Energy Conversion And Management Construction Essay

Energy efficiency is about utilizing less energy to accomplish the same or better public presentation. Singapore has non kept up with developed states in the efficient usage of energy. The 2000 World Competitiveness Yearbook, compiled by the World Economic Forum, ranked Singapore 25th out of 45 states in energy strength or the sum of commercial energy consumed per dollar GDP, behind most developed states. This could be attributed to the fact that Singapore is a tropical city state unlike the higher-ranked states, which have temperature climes. Singapore depends to a great extent on air-conditioning to chill its edifice all twelvemonth unit of ammunition. In temperature states, warming is normally used merely in late fall, winter and air-conditioning in summer merely during really hot conditions. Furthermore, Singapore is an urban metropolis with no rural base.

However, there is much that Singapore can and should make to better its energy efficiency. Efficient usage of energy will heighten our cost fight. Besides, oil and gas monetary values will lift in long tally to reflect their scarceness. With the turning international concern about C dioxide emanation, Singapore will necessitate to incorporate its C dioxide emanation, and indirectly its energy ingestion, to follow with its international duties. The challenge will be to guarantee economic growing while understating the growing in energy demand.

The intent of this study is to happen out the ordinances Singapore have for energy efficiency in lodging and commercial edifices and public educational stuff to inform the general populace on how to salvage energy in edifice, peculiarly in air conditioning, hot H2O and lighting. Potential betterments in energy efficiency exist in all economic systems and all sectors – in places, offices, schools, infirmaries, mills, transit systems, power workss, territory heating systems, etc. Among these sectors, the energy efficiency for lodging and commercial edifice will be discussed in this study.

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Chapter One – Energy Efficiency Regulations in Building

1.1 Introduction

Energy in the signifier of electricity is used in edifice to run equipment for the safety, efficiency and comfort of its residents and users. Such equipment includes exigency systems, air-conditioning, lighting, transit, office systems and other contraptions.

In the absence of natural resources cardinal to the coevals of electricity, energy will stay a critical factor for the Singapore economic system for the immediate and long-run hereafter. This would hold direct impacts on edifice interior decorators, directors and proprietors. It is of import to supervise and pull off the cost force per unit area in the operation and care of edifices with regard to energy. It is of import to guarantee planetary fight in the country of environmental public presentation and efficiency.

Hence, the tendency towards energy efficient edifice is non a ephemeral tendency like the energy crisis of the seventiess. Energy efficiency of edifice has emerged as a lasting public presentation factor to be considered in the cost and environmental equations. Knowledge base and apprehension in energy efficiency of edifices will formalize and go a core competency of edifice interior decorators, directors and proprietors.

Factors Influencing Energy Consumption in Building

There are two major groups of factors act uponing the entire energy ingestion of edifices. They are:

Energy consumed by the physical edifice systems and elements in supplying an internally desired environment. This group of factors includes the indoor environment scenes, the assorted edifice services systems, and physical elements such as the envelope system.

Human factors such as the quality issues, wonts and cultural background of the edifice users. This involves the thrift and attitude of edifice users, perceptual experience of proprietors, wonts and educational criterions of people, etc.

1.3 Building Control Regulations

A big part of the Building Control Regulations concentrates on high-ranking direction of all professionals in the building and design Fieldss. The Commissioner of Building Control is responsible for keeping a catalogue of registered designers, interior decorators, contractors, and other edifice professionals every bit good as their relevant makings in regard to their responsibilities while at the building site.

The most recent add-on to Singapore ‘s edifice ordinances was released in April 2008 ; known as the Code for Environmental Sustainability of Buildings. The Code for Environmental Sustainability was designed to set up a paradigm displacement towards an environmentally-friendly built environment.

1.3.1 Building Control Code

Emulating the Green Mark edifice evaluation system, this codification sets out the minimal environmental sustainability criterions for edifices and applies to all new edifice plants which involve a “ gross floor country of 2,000 M2 or more ” , every bit good as add-ons or extensions to bing edifices which involve “ increasing the gross floor country of 2,000 M2. ” The codification motivates constructing interior decorators to be environmental stewards by integrating eco-friendly stuffs, eco-conscious building patterns, H2O and energy efficiency, natural lighting, every bit good as constructing life rhythms concerns. To farther set up the new environmental enterprises, amendments were made to the Building Control Act that set a minimal 50 point Green Mark mark for both residential and non-residential new edifice work.

1.3.2 Building Control Act ( BCA )

The Building Control Act requires the developer to subject applications for constructing licenses to the Commissioner of Building Control before any building commences. It is during this application procedure that edifice programs are given a build ability mark which indicates whether the edifice design can be constructed expeditiously ; the higher the mark, the more efficient labour usage and overall higher productiveness at the building site.

