The growing of universe population in the last decennary has been important particularly in developing states. Population and economical development besides will increase the demand of high quality wood as natural stuff for structural utilizations and furniture. However the production capacity of natural wood and industrial wood plantation will non be sustainable in the long term to carry through market demand, may non even every bit good. Forest supply capacity and productiveness to bring forth high quality lumbers in Malaysia are ever alternatively to diminish for some ground as follows cut downing forest country for agricultural plantation, industrial forest plantation, unfastened excavation, substructure development, increasing on environment consciousness of the public, illegal logging, and forest fire. The over film editing of wood caused a serious harm to landscape, biodiversity, environment, furthermore can lend to the planetary heating and regional diplomatic relationship.
Wood quality continue to diminish caused by as consequence of shorter rotary motion development and alterations in species from slow turning species into the fast growth species but, demand on the quality of wood merchandise continue to raise. In this instance, this job can be solved by efficiency in wood uses, use the alternate woody stuffs, presenting the new wood natural stuffs ( lesser known species ) from logging and agricultural wastes. As their hapless public presentation, the improving of their belongingss is required to run into the commercial utilizing standard by intercession of engineering. It can be accomplished by identified the commercial demands correlated with belongingss of the wood. It has been impacting many research workers to happen new innovations of wood use. The demand for lumber will go on addition, taking to concerns of a timber deficit by the terminal of the twenty-first century. In the hereafter, increasing measures of lumber will be sourced from managed woods and there will be an associated decrease in lumber quality in some instances ( Hill, 2006 ) . In Malaysia, FRIM and MPOB have done a batch of research to happen alternate and better the effectivity of the merchandises for acquiring high quality merchandises to consumers.
One such promising option is use of oil thenar bole. Presently, there are 4.17 million hectare planted oil thenars in Malaysia ( MPOB, 2006 ) . In add-on, over 3.5 million hectare of replanting country will be available for the following 10 twelvemonth in 2006 ( Kim, 2007 ) , and each twelvemonth 15 million3 of oil thenar bole during replanting ( MPOB, 2007 ) . From entire sum 110 – 120 root per hectare with mean diameter reached 50 centimeter by the length 10 – 12 metre and 1/3 or 30 % wood from the most outer portion can be utilized as natural stuff for light structural, the entire possible oil thenar bole sawn lumber can make 78 m3/year ( Bakar et. al. , 2005 ) . Based on the information, it ‘s gained a large possible figure of oil thenar root as residuary replanting. At the terminal of its economic life for 25 – 30 old ages, the mature workss are felled and replaced with new harvest, and has greater possible bole production compared to natural wood.
The biomass bole of oil thenar wood has non been optimally utilised because of several failing points in their belongingss, that are have really low belongingss in strength ( category III – V ) , lastingness ( category V ) , dimensional stableness, and really bad belongingss in machining behaviour ( Bakar et. al. , 1998 ) . Sing those jobs, every bit good as the nature of the oil thenar wood that is really porous, the quality betterment by mean of modified impregnation with aphobic impregnant is a strategic solution ( Bakar et. al. , 1999 ) . There were many research conducted to use the oil thenar bole and to heighten the quality of oil thenar wood. The latest survey revealed that intervention with low molecular weight Phenol Formaldehyde ( PF ) resin through a modified impregnation method as we known as “ compreg ” , can significantly better the belongingss of oil thenar wood and work out practically all four its weak points at the same time ( Bakar et al. , 2000 ; 2005 ) . Wood treated by low molecular weight PF rosin can better the strength of oil thenar wood due to the thermosetting feature of PF rosin.
However treated oil thenar wood by low molecular weight PF rosin can better the failing point as explained antecedently, but there is non plenty if the merchandise is non environmentally friendly in usage. Formaldehyde emanation from treated oil thenar wood becomes a new job due to human wellness effects. Roffael ( 1993 ) mentioned that in certain concentration, formaldehyde have a narcotic consequence on the cardinal nervous system and give a local annoyance on the mucose membrane, and an unwritten consumption of 10 to 15 milliliter of a 35 % solution is however plenty to kill a adult male. Roffael ( 1993 ) besides mentioned that methanal is a carcinogenic chemical substance which is appreciable malignant neoplastic disease doing possible and can breakdown the human organic structure peculiarly on blood and liver.
