext transfer protocol: //tevcat.uchicago.edu and Caprioli D. [ Error: Reference beginning non found ] . The SNR/MC interactions listed in column 12 are gotten from Ferrand & A ; Safi-Harb ‘s catalog, besides citing the paper of Jiang B. et Al. [ Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] .

2.2 Unidentified GeV-TeV Galactic Beginnings

There are 61 GeV-TeV gamma beam beginnings in this list: 19 are unidentified TeV objects, and 42 are identified as SNRs discovered by Fermi Gamma-ray LAT. In 30 instances, the object has shell: 25 are considered certain, 5 have non been confirmed. 8 instances have been considered as PWN: 6 are certain, and 2 are possible. 12 instances are composite: 7 are confirmed, and 5 are possible. Association with a molecular cloud has been reported in 12 instances in GeV instances.

Table 2: Galactic GeV SNRs/PWN and no X ray or radio opposite number TeV beginnings

SNR ID

Gal. name

RA

( 2000 )

Dec

( 2000 )

LHAASO

Name

( Gamma-ray )

Type

Age

( kyr )

Distance

( kpc )

Radio size

Gamma-Flux

( Crab Units )

SNR/

Megahertz

Referees

G5.4-1.2? ( Milne 56 )

18h 02m 10s

-24° 54 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1802.3-2445c ( G )

C?

4.3-4.5 ( S ) , 5 ( P )

35 ‘

0.024 ( F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G11.4-0.1

18h 10m 47s

-19° 05 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1811.1-1905c ( G )

S?

8 ‘

0.017 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G20.0-0.2

18h 28m 07s

-11° 35 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1828.3-1124c ( G )

C

PWN?

10 ‘

0.024 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G21.85-0.11

18h 31m 25s

-09° 54 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1831-098 ( T )

PWN

0.04 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G24.7+0.6

18h 34m 10s

-07° 05 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1834.7-0705c ( G )

C?

PWN?

15′- 30 ‘

0.048 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G26.8-0.2

18h 40m 55s

-05° 33 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1841-055 ( T )

0.37 ( 0.54-80TeV ) . ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G27.4+0.0 ( Kes 73 )

18h 41m 19s

-04° 56 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1841.2-0459c ( G )

Second

1.1-1.5 ( S ) ,4.3 ( P )

7.5-9.1 ( S )

4 ‘

0.055 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G27.8+0.6

18h 39m 50s

-04° 24 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1840.3-0413c ( G )

C

30′- 50 ‘

0.032 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G28.8+1.5

18h 39m 00s

-02° 55 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1839.7-0334c ( G )

S?

100 ‘

0.014 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G29.3+0.51

18h 43m 00s

-03° 00 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1843-033 ( T )

? ( H )

G31.9+0.0

18h 49m 25s

-00° 55 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1849.3-0055 ( G )

Second

3.7-4.4 ( S )

a‰? 7.2 ( S )

5 ‘ – 7 ‘

0.043 ( F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G32.4+0.1

18h 50m 05s

-00° 25 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1850.7-0014c ( G )

Second

6 ‘

0.023 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G32.64+0.53 ( IGR J18490-0000 )

18h49m 01.63s

-00° 01 ‘ 17.2 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1849-000 ( T )

PWN

7

0.015 ( a‰?0.35TeV ) ( H )

G33.6+0.1 ( Kes 79 )

18h 52m 48s

00° 41 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1852.7+0047c ( G )

Second

3-15 ( S )

7.1 ( S )

10 ‘

0.01 ( F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G34.7-0.4 ( W44, 3C392 )

18h 56m 00s

01° 22 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1855.9+0121e ( G )

C

PWN

a‰? 10 ( S ) , 20 ( P )

3 ( S, P )

27′-35 ‘

0.436 ( F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G35.96-0.06

18h 57m 11s

02° 40 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1857+026 ( T )

0.21 ( 0.6-80TeV )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G44.39-.07

19h 12m 49s

10° 09 ‘ 06 ”

Yttrium

HESS J1912+101 ( T )

PWN?