Singapore ‘s Building Control Act released the first Code of Practice on Buildable Design in December 2000 which utilises the Buildable Design Appraisal System ( BDAS ) .The BDAS provides a method to calculate the buildability tonss, which is achieved from a hiting combination of three constituents:

Structural system – upper limit of 50 points

Wall system – upper limit of 40 points

Other buildable design features – upper limit of ten points

Within the Code of Practice, the minimal buildability mark for each edifice class is set out harmonizing to the type of usage and gross floor country ( GFA ) . If the developer ‘s designs do non accomplish the minimal buildability mark within its several development class, the programs must be modified and improved for a more efficient construction. Table 1.1 shows the minimal buildability hiting harmonizing to constructing class.

Table 1. : Minimal Buildability Scoring

1.3.3 Technical Requirements

Recently, Buildings Department has completed a reappraisal of the Overall Thermal Transfer Value ( OTTV ) control. This pattern note has consequently been revised to integrate the recommendations made in the reappraisal. As a consequence of the reappraisal, the amendments made to the Code of Practice for OTTV in Buildings 1995 are:

In the instance of a edifice tower, the OTTV should non transcend 30 W/m2 ( antecedently 35 W/m2 ) ; and

In the instance of a dais, the OTTV should non transcend 70 W/m2 ( antecedently 80 W/m2 ) .

At the clip of edifice program entry or upon application for business license as the instance may be, the OTTVs of the external walls and roofs of the edifice and the shading coefficient of glass should be indicated on the edifice programs or record programs as relevant. Upon application for Occupation Permit, the undermentioned OTTV paperss together with the record programs are required to be submitted:

The finalised version of the OTTV study, including OTTV computations

The trial certifications or other published specifications for the edifice stuffs used, such as glass used for fenestration and frontage ; and

The OTTV Summary Sheet on a standard signifier.

1.3.4 Acceptance of Building Materials

If edifice stuffs other than those listed in the OTTV Code are used, their OTTV or equivalent should be obtained from dependable beginnings. It would ease processing of edifice programs if full background to the beginning of information and suitableness for local conditions is detailed in the entry.

1.3.5 Sun Shading and Innovation Designs

Genuine awnings used to help in the decrease of the OTTV will non be counted for secret plan ratio and site coverage computations or be regarded as obstructors to order Windowss if they project 1.5m or less from external walls. The Building Authority can accept designs other than those stipulated in the Code of Practice for OTTV in Buildings provided that these designs are comparable or better in footings of energy efficiency. Innovative designs which aim at cut downing OTTV would non be penalised in footings of secret plan ratio and site coverage if they could be demonstrated to be effectual.

Authorized individuals are encouraged to confer with a Registered Professional Engineer in edifice services or mechanical subject in measuring the design premises adopted in the rating of energy efficiency in edifices, peculiarly for advanced designs other than the method stipulated in the Code of Practice. A comprehensive attack to energy preservation produces better consequences. The services of a Registered Professional Engineer in these subjects will lend to this.

1.3.6 Air-conditioning and Regulation

All big air-conditioned public sector office edifices, every bit good as engineering schools and Institute of Technical Education, with cardinal air-conditioning systems and air-conditioned country greater than 10,000m2 will be energy-audited by FY2011. Infrastructure installations will besides be energy-audited by FY2012.

Large cardinal air-conditioning systems in edifices will be fitted with instrumentality to supervise the coefficient of public presentation ( COP ) of the air-conditioning systems. The air-conditioning systems must be upgraded to accomplish a COP of at least 4.7 at the following available chance.

Large public sector office edifices with cardinal air-conditioning systems and air-conditioned country greater than 10,000m2 will be Energy Smart Office labeled within two old ages of their energy audits. New public sector office edifices with cardinal air-conditioning systems will besides be labeled within two old ages of operations.

An addition of 1oC in the air-conditioned indoor air temperature could cut down air-conditioning electricity ingestion by about 3 % . All public bureaus will guarantee that the ambient indoor air temperature of all public sector premises remain within the scope of 22.5oC to 25.5oC.

Chapter Two – Efficiency Regulations in Housing

2.1 Introduction

Housing Development Board ( HDB ) as the largest developer of residential flats at Singapore holds great influence through its design and procurance exercisings. HDB can and should take the lead in integrating energy efficiency steps for lodging sector. Improvements could be used to develop new benchmarks for non merely the populace but besides the private lodging sector.

