## DEPARTMENT the control of mud density. The

DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

COVENEANT UNIVERSITY,

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CANNANLAND, OTA, OGUN STATE.

PET327

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY

A REPORT ON EXPERIMENT 1- DENSITY OF DRILLING FLIUD

BY

EMERUWA DENNIS

15CN03244

GROUP C

20TH JANUARY, 2018

ABSTRACT

The density
of any fluid is directly related to the amount and average specific gravity of
the solids in the system. The starting point of pressure control is the control
of mud density. The weight of a column of mud in the hole necessary to balance
formation pressure is the reference point from which all pressure control
calculations are based. The density of the mud is very essential in order to
maintain the pressure exerted by the static and dynamic of the mud column. The
main apparatus used to determine the density of a mud is known as the mud
balance. This process explains the various processes involved in using mud
balance to measure the weight of the mud.

1.    TITLE

2.    ABSTRACT

3.    INTRODUCTION

4.    EQUIPMENT (with diagrams)

5.    PROCEDURES

6.    CALIBRATION

7.    MUD MIXING

8.    DENSITY MEASUREMENT

9.    RESULTS

10. CONCLUSION

11.REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

In order for
us to determine the density or weight of a given mud, we can use a mud balance.
In our experiment a 4-scale metal mud balance was used. The mud balance is
being made in a way that the fixed volume cup at one end of the beam is
balanced by a fixed counter weight at the opposite end, with a sliding weight
rider free to move along the graduated scale and calibrated to read directly
the density of the mud in four scale ranges, density also affects drilling mud
because of the the mud balance used which are;

6.5- 23.0
lbs/gal (ppg)

0.79 – 2.73
specific gravity (s.g)

49 – 179
lbs/ft3

340 – 1190
psi/1000ft

EQUIPMENT

1.    4- scale mud balance

Fig.1: 4-scale mud balance with
carrying case

2.    Hamilton beach mixer

3.    Measuring cylinder

4.    Weighing balance

5.    Spatula

6.    Syringe

PROCEDURES

CALIBRATION

1.
I
filled the cup with fresh water. Replace the lid and wipe dry

2.
I
set the rider on 8.3ppg or 1.0s.g. I added or removed lead shot from the shot
well until instrument is in balance.

3.
If
the reading is less than 8.3ppg, add the difference between 8.3ppg and the
8.3ppg, subtract ii the same manner..

MUD MIXING

70g of bentonite in 700mlof water

Sample 1: 35g mixed in 350ml of water

Sample 2: sample 1 + 10g of barite

1.
I
measured appropriate amount of bentonite and barite.

2.
In
the mixing cup, I poured the measured amount of water.

3.
I
turned on the mixer and carefully added the bentonite.

4.
I
mixed until it was completely homogenous.

5.
For
Sample 2, I added barite and repeated step 4.

MEASUREMENT

1.
I
Placed the mud balance base (in its carrying case) on a  level surface

2.
I
ensured the cup is clean and dry, I removed the lid and fill with the mud being
tested.

3.
I
replaced the lid on the cup. I made sure that some mud is expelled through the
hole in the cup as this showed that the cup is full and will remove any trapped
air or gas.

4.
I
Placed my finger on the hole in the lid while cleaning and wiping off the mud
from the outside of the cup

5.
I
placed the balance on the knife-edge and I moved the rider along the arm until
the cup and arm are balanced.

6.
I
took the readings if the mud weight

Repeat this for sample 2.

RESULTS

MUD DENSITY

Ppg

lb/ft3

s.g

psi/1000ft

Sample 1(WATER AND BENTONITE)

8.7

65

1.04

450

Sample
2(with barite, WATER AND BENTONITE)

8.9

66.55

1.11

460.05

PRECAUTION

1.    I ensured that I poured the water
first into the mixer to reduce the amount of lumps in the mud.

2.    I ensured that I removed the trapped
air in the cup before taking my measurement of density.

3.    I ensured accurate measurement of the
mud density.

4.    I avoided error due to parallax when
taking my reading at the lower meniscus.

5.    I ensured that the cup was completely
wiped before making sure it was balanced.

6.    I also ensured that I was wearing the
appropriate safety equipment the experiment.

Also, from
my results, it shows that solution 2 (with barite) is denser than solution 1
and this is because of the addition of barite to the solution as barite is a
weighting material.

CONCLUSION

At the end
of this experiment, I have come to the conclusion that this method is very
accurate in the measurement of mud density and also barite can be used to
increase mud density.

RECOMMENDATION

I recommend
that this method be encouraged as the mud balance is a fast, easy and accurate
method of measuring mud weight/density. Also, barite is a suitable weighting material
that can be used to increase the density if mud.

REFERENCES

Max R.
Annis, Martin V. Smith (1974); EXXON COMPANY, USA (August 1996). Drilling
Fluids Technology

King Fahd
University of Petroleum & Minerals (April, 2003). PETE 203: Drilling
Engineering Laboratory Manual

FANN (2012).
Model 821 Rig Laboratory Instruction Manual

Baker Hughes
(2006). Drilling Fluids Reference Manual

Engr.
Seteyeobot (2018). Drilling Mud Manual.