Sing that explained above and there are a little figure of studied about formaldehyde emanation from treated oil thenar wood, this research purpose on cod information and information about formaldehyde emanation, and seeking to detect some easy manner to cut down the methanal emanation.
The modified impregnation method consist of four stairss ; Drying, impregnation procedure by low molecular weight PF rosin, re-drying by oven or by microwave, and the last is hot pressing. Each measure have some variables which are affected to the concluding merchandise quality and production cost. Therefore for reached high quality merchandise based on consumer demands and production cost, an optimal combination within each variable are really of import to observed. There has been a small studied conducted on quality betterment of oil thenar wood by bespeaking best consequence in term of physical, mechanical features and decrease of formaldehyde emanation.
General aim of this survey is to look into the crook curve behaviour of treated OPW for aesthetic ( for furniture ) design application.
The specific aims of this survey are to:
To find the consequence of curve clip radius ( 3 different radius ) on the bend-curve features of OPW.
To find the consequence of thickness on hot pressing compaction degree ( 33 % ) on the bend-curved feature of OPW.
To find the consequence of the wet content before flexing imperativeness and steaming intervention on the bend-curve feature of OPW by optimising oven and micro-cook re-drying combination.
Acceptable flexing status.
History of oil thenar
The oil thenar is a tropical thenar tree. There are two species of oil thenar, Elaeis guineensis Jacq the better known one is the one originating from Guinea, Africa and was foremost illustrated by Nicholaas Jacquin in 1763. Palm was introduced to Malaysia and so the British settlement of Malaya in 1910 by Scotsman William Sime and English banker Henry Darby. The first plantations were largely established and operated by British plantation proprietors, such as Sime Darby. The big plantation companies remained listed in London until the Malayan authorities engineered their “ Malaysianisation ” throughout the sixtiess and 1970s.
In 2007, Golden Hope Berhad, Kumpulan Guthrie Berhad and Sime Darby merged to organize Malaysia ‘s biggest publically traded oil thenar company with landbank transcending 633,000 hectares. Its plantations are spread across Malaysia and Indonesian islands of Sumatera, Kalimantan and Sulawesi. Oil thenar planting is Sime Darby largest gross generator. In 2009, approximately 70 % of the pudding stone ‘s net incomes comes from the crop and sale of palm oil. As an incorporate thenar oil entity, Sime Darby produce forte fats, oleochemicals and biodiesel for export.
Federal Land Development Authority ( Felda ) is the universe ‘s biggest oil thenar plantation owner with deep-rooted country near to 900,000 hectares in Malaysia and Indonesia. Felda was formed on July 1956, when the Land Development Act came into force with the chief purpose of eliminating poorness. Settlers were each allocated 10 estates of land ( about 4 hectares ) planted either with oil thenar or gum elastic, and given 20 old ages to pay off the debt for the land.
After Malaysia achieved independency in 1957, the authorities focused on value adding of gum elastic planting, hiking exports, and relieving poorness through land strategies. In the sixtiess and 1970s, the authorities encouraged planting of other harvests, to buffer the economic system when universe monetary values of Sn and gum elastic plunged. Rubber estates gave manner to oil thenar plantations. In 1961, Felda ‘s first oil thenar colony opened, with 3.75 kmA? of land. As of 2000, 6,855.2 kmA? ( about 76 % ) of the land under Felda ‘s programmes were devoted to oil thenars
Botanic description of oil thenar
Harmonizing to the integrated taxonomy information system, the oil thenar taxonomy is presented below:
Kingdom: Plant kingdom
Speciess: Elaeis guineensis Jacq.