2.2 HDB Energy Save Programme

As portion of HDB ‘s energy save programme, HDB is working with Town Councils to cut down the figure of visible radiations for common countries, or utilize energy-efficient visible radiations and illuming detectors. HDB will besides look into cut downing lightings, where executable, taking into consideration the illuming degree required for security and safety grounds. NEW sweeping criterions and ordinances to cut down on energy usage and better energy efficiency in places and offices will be put into topographic point shortly.

As a start, the Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) will work with HDB on bettering the design and building of flats. HDB will research ways to replace aluminum window frames with plastic 1s which conduct less heat. Currently, plastic frames can merely be installed in flats up to the 18th floor because of fire-safety limitations. HDB blocks are built up to 40 floors. HDB will work with the Fire Safety Bureau to raise the height limitation. It will besides look into utilizing assorted types of window glazing which are more efficient in maintaining out heat.

There are programs to put in solar panels and air current turbines as power beginnings for illuming adjustments in public countries of HDB blocks. Existing gas pipes in kitchens will be extended to promote occupants to exchange from electric H2O warmers to gas warmers.

2.3 Energy Efficiency Standards

Singapore residential edifices must now run into minimal criterions for energy efficiency. New residential belongingss must now include basic environment-friendly characteristics before the edifice programs are approved. The followerss are the criterions for energy efficiency that need to be followed:

Under the new guidelines, BCA has set a bound on the sum of heat that can come in a residential edifice through its frontage. This bound is called the Residential Envelope Transmittance Value. Such a standard already exists for commercial belongingss.

A house with floor-to-ceiling glass designs and small concrete all about. Such a expression has become progressively popular among private residential belongingss in Singapore.

The full-height window design exudes an air of elegance and makes the suites look larger. But such a design is non environmentally-friendly because a batch of heat will be trapped inside the unit during the twenty-four hours and when you turn on the air-conditioning, it will work harder than normal. This is why the BCA hopes that interior decorators will integrate ‘green ‘ characteristics at the planning phase.

In fact, if designers use less glass in their designs, they could really salvage more money in overall building costs. Consumers would so stand to profit.

Design flats to hold better natural airing and sunning commissariats. The edifice control ordinances administered by BCA require residential edifices to be provided with equal natural airing and illuming. In add-on, BCA encourages greater usage of natural airing and twenty-four hours illuming through the BCA Green Mark Scheme.

Air-conditioning histories for the majority of a edifices entire electricity ingestion. It is a waste of energy to overcool edifices. Furthermore, constructing residents experience uncomfortableness from low indoor temperatures.

Chapter Three – Public Education on Energy Efficiency

3.1 Introduction

The uncontrolled and unreasonable usage of energy resources in the past few decennaries has led to the depletion of conventional energy resources. Although, steps are taken at the authorities degrees to command the energy ingestion, these efforts merely run into with small success. Public consciousness is the lone manner to successfully cover with this job.

The populace sector is taking the lead by utilizing energy and resources more expeditiously. As portion of this programme, public sector edifices will hold to run into energy efficiency marks to cut down energy outgo.

Beyond bettering constructing energy efficiency, all bureaus are besides encouraged to follow environmentally sustainable patterns that are cost good, such as take parting in the Water Efficient Building and Eco-Office evaluation models developed by the Public Utilities Board ( PUB ) and Singapore Environment Council severally, and implementing recycling programmes.

Through this enterprise, the populace sector aims to show the associated environmental and economic benefits and put an illustration for the private sector. Public bureaus are besides encouraged to finance and implement their energy efficiency betterments through public presentation catching.

Figure 3.5: Air compressor

Chapter Four – Recommendations

3.1 Introduction

To better energy efficiency in Singapore, there is need to make an environment that is contributing to the designation and acceptance of energy efficiency steps. There is besides a demand to guarantee that this environment is sustainable. Toward these terminals, the undermentioned three strategic pushs are recommended to be adopted:

Strengthen the Regulatory and Institutional Framework

Better the Market Environment

Use the Public Sector As the Leading Edge

3.2 Strengthening the Regulatory and Institutional Framework

If energy efficiency is to be accorded the appropriate degree of attending, the assorted Government bureaus must work more closely to advance energy efficiency. In add-on, more attempts should be put into developing criterions that allow consumers to benchmark their energy efficiency public presentation. The cardinal recommendations to beef up the regulative and institutional model are:

Review and Develop Building Regulations on Energy Efficiency: It is recommended that Ministry of National Development ( MND ) /Building and Construction Authority ( BCA ) reappraisal and updates the edifice ordinances for commercial and institutional edifices more often. In peculiar, there should be compulsory energy audits of edifices with high-energy ingestion. For residential edifices, it is recommended that MND/BCA/HDB develop a new set of design criterions to better energy efficiency.

