differences in the nursing management for patient diagnosed with hypovolemic
shock, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure.
Hypovolemic Shock is the most common type of shock,. “In any emergency, the onset of shock should
be anticipated by assessing all injured people immediately the underlying cause
of shock (hypovolemic, cardiogenic, neurogenic anaphylactic or septic.) must be
determined. Hypovolemia is the most common cause.” (Hinkle & Cheever, 2014,
Nursing management of the hypovolemic patient is to prevent
shock monitoring for fluid deficits and providing fluid replacement. For
cardiogenic patient the nurse will be administering oxygen to the patient and
decreasing the patient’s workload to his or her heart. Cardiogenic shock cannot be prevented however
further episodes can by effectively managed by the patient’s symptoms. If
unable to reverse or prevent hypovolemic shock medications are also considered.
“Insulin if secondary to hyperglycemia, Antidiarrheal agents for diarrhea and
antiemetic medications for vomiting.” (Hinkle & Cheever, 2014, p 297)
Heart failure is defined as “structural or functional
cardiac disorders that impair the ability of the ventricles to fill or eject
blood” (Hinkle & Cheever, n.d.) heart failure is also characterized as
fluid over load, some congestive heart failure patients often have issues with
pulmonary and or peripheral edema due to this the heart cannot meet the bodies
demands hence causing decreased tissue perfusion. Nursing management for the
patient with Heart Failure includes educate on pharmacological therapies,
decrease patient workload and deconditioning, monitor for signs and symptoms of
increase fluid in the patient.
Because heart failure
can be a chronic condition, identify a priority teaching intervention for the
patient with a new diagnosis of heart failure.
The priority teaching that I as a nurse would provide to the
patient with Chronic heart failure would be to provide education to the patient
on activity, how to manage their fluid volume, and control anxiety. The heart is one of the
main power sources of the body and even though heart failure is present one
should still exercise, eat right and make lifestyle changes to better prolong
their lives. When one is diagnosed with a disease the anxiety alone can cause
enough havoc in a person to make them not want to provide the self-care needed with
medication, exercise and everyday ADL’s. Education about the disease and it’s
process I feel is the number one priority in a stable patient. For a non-stable
patient, I would manage symptoms the patient is currently experiencing at that time within the disease
Hinkle, J., & Cheever, K. Brunner & Suddarth’s
textbook of medical-surgical nursing.