Oil thenar is a big plume thenar that have lone columnar stem with short internodes. It is unarmed except for short spinal columns on the leaf base and within the fruit clump. Husin et Al. stated that in high wood, oil thenar might make a tallness of 30 m, but elsewhere the range non more than 15 to 18 m. It is believed that many thenars may be 200 old ages old or more, but refering fruit production, the economic life span of oil thenar is between 25 and 30 old ages. So, after which the oil thenar should be replanted. At the replanting age, the oil thenar has a tallness that ranges between 7 and 13 m and diameter of approximately 45 to 65 centimeter, measured at 1.5 m above
land degree. The oil thenar fruit is a stone fruit, the outer mush of which provides the thenar oil for commercialism. Within the mush or mesocarp lies a hard-shelled nut incorporating the thenar meat, subsequently to supply two farther commercial merchandises, i.e. palm meat oil ( instead similar in composing to coconut oil ) , the residuary farm animal nutrient and thenar meats cake.
The rate of extension of the root is really variable and depends on both environmental and familial factors. Under normal plantation status, the mean addition in tallness will be from 0.3 to 0.6 m per twelvemonth, breadth of the root varies from 20 to 75 centimeter, erect, heavy, and short pantss ringed. The root maps as a supporting, vascular and storage organ. The figure of foliages green goodss yearly by a plantation thenar increases to between 30 and 40 at 5 to 6 old ages of age. Thereafter the production declines to a degree of 20 to 25 per annum. Naibaho stated that the oil thenar fruit grows in big clump with the weight of 20 to 70 kilograms and each fruit clump is incorporating 500-4000 single fruits. The fruit clump may make 50 centimeter in length and 35 centimeter in comprehensiveness. The clump consists of outer and interior fruit, the latter slightly flattened and less pigmented ; a few alleged parthenocarpic fruit that have developed even through fertilisation has non taken topographic point ; some small-undeveloped non-oil-bearing ‘infertile fruit ‘ ; and the clump and spine chaffs and spinal columns. The clime characteristics of the chief countries of highest clump production summarized as follows:
Rain of 2000 millimeter or more distributed equally through the twelvemonth, i.e. no really pronounced dry seasons,
A average maximal temperature of about 29 a?’ 30 a-¦C and a average minimal temperature of about 22 a?’ 24 a-¦C – sunlight amounting to about 5 hours per twenty-four hours in all months of the twelvemonth and lifting to 7 hours per twenty-four hours in some months, or solar radiation of around 350 cal per cm2 per twenty-four hours.
Oil thenar position in Malaysia
About 4.3 million hectares of land in Malaysia in under oil thenar cultivation bring forthing, a growing of 3.4 % compared to 2006 ( MPOB,2007 ) and it is expected to increase each twelvemonth to carry through the demand of palm oil. So, each twelvemonth 1000000s of trees will be felled down for replanting activities, which leave million of three-dimensional metre biomass from oil thenar tree.
Economic life span of oil thenar tree between 25 to 30 old ages. After that, most of the oil thenar tree will be cut down for replanting once more. Due to this fact, Malaysia have been confronting a serious environmental jobs refering to the solid bio-waste handling of oil thenar industry, peculiarly the oil thenar bole after replanting activity. Get downing 2010, it is predicted that more than 20 1000000s three-dimensional metre biomass from oil thenar bole available yearly ( MPOB, 2007 )
Oil thenar wood characters
As a monocotyledonous species, oil thenar does non hold cambium, secondary growing, growing rings, beam cells, sapwood and duramen or subdivisions and knots. The growing and increase in diameter of the root consequence from the overall cell division and cell expansion in the parenchymatous land tissue, together with the expansion of the fibres of the vascular packages. Looking at a transverse sectional position of the oil thenar bole, Killmann and Choon ( 1985 ) distinguished three chief parts, viz. cerebral mantle, peripheral part and cardinal zone.
The root maps as a supporting, vascular and storage organ. A broad cardinal cylinder is separated from a really narrow cerebral mantle through which the foliage hints base on balls. The cylinder has a broad peripheral zone of engorged vascular packages with hempen basts sheaths, and the intervening parenchyma cells are sclerosed. Thus this zone provides the chief mechanical support of the root. The vascular packages are much less congested in the cardinal zone ( Hartley, 1984 ) . The cardinal zone consists of larger and widely scattered vascular packages embedded in the thin walled parenchymatous tissue. Each vascular package consists of a hempen sheath, bast cells, xylem, and parenchyma cells and surrounded by spherical, druses-like silicon oxide organic structures. The xylem is ever sheathed with parenchyma cells and normally consists of one or two broad vass ( Lim and Gan, 2005 ) .
