One of the most serious society problems in Cambodia today is domestic violence. A study revealed that more than 10 per cent of Cambodian men reported that they used violence on their wives. Between 15 and 25 percent of Cambodian women are beaten by their husbands and nearly 74 percent of women know someone who has been a victim of domestic violence. Domestic violence is defined as ” assault and coercive behaviors that adults use against their intimate partner. Domestic Violence is a violent confrontation between family or household members involving physical harm, sexual assault, or fear of physical harm.
Family or household members include spouses or former spouses, those in a dating relationship, adults related by blood or marriage, and those who have biological or legal parent-child relationship. Domestic violence has many forms including physical aggression (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, throwing objects), or threats thereof; sexual abuse, emotional abuse controlling or domineering; intimidation, stalking, passive or covert abuse, and economic deprivation. Accordingly, there are several factors that cause these problems.
What are they? First is because of stress. It may be increased when a person is living in a family situation, with increased pressures. Social stresses, due to inadequate finances or other such problems in a family may further increase tensions. Violence is not always caused by stress, but may be one way that some people respond to stress. Families and couples in poverty may be more likely to experience domestic violence, due to increased stress and conflicts about finances and other aspects.
Some speculate that poverty may hinder a man’s ability to live up to his idea of “successful manhood”, thus he fears losing honor and respect. Theory suggests that when he is unable to economically support his wife, and maintain control, he may turn to misogyny, substance abuse, and crime as ways to express masculinity. Social learning theory suggests that people learn from observing and modeling after others’ behavior. With positive reinforcement, the behavior continues. If one observes violent behavior, one is more likely to imitate it.
If there are no negative consequences, then the behavior will likely continue. Often, violence is transmitted from generation to generation in a cyclical manner. In some relationships, violence is posited to arise out of a perceived need for power and control, a form of bullying and social learning of abuse. Moreover, using too much alcohol is also one cause. When a man uses much more drinks that contain the alcohol substance, he will be drunk, and lose his consciousness, so he will do what he does not pretend to do.
He will fight his spouse or someone else in the family if they do something that is not satisfying him. But he may not do like this when he is not drunk. One more thing for this point, if someone has something secret in his or her mind, they will reveal it when they are drunk. For example, a man, he is such a bad person; he always wants to fight his wife while she commits something wrong even a little thing but he may not do it. But if he is drunk, he will do want he want to do without scare whatever future problem he will confront. Another factor is illiteracy of the people.
Some illiteracy people seem does not think to find the solution to solve the problem they face, but they use the physical power which is given by birth instead. They also think they are also right, and the others wrong, it is the perspective of the illiterate people, that is why the violence usually occurs in their society. There are a number of consequences for children exposed to domestic violence. Unfortunately, most of what is known comes from children in shelters, thus limiting our ability to generalize. Reactions to domestic violence vary and change over the developmental life course.
For instance, infants and toddlers may experience listlessness, failure to thrive, and problems with trust while preschool children may react through behaviors such as aggression, cruelty to animals, or clinging. For elementary school-aged children, it is a critical time for learning how to relate to women. Thus, witnessing abuse during this time can foster disrespect for females and reinforce sex role stereotypes. Experiencing domestic violence in adolescence may not only influence school achievement and self-esteem, but also provide the example for dating violence.
Resultantly, women, children, and men become the victims of the domestic violence that provides them many serious disadvantages. Firstly, suffering of domestic violence, women are inflicted with devastating effects on both physical and mental health. Those physical risks include homicide, serious injuries, unplanned pregnancy, and suicide. About the mental illness that women can face are depression, fear, anxiety, low self-esteem etc. On top of that, children who have witnessed domestic violence or have themselves been abused, exhibit health and behavior problems, including problems with their weight, their eating and their sleep.
They may have difficulty at school and find it hard to develop close and positive friendships. They may try to run away or even display suicidal tendencies. Lastly, the men himself who perpetrate the most also gets the affects from domestic violent. They can be injure or kill by his wife or his children back in order to defend themselves. More seriously, the man who commit domestic violence will be sentence, then he will loses everything; his family, home, job and be sorry for his rest life. All in all, domestic violence is really the most serious problem in Cambodia society.
This problem can cause by many reasons so in order to appropriately address domestic violence, a society must acknowledge it as a gender status problem – the result of viewing women as second-class citizens. Also, the private and family view of domestic violence implies that the state has no duty or ability to intervene. This view allows police to turn a blind eye to abuse. The passage of the Law on the Prevention of Domestic Violence and the Protection of Victims indicates a change in the government’s view of domestic violence from a private to a public problem.
However, the law must be enforced by the justice system in order for the societal views on domestic violence begin to change. Further, we have to stand up and help each other to fight against this problem. We have to create the violence against women which is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which have led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men.