Expand ENV ‘s Voluntary Labelling Scheme: Ministry of the Environment ( ENV ) already operates a voluntary Singapore Green Labelling Scheme. Under this strategy, equipment which meets certain efficiency and environment labelling criterions would be allowed to hold a Singapore Green Label. It is recommends that ENV expands the voluntary strategy rapidly by following criterions from developed states and to give greater precedence to the voluntary labelling of air-conditioners and iceboxs as much of the electricity consumed in edifices goes towards chilling.

Establish Best Practices for Manufacturing Sector: This is a practical attack given that the broad diverseness of fabrication activities makes the development of common criterions hard. It is recommends that Ministry of Trade and Industry ( MTI ) /Public Utilities Board ( PUB ) study the experience of states like the USA and Japan with a position to present best patterns for the fabrication sector in Singapore.

Incorporate Energy Efficiency as Objective of Land Transport Policy: It is recommends that Ministry of Communications & A ; Information Technology ( MCIT ) /Land Transport Authority ( LTA ) continue to force the usage of public conveyance, peculiarly rail conveyance, which is extremely energy efficient. MCIT/LTA should besides look into easing the debut of more energy efficient vehicles.

3.2 Bettering the Market Environment

The most direct and obvious solution to accomplish a discovery in energy efficiency is in pricing. The cardinal recommendations to better the market environment are:

Monitor and Review the Pricing of Electricity: While a sweeping electricity market has been put in topographic point to ease competition in electricity coevals and supply, it is recommends that MTI/PUB proctor and reappraisal this scheme with a position to presenting other pricing schemes to deter heavy consumers of electricity.

Study Viability of Demand Side Management ( DSM ) : DSM enterprises are aimed at smoothing and cut downing electricity demand, alternatively of merely constructing up the power bring forthing capacity to run into the projected demand. Some US provinces are traveling towards a model where the power public-service corporations besides derive a net income from advancing energy efficiency. Therefore, it is recommends that MTI/PUB study the viability of and spur the development of DSM programmes in Singapore.

Create Awareness: For the market to be efficient, consumers must hold better information about possible energy efficiency steps. It is recommends that MTI/PUB require power supply companies ( e.g. Power Supply Pte Ltd ) to include conspicuously in the electricity measures indexs such as the mean energy ingestion values by lodging types ( e.g. 3-room, 4-room, 5-room flats ) for residential edifices ; and the energy ingestion per unit floor country for commercial and institutional edifices. To complement this, MTI/PUB should go on to educate consumers on ways and agencies to utilize energy more expeditiously.

3.3 Using the Public Sector as the Leading Edge

The populace sector, by virtuousness of its size, is good positioned to be a function theoretical account for energy efficiency steps that are feasible. The cardinal recommendations are:

Rank and Band Public Sector Buildings in footings of their Energy Efficiency: It is recommends that BCA implement this to spur proprietors of public sector edifices, particularly those in the bottom set, to take action to better the energy efficiency of their edifices.

Explore Performance Contracting: In public presentation catching, works upgrading and betterment plants are funded by contractors who will acquire a portion of the future nest eggs in running cost ensuing from the plants. This signifier of catching is still comparatively new in Singapore. To speed up its development, It is recommended that MND/BCA explore public presentation catching by public sector bureaus whose workss are due for replacing or whose edifice energy public presentation is ranked low compared to other edifices.

HDB to Take the Lead in Residential Housing Design: HDB as the largest developer of residential flats holds great influence through its design and procurance exercisings. HDB can and should take the lead in integrating energy efficiency steps. Improvements could be used to develop new benchmarks for non merely the populace but besides the private lodging sector.

Chapter Five – Decision

Our environment and its limited natural resources are turning concerns for all of us, non merely in Singapore but around the World. Energy efficiency is now universally recognized as one of the quickest, most cost effectual ways to cut down energy related emanations associated with planetary heating, clime alteration, acid rain and smog. e-energy, is a proficient and educational information beginning for persons or organisations seeking understanding on techniques, engineerings and merchandises related to residential, commercial and industrial energy efficiency.

Bettering energy efficiency is a cardinal scheme in doing the universe ‘s energy system more economically and environmentally sustainable. Though long a precedence of the e-Energy, the importance of energy efficiency has grown dramatically in recent old ages due to planetary clime alteration committednesss, regional trade and investing treaties, local environmental issues, and widespread acknowledgment of the demand for sustainable development.