The proportions of vascular package per square unit addition somewhat over root height in the nucleus of the oil thenar root but lessening at the fringe. Harmonizing to Tomlinson ( 1961 ) , the constructions of the vascular packages vary well over the root tallness. This observation can be supported by the grounds that while the packages in the nucleus country of oil thenar at 3 m degree in their bulk are narrow, extended strands, the nucleus country at 11 m degree seems to be congested with thicker, helically running vascular packages ( Hartley, 1984 ) . This behaviour may account for the addition in denseness in the nucleus part. This growing form may partially be due to the immature age of the thenars because by turning taller the vascular packages may stretch and their form over a stem country may demo more parallel strands ( Killmann and Lim, 1986 ) .
Figure 2.0: The distribution of parenchyma and vascular packages in the outer and interior portion of the bole. Beginning: Bakar et al. , 2007
Oil thenar Wood Properties
Physical and mechanical belongingss of OPW are extremely diverse from the outer to the Centre of the root. Wood from outer portion is much stronger than that from the Centre. This is because of the different denseness between the outer portion and interior portion. The ground is because the vascular package dominated the outer zone bole while the interior zone bole is dominated by parenchyma tissues.
As a solid wood stuff, OPW has 4 weak points: ( 1 ) really low in strength, ( 2 ) really low in lastingness, ( 3 ) really low in dimensional stableness and ( 4 ) really bad machining behaviour ( Bakar,2008 ; 2008 ) .
188.8.131.52 Physical Properties of Oil PalmWood
184.108.40.206.1 Moisture Content
Killmann and Choon stated that initial wet content of the oil thenar wood varies between 100 and 500 % . Lim and Khoo farther stated that a gradual addition in wet content is indicated along the bole tallness and towards the cardinal part, with the outer and lower zone holding far lower values than the other two zones. Whilst, Bakar et Al. stated that based on deepness of the bole, the highest wet content was reached at the cardinal of bole and a gradual lessening to the outer portion of bole. These values were between 258 % and 575 % . An increasing in the figure of vascular packages was caused of a decreasing in per centum of parenchyma cells which have high capacity in H2O soaking up. Bakar et Al. farther stated that based on the bole height factor ; there was a inclination that the wet content was decreased from the underside to the top of the oil thenar tree. They predicted that it was influence by the consequence of Earth gravitation, where the H2O distribution to the higher portion of the bole requires higher quibbler force per unit area. Bakar et al. once more stated that the variant analysis was showed that both the bole tallness and deepness were important at the degree of 0.01 to the value of wet content.
The shrinking value of oil thenar wood was varies between 25 % and 74 % . Based on the bole deepness, the highest value of shrinking was reached at the cardinal portion and a bit by bit lessening to the outer portion. Whilst, based on the bole tallness, from the bottom portion to the tallness of 2.75 m, this value was lower comparison to the other parts. Harmonizing to their findings, there was a inclination that a gradual addition in shrinkage value is indicated along the bole tallness, except at the tallness of 2.75 m. Sing this phenomenon, Prayitno farther mentioned his sentiment that it was an anomalousness for the oil thenar bole at 2.75 m tallness.
Due to its monocotyledonous nature, there is a great fluctuation of denseness values at different parts of the oil thenar root. Density values range from 200 to 600 kg/m3 with an mean denseness of 370 kg/m3 and harmonizing to the experiment consequence from Bakar et Al. who conducted the probe based on assortment of Tenera, the denseness was varies between 110 and 400 kg/m3. Lim and Khoo farther stated that the denseness of oil thenar bole decreases linearly with the bole tallness and towards the Centre of the bole. This is reflected in the clear differentiation observed in hardness and weight between the outer and interior parts and the butt and higher parts of the bole. The outer part throughout the bole shows denseness values over twice those of the interior parts. These fluctuations are due to several factors. Across the bole the denseness is influenced mostly by the figure of vascular packages per square unit which decreases towards the centre. However, fluctuations in denseness along bole tallness are due to the vascular packages being younger at the top and of the thenar. Although higher in figure per square centimetre, the package here are smaller in size and the cell walls are thinner. Higher denseness values in the peripheral zone are besides due to the undermentioned grounds:
Presence of radially extended hempen sheaths,
Lesser figure of vass and general absence of extended protoxylem in the outer vascular packages.