0.09 ( 1-10TeV ) ( H )

G45.7-0.4

19h 16m 25s

11° 09 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1916.1+1106 ( G )

Second

22 ‘

0.007 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G54.4-0.3 ( HC40 )

19h 33m 20s

18° 56 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1932.1+1913 ( G )

Second

40 ‘

0.042 ( F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G59.2-4.7 ( Black Widow )

19hA 59mA 35.8s

20° 47 ‘ 28 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J1959.5+2047 ( G )

C?

PWN

2.5 ( P )

0.015 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G65.85-0.23

19h 58m 07.61s

20° 48 ‘ 11.9 ”

Yttrium

0FGL J1958.1+2848

PWN

0.21 ( Mi )

G74.0-8.5 ( Cygnus Loop )

20h 51m 00s

30° 40 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J2051.0+3040e ( G )

Second

14 ( S )

0.4-0.5 ( S )

160′- 230 ‘

0.062 ( F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G76.9+1.0

20h 22m 20s

38° 43 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J2022.8+3843c ( G )

C?

9 ( P )

8 ( S )

9 ‘

0.013 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G79.72+1.26

20h 29m 38.4s

41° 11 ‘ 24 ”

Yttrium

MGRO J2031+41 ( T )

0.39 ( =35TeV ) ( MI, A )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G80.25+1.07

20h 32m 07s

41° 30 ‘ 30 ”

Yttrium

TeV J2032+4130 ( T )

0.03 ( =35TeV ) ( HE, W, MI, A )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G89.0+4.7 ( HB21 )

20h 45m 00s

50° 35 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J2041.5+5003, J2043.3+5105, J2046.0+4954 ( G )

C

19 ( S )

0.8 ( S )

90′- 120 ‘

0.007

0.01

0.013

( F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G114.3+0.3

23h 37m 00s

61° 55 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J2333.3+6237 ( G )

Second

4.1 ( S )

0.7 ( S )

55′- 90 ‘

0.006 ( F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G116.5+1.1

23h 53m 40s

63° 15 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J2358.9+6325 ( G )

Second

280 ( S )

1.6 ( S )

60 ‘ – 80 ‘

0.005 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G132.7+1.3 ( HB3 )

02h 17m 40s

62° 45 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J0214.5+6251c, J0218.7+6208c, J0221.4+6257c ( G )

Second

2.2 ( S )

80 ‘

0.006

0.013

0.016

( F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G140.25-16.75

02h 23m 12s

43° 00 ‘ 42 ”

Yttrium

MAGIC J0223+403 ( T )

0.022 ( a‰?0.15TeV ) ( MA

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G160.9+2.6 ( HB9 )

05h 01m 00s

46° 40 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J0503.2+4643 ( G )

C

1.5-4 ( S )

120′- 140 ‘

0.006 ( F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G166.0+4.3 ( VRO 42.05.01 )

05h 26m 30s

42° 56 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J0526.6+4308 ( G )

Second

4.5 ( S )

35′-55 ‘

0.004 ( F )

Yttrium?

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G179.0+2.6

05h 53m 40s

31° 05 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J0553.9+3104 ( G )

S?

70 ‘

0.014 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G180.0-1.7 ( S147 )

05h 39m 00s

27° 50 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J0538.1+2718 ( G )

Second

PWN

26-34 ( S ) ,620 ( P )

0.36-0.88 ( S ) ,1.47 ( P )

180 ‘

0.007 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G201.3+0.51

06h 31m 49.22s

10° 34 ‘ 12.7 ”

Yttrium

0FGL J0631.8+1034

PWN

6.55 ( P )

0.29 ( Mi )

G260.4-3.4 ( Puppis A )

08h 22m 10s

-43° 00 ‘ 00 ”

Yttrium

2FGL J0821.0-4254, J0823.0-4246, J0823.4-4305

Second

3.4 ( S )

2.2

50′-60 ‘

0.008

0.031

0.007

( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G284.8-0.52

10h 26m 38.4s

-58° 12 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1026-582 ( T )

PWN

0.032 ( a‰?0.8TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G287.4+0.6 ( Puppy )

10h 48m 16.7s

-58° 31 ‘ 48 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1048.2-5831 ( G )

C?