Increasingly thicker walls of the land parenchyma cells from the inner to the outer zones
Presence of better developed secondary walls in the fibers.
Sadikin stated that the oil thenar bole can be use as wood building until 2/3 from the
outer portion across the bole and the other 1/3 portion can be used for doing house tools. In add-on, Sadikin suggested that the use of oil thenar bole for building intents was better to utilize 1/3 from outer portion of the bole, based on the undermentioned grounds:
The specific gravitation of oil thenar bole at peripheral zone was highly different with the cardinal and interior zone,
The shrinking values of oil thenar bole at both cardinal and interior zones was far higher values that peripheral zone,
Sing the denseness value, Bakar et Al. stated that based on the bole deepness, the denseness was a gradual lessening from the outer portion to the interior portion across the bole, but based on the bole tallness, the relation between tallness and denseness was non clear, although the denseness value at the bottom portion was comparatively lower comparison to the other parts. Further, based on the mean denseness values, Bakar et Al. defined the categorization of strength category of the oil thenar bole that strength category III for peripheral zone, strength category IV for cardinal zone and strength category V for interior zone.
Figure 2.1- Relative diameter alteration of oil thenar ‘s vascular packages and bole along the tallness of the bole. Beginning: Bakar et al. , 2007
220.127.116.11.4 Fibre Dimensions
Oil thenar wood fibres show a little addition in length from the butt terminal to a tallness of 3 to 5 metres before diminishing continuously towards the top. Longer fibers at the butt are likely due to more full-blown hempen tissue in this part. Oil thenar fiber length additions from fringe to the interior portion. Mean fibre length scope from 1.76 millimeter at fringe to 2.37 millimeter at the interior portion. This is due to the nature of the thenar growing where the overall addition in trunk diameter is due to expansion of the hempen bundle sheath, peculiarly those attach toing the vascular packages in the cardinal part. Lim and Khoo stated that fibre diameter lessenings along bole tallness because broader fibers are to be found in the larger vascular packages nearer the base of the thenar bole and frailty versa.
18.104.22.168 Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Wood
Killmann and Choon have investigated the mechanical belongingss of oil thenar bole ( 30 old ages old ) and compared to the other species, such as coconut wood and rubberwood. Mechanical belongingss of oil thenar bole reflect the denseness fluctuation observed in the bole both in radial every bit good as in the perpendicular way. Bending strength values are obtained from the peripheral lower part of the bole and the cardinal nucleus of the top part of the bole gives the lowest strength. Bending strength of oil thenar bole is comparable to coconut wood, but lower compared to rubberwood. Variation of the compaction strength analogue to grain besides follows the same tendency as the bending strength. The compaction strength value is comparable to rubberwood at similar denseness value. The hardness value of oil thenar bole is lower than rubberwood every bit good as coconut wood. The mechanical belongingss of oil thenar wood based on Tenera assortment probes were meanwhile greatly advanced by Bakar et Al. They came to the decision that all belongingss tested including MOE, MOR, compressive strength, cleavage strength, shear strength, hardness and stamina were decreased from the outer to the centre and from the underside to exceed of the bole, where the influence of bole deepness factor was higher than the bole tallness. Based on the mechanical belongingss, the most outer portion of the oil thenar bole which is comparable to the Sengon wood ( Paraserianthes falcataria ) and belongs to the strength category III to V were considered could be used for light lodging buildings and furniture. Bakar et Al. stated that the mean MOE values at assorted places shown that those values are indicated a gradual lessening in MOE along the bole tallness and deepness. The MOE value scope varies between 2908 kg/cm2 and 36289 kg/cm2. Variation of the MOR besides follows the same tendency as the MOE. The average values of MOR at peripheral, cardinal and interior zones were approximately 295.41 kg/cm2, 129.04 kg/cm2 and 66.91 kg/cm2, severally. Statistical analysis of MOE value showed that the differences in bole deepness consequence significantly at the degree of 0.01 and the bole height merely influence significantly at the degree of 0.05. It means that in order to bring forth the homogeneous timber, the bole depth place should be taken into attending, particularly in finding the sawing form before pounding procedure.
Use of oil thenar wood
Due to its low quality, OPW and other parts of oil thenar biomass are still underutilized. Harmonizing to Bakar ( 2000 ) merely OPW from one tierce of the bole radius ( outer part of the bole ) possesses the possible to be used as solid wood. Even so, its built-in imperfectnesss such as the strength, lastingness, dimensional stableness and machining features must foremost be solved utilizing a comprehensive intervention.
Malayas have the possible to bring forth OPW from its current immerse oil thenar plantation, it has been known that from each hectare of oil thenar plantation there are about 120-130 full-blown trees each with a volume of 1.5m3. This means that there is about 180-195m3 of oil thenar log that can be generated from replanting of each hectare. In fact, the oil thenar industry produces more than 15 million three-dimensional metres of OPT each twelvemonth during replanting ( Kamaruddin et al. , 2007 ) . To bring forth the outer timber and maximise the outer lumber recovery, Bakar ( 2000 ) developed a new sawing form ( Figure 2.2 ) for OPT called “ Polygon Sawing ” , which able to accomplish a recovery every bit high as 30 % ( Bakar et al. , 2006 ) . If this sawing form is used, about 54-58 M3s existent OPW ( the outer timber ) can be produced from each replanting hectare.
To recognize the use of OPW as solid wood, the quality of OPW needed to be enhanced. Several surveies have been made to better the OPW quality. The latest survey by Bakar ( 2000 ) revealed that the belongingss of OPW can be improved significantly after being treated with low molecular weight PF rosin through a modified compreg method, besides known as “ ComPress ” method, it was revealed that all four weak points of OPW can be at the same time resolved on this intervention ( Bakar et al. , 2005 ) .
Figure 2.2: Modified sawing form ‘Polygon sawing ‘ ( Beginning: Bakar et al. , 2007 )
The “ ComPress ” method besides known as “ modified compreg ” method was developed by bakar ( 2000 ) on following the conventional compreg method. Its consists of four chief procedure: ( 1 ) drying, ( 2 ) impregnation, ( 3 ) re-drying and ( 4 ) crook hot pressure.
Harmonizing to Bakar et al. , ( 2000 ) , “ Compress ” method utilizing phenol methanal ( PF ) is considered as one effectual method to handle OPW comprehensively. This method improved the mentioned four failing of OPW by make fulling the cell lms of OPW through phases of impregnation of PF rosin that act as an adhesive binding the vascular packages and parenchyma tissues together ( Bakar et al. , 2001 ; 2003 ) . PF rosin penetrates more into the wood cells if low molecular weight PF is used, as it has smaller molecules.
Low molecular weight Phenol Formaldehyde ( PF ) rosin
Phenol methanal ( PF ) polymers are the oldest category of man-made polymers, holding been developed at the beginning of the twentieth century ( Detlefsen, 2002 ) . These rosins are widely used in both laminations and complexs because of their outstanding lastingness, which derives from their good adhesion to wood, the high strength of the polymer, and the first-class stableness of the adhesive. In most lastingness testing, PF adhesives exhibit high wood failure and resist delamination ( Frihart, 2005 ) .
In general, PF adhesives can run into the bonding demands for most wood applications if cost and heat hardening times are non an issue. For all these adhesives, phenol is reacted with methanal or a formaldehyde precursor under the proper conditions to bring forth a rosin that can undergo farther polymerisation during the scene procedure. For most wood adhesive applications, the resole rosins are used because they provide a soluble adhesive that has good wood wetting belongingss and the remedy is delayed until activated by heat leting merchandise assembly clip ( Frihart, 2005 ) . Based on the consequences of Langwid et Al. ( 1968 ) and Bryant ( 1966 ) they concluded that phenolic rosin tends to increase bending and compaction belongingss, but cut down tenseness strength, stamina and dynamic belongingss.