PWN

3 ( P )

0.154 ( F )

G291.0-0.1 ( MSH 11-62 )

11h 11m 54s

-60° 38 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1112.1-6040 ( G )

C

PWN

1.3-10 ( S )

1-11 ( S )

13′-15 ‘

0.069 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G298.6-0.0

12h 13m 41s

-62° 37 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1214.0-6237 ( G )

Second

9 ‘ – 12 ‘

0.038 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G304.6+0.1 ( Kes 17 )

13h 05m 59s

-62° 42 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

( G )

Second

9.7 ( S )

8 ‘

? ( F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G314.41-0.14

14h 27m 52s

-60° 51 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1427-608 ( T )

0.05 ( 0.97-50TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G315.1+2.7

14h 24m 30s

-57° 50 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1411.9-5744 ( G )

Second

150′-190 ‘

0.007 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G316.3-0.0 ( MSH 14-57 )

14h 41m 30s

-60° 00 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGLA J1441.6-5956 ( G )

Second

a‰? 7.2 ( S )

14′- 29 ‘

0.02 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G317.95-3.49

15h 06m 52.8s

-62° 21 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1507-622 ( T )

PWN?

1?

0.01 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G319.62+0.29

15h 03m 38s

-58h 13m 45s

Nitrogen

HESS J1503-582 ( T )

0.06 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H )

G321.9-0.3

15h 20m 40s

-57° 34 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1521.8-5735i??Gi?‰

Second

23′- 31 ‘

0.049 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G326.3-1.8 ( MSH 15-56 )

15h 53m 00s

-56° 10 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1552.8-5609 ( G )

C

PWN

a‰? 1.5 ( S )

38 ‘

0.027 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G332.4+0.1 ( Kes 32, MSH 16-51 )

16h 15m 20s

-50° 42 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1615.0-5051 ( G )

Second

0.3-3 ( S )

7-11 ( S )

15 ‘

0.066 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G336.38+0.19

16h 32m 09.6s

-47° 49 ‘ 12 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1632-478 ( T )

PWN

0.12 ( a‰?0.2TeV ) ( H )

G336.7+0.5

16h 32m 11s

-47° 19 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1631.7-4720c

Second

10′- 14 ‘

0.034 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G343.0-6.0 ( RCW 114 )

17h 25m 00s

-46° 30 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1727.3-4611 ( G )

Second

250 ‘

0.005 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G343.10-2.68?

17h 09m 42.2s

-44° 28 ‘ 57 ”

Nitrogen

PSR B1706-44 ( T? )

2.5

a‰¤0.02 ( a‰?0.5TeV ) ( H, C )

G350.1-0.3

17h 17m 40s

-37° 24 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1718.1-3725 ( G )

S?

0.9 ( S )

4.5 ( S )

4 ‘

0.018 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G353.44-0.13

17h 29m 35s

-34° 32 ‘ 22 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1729-345 ( T )

? ( H )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G355.4+0.7

17h 31m 20s

-32° 26 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1731.6-3234c ( G )

Second

25 ‘

0.027 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G356.3-0.3

17h 37m 56s

-32° 16 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1737.2-3213 ( G )

Second

7′- 11 ‘

0.031 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G357.7-0.1 ( The Tornado, MSH 17-39 )

17h 40m 29s

-30° 58 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1740.4-3054c ( G )

S?

11.8 ( S )

3′- 8 ‘

0.052 ( F )

Yttrium

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G358.4+0.19

17h 41m 00s

-30° 12 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

HESS J1741-302 ( T )

0.01 ( a‰?1TeV ) ( H )

G358.5-0.9

17h 46m 10s

-30° 40 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1745.5-3028c ( G )

Second

17 ‘

0.023 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non found

G359.1+0.9

17h 39m 36s

-29° 11 ‘ 00 ”

Nitrogen

2FGL J1738.9-2908 ( G )

Second

11′- 12 ‘

0.037 ( F )

Mistake: Reference beginning non foundTable 2 has the same caption as Table 1.

3. The Prospect of CR arising from SNRs

Following coevals very-high-energy telescope arrays will observe more Galactic TeV gamma-ray beginnings. E.g. LHAASO ( see other documents on LHAASO in the particular addendum ) .

It will be expected to place more swoon SNR / TeV I? -ray beginning associations by using new generational multi-waveband study informations ( e.g. , wireless study from the new Australian Square Kilometer Array ( ASKAP ) telescope ) so that we may prove these thoughts to work out the CR beginning mystifier. We have been involved in following coevals wireless telescope study plans, e.g. The Galactic Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder study ( GASKAP, besides see nexus for the item: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.astro.keele.ac.uk/~jacco/research/GASKAP.pdf ) . GASKAP is a study of emanation and soaking up at 21 centimeter ( the HI line ) and of maser emanation, diffuse emanation, etc. It is an order of magnitude deeper than any study at comparable declaration ( e.g. International Galactic Plane Survey ( composed of VLA Galactic Plane Survey ( VGPS ) , CGPS and SGPS, one of the first-class studies presently available. See Fig. 2 ) . It covers an order of magnitude more country at low latitudes than any study at comparable sensitiveness ( e.g. The Galactic Arecibo L-Band Feed Array HI Survey ( GALFA ) , see Fig. 3 ) .

Fig. 2. ( ColorA online ) The GASKAP brightness sensitiveness vs. declaration ( beamwidth ) , for the medium integrating clip of 50 hours, with spectra smoothed to 1 km/s. The other two study velocities give sensitivenesss a factor of two higher or lower. H I emission mapping at low latitudes will do usage of declaration from 20 ” to 1 ” , depending on the brightness and angular graduated tables of the emanation in each field. FAST is the Chinese following general 500 thousand single-dish wireless telescope. We obtain this Figure by redacting Figure 5 in our GASKAP proposal.

Fig. 3. ( ColorA online ) The GASKAP study countries in Galactic co-ordinates, with H I column densenesss ( gray graduated table ) in the background. The part North of DEC = +40 Degree must be filled in from the Northern Hemisphere. Fig. 3 is from Fig. 4 of our GASKAP proposal.

ASKAP will get down to run in 2013. We expect that we should observe many swoon Galactic SNRs by using ASKAP. We had antecedently developed distance-determination methods by giving consequences from HI and CO line spectra of some SNRs [ Error: Reference beginning non found, Mistake: Reference beginning non found ] , sowe can utilize GASKAP informations to find distances to the swoon SNRs associated with TeV beginnings in order to obtain their basic parametric quantities such as the brightness and age. By uniting the deeper very-high-energy-telescopes studies, we believe that our research may progress apprehension of the CRs ‘ beginning.

We acknowledge supports from the NSFC plan ( 011241001, 11261140641 ) , the plans of the CAS ( 034031001 ( Beiren ) , KJZD-EW-T01 ) , and The Ministry of Science and Technology under State Key Development Program for Basic Research ( 2012CB821800i??2013CB837901 ) . This publication was made possible through the support of a grant from the John Templeton Foundation and National Astronomical Observatories ( NAO ) of the CAS. The sentiments expressed in this publication are those of the writers and do non needfully reflect the positions of the John Templeton Foundation of NAOCAS. The financess from John Templeton Foundation were grant fromThe University of Chicago which besides manages the plan in concurrence with NAOCAS.

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