Impregnation method with rosin into the wood construction can increase the lastingness, strength and dimensional stableness ( Suminar, 1990 ; Rowell, 1987, 1999 ) . But, impregnation with high molecular weight PF does non bring forth better betterment the quality of oil thenar wood due to the phenol rosin can non perforate into the wood construction. Resin incursion can be improved by utilizing compreg technique ( force per unit area or vacuum-press ) or utilizing low molecular weight PF rosin ( Bakar et al. , 2001 ) .
Materials and methodological analysis
Oil thenar wood ( from the outer portion )
Chainsaw, set saw, table proverb, round proverb and radial arm proverb.
Planer and Sanding machine
Impregnation cylinder with vacuity and compressor
Desiccator ( stipulate humid status )
Bend-Curved Hot imperativeness machine
Cosmopolitan Testing Machine
Low molecular weight PF with solid content 15 %
3.3 Sample readying
Oil thenar bole used in this survey is more than 25 old ages old. Sample was taken from the outer portion of the bole utilizing polygon sawing form. Afterwards, sample dipped in borax solution to protect from Fungi, white ants and other insects. Put the sample into drying-kiln with soft agenda until 15 % wet content has been reached. Then, samples were cut with variable initial thickness which were ( 1.5 x 12 ten 100cm ) , ( 2.25 x 12 ten 100cm ) and ( 3 x 12 ten 100cm ) . 33 piece of sample needed to carry through this survey and label the specimens and coding each intervention.
Figure 3.1: Sawing Pattern of Oil Palm Log
Weigh and enter the initial weight for all the labeled specimens. Last, concluding weight of the specimens will be calculated by the expression below:
MC = Moisture Content ( % )
Wi = Initial weight of specimen
Wf = Final weight of specimen
3.4.1. Compreg method
Production strategy of treated oil thenar wood utilizing lmw-PF 15 %
Oil thenar wood specimens
Size: ( 4 x 11 ten 100 ) centimeter
Soft agenda kiln drying
Temp: 60 0C ; Time: 1 month
Impregnation with lmw-PF 15 % *
Vacuum for 15 proceedingss
Pressure for 30 proceedingss on 120 pounds per square inch.
By oven: Temp. 60 0C ; Time: 24 hours, or
By microwave: high power for 6-12 proceedingss
Temp: 150 0C ; Time: 30 proceedingss ; soap. 85 saloon ( SP-1 )
Pressing degree: 50 % ; imperativeness cycle*
Oven: 100EsC, 48 hour
Conditioning and Properties test
Research methodological analysis was steering and carry oning all activities during the experimental plant, both in the field and research lab, on the footing of the research methods or processs which were mentioning to the criterion of analysis. It was besides depicting and explicating each research activities based on the standard testing and demand, such as American Standard Testing Method ( ASTM ) and German Standard ( DIN ) . Get downing from the finding of trying country, tree choice, tree measuring, bole processing such as felling, pounding, transporting, drying and specimen fabrication, etc. , oil thenar wood support and eventually the experimental information analysis.
Research Frame of Oil Palm Wood
Oil Palm Wood
Straight treated OPW
Bend-curve untreated OPW
Bend-curve treated OPW
Optimum status based on old survey
High MC ( & gt ; 100 % )
Steamering 1 hours, 100a-¦C
Thickness variable ( 3 )
MC before microwave drying ( 3 )
Properties trial and analysis
Analytical informations drawn through observation method in full surface and calculate curve corners ( flex angle arrested development ) with brand comparing between variable initial thicknesses of sample size. Besides, find the type of defect, physical, and mechanical belongingss of treated OPW after pressing through description analysis and comparing between bend-curved treated-OPW at different fabricating status and consecutive treated-OPW will be made. Experimental design observation and description are shown below.
Thickness ( centimeter )
Bend angle Arrested development
( alterations angle )
27 pieces treated OPW
B1, B2, B3-variable megahertz in oven-microwave re-drying
This survey is to obtain higher acceptable curve imperativeness rhythm agenda depend on 3 different thickness and an optimum concluding drying period of oil thenar wood through physical and mechanical belongingss. Furthermore, the imperativeness rhythm agenda, extra drying can cut down formaldehyde emanation significantly. Hence the treated oil thenar wood could be use as alternate stuff which is environmentally friendly to utilize, for high public presentation structural and furniture intents.