Catalysis In Enzymes And Biochemical Reactions Biology Essay

An enzyme is a protein that participates in biochemical reactions. It takes portion in these reactions by moving as a accelerator. A accelerator can do or rush up a chemical reaction without being affected. One thing a accelerator does to impact chemical reactions is it lowers the activation energy. Activation energy is the least sum of energy needed for a reaction to happen. A substrate, the molecule the enzyme acts upon, binds to the enzyme on the active site. Once the substrate is bonded to the enzyme, the activation energy is lowered, and the merchandises are formed. The enzyme is non changed during the reaction so it can move upon more than one substrate molecule. The activity of an enzyme can be changed in many ways:

Enzyme concentration: As the sum of an enzyme additions, the sum of the substrate that is broken down besides increases.

Figure OneA? : Affects of enzyme concentration on substrate dislocation

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Substrate Concentration: If the concentration of enzymes stays the same and the substrate degree additions, so the velocity at which the enzymes break the substrate down will increase until the enzyme reaches a maximal velocity.

Figure TwoA? : Enzyme velocity in relation to substrate concentration

Activators/Inhibitors: Enzyme inhibitors stop or decelerate down the rate of reaction, while activators speed up the rate of reaction. An inhibitor can barricade the enzyme ‘s existent substrate from adhering, unfold the enzyme, or change its form.

Figure ThreeA? : Enzyme suppression

Temperature: Chemical reactions speed up as temperature increasesa?? . However, a temperature optimum can be reached. A temperature optimal occurs when the temperature is so great that the enzyme begins to denature, or come apart. When this happens, enzyme activity lessenings

Figure Foura?µ : Affect of temperature on enzyme activity

pH: Like temperature, there an optimal pH. Highly high and highly low temperatures can greatly diminish enzyme activity.

Figure Fivea?¶ : Affect of pH on enzyme activity

One of import enzyme reaction prevents the build-up of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ , which is toxic. It does this by change overing it to H2O ( Ha‚‚O ) and O ( Oa‚‚ ) . Once the experiments have been completed, an apprehension of how temperature, pH, enzyme/substrate concentration, and environmental factors consequence a reaction will be understood. The hypothesis was that the longer the enzymes were in the Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ , the more Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ that will be broken down.

Materials and Methods:

Base Line:

2 beakers

1.5 % Ha‚‚Oa‚‚

Ha‚‚O

1.0M Ha‚‚SOa‚„ 10mL

Syringe

5mL pipette

Rubber Baseball gloves

White sheet of paper

KMnOa‚„

Put on the baseball mitts

Take 10mL of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ and put it in the beaker.

Add 1mL of Ha‚‚O to the same beaker.

Add 10mL of Ha‚‚SOa‚„ to the beaker. Use utmost cautiousness.

Mix the contents of the beaker.

Take a 5mL sample of the first beaker ‘s contents and topographic point it in a 2nd beaker.

Put the beaker with the sample onto the sheet of paper.

Draw 5mL of KMnOa‚„ into the pipette.

Use the pipette to add beads of KMnOa‚„ to the sample one at a clip, stirring after each bead. Keep making this until the sample turns pink or brown. Use cautiousness when utilizing KMnOa‚„ .

Record the sum of KMnOa‚„ remnant in the pipette in the pipette.

Uncatalyzed decomposition of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ :

15mL Ha‚‚Oa‚‚

2 beakers

1mL Ha‚‚O

10mL of 1.0M Ha‚‚SOa‚„

Pipet

3 panpipes

Put 15mL of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ in a beaker.

Shop it for 24 hours, uncovered.

Once 24 hours have elapsed, repeat stairss 2-10 from the base line experiment.

Record your informations.

Catalyzed decomposition of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ :

Stopwatch

1.5 % Ha‚‚Oa‚‚

14 beakers

3 panpipes

Ha‚‚SOa‚„

KMnOa‚„

Rubber baseball mitts

Enzyme catalase

7 5mL pipettes

Put 10mL of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ in a beaker.

Add 1mL of the enzyme catalase to the beaker.

Swirl the mixture for 10 seconds. Use the stop watch to clip.

Add 10mL of Ha‚‚SOa‚„ one time 10 seconds have elapsed.

Remove a 5mL sample and set it in a 2nd beaker.

Add beads of KMnOa‚„ to the sample one at a clip utilizing a syringe. Keep making this until the sample turns pink or brown. Record how much KMnOa‚„ is left in the pipette.

Obtain 2 more clean beakers and another clean pipette

Repeat stairss 1-7, but replace 10 seconds with 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 360 seconds

Consequences:

Base Line:

Concluding reading of syringe: _1.35_mL

Initial reading of syringe: __5__mL

Uncatalyzed decomposition of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ :

Concluding reading of syringe: _1.35_mL

Initial reading of syringe: __5__mL

Catalyzed decomposition of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ :

Concluding reading of pipette: _1.35_mL

Initial reading of pipette: __5__mL

Table One: Sum of KMnOa‚„ in the syringe

Time ( seconds )

10 30 60 90 120 180

KMnOa‚„ ( milliliter )

Base line

Final reading

2.2

3.2

3.4

3.7

2.8

2.4

Initial reading

5

5

5

5

5

5

Sum of KMnOa‚„ consumed

Sum of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ used

Discussion:

Base Line:

Concluding reading of pipette: _1.35_mL

Initial reading of pipette: __5__mL

Base line ( Final-initial ) _3.65_mL KMnOa‚„

In the experiment, the base line was found by deducting the concluding reading of the pipette from the initial reading of the pipette. The pipette started with 5mL of KMnOa‚„ ( initial reading ) and ended with 1.35mL of KMnOa‚„ ( concluding reading ) after the beads were added and the brown colour was achieved. By deducting the sums of KMnOa‚„ in the syringe, a basal line of 3.65mL was established.

Uncatalyzed decomposition of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ :

Concluding reading of pipette: _1.35_mL

Initial reading of pipette: __5__mL

Sum of KMnOa‚„ Titrant ( final-initial ) : _3.65_mL

Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ spontaneously decomposes at such a slow rate, that it is undetectable. Therefore, the sum of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ in the beaker after 24 hours was the same as the sum of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ in the base line experiment.

Catalyzed decomposition of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ :

Concluding reading of pipette: _1.35_mL

Initial reading of pipette: __5__mL

Base line ( Final-initial ) _3.65_mL KMnOa‚„

Table Two: Sum of KMnOa‚„ used in proportion to clip

Time ( seconds )

10 30 60 90 120 180

KMnOa‚„ ( milliliter )

Base line

3.65

3.65

3.65

3.65

3.65

3.65

Final reading

2.2

3.2

3.4

3.7

2.8

2.4

Initial reading

5

5

5

5

5

5

Sum of KMnOa‚„ consumed

2.8

1.8

1.6

1.3

2.2

2.6

Sum of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ used

.85

1.85

2.05

2.35

1.45

1.05

Figure Six: Sum of KMnOa‚„ used in proportion to clip

During the 10, 30, 60, and 90 2nd clip intervals, the KMnOa‚„ titrant used decreased. This is because the sum of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ in the beakers decreased due to the enzymes interrupting it down. The longer the enzyme was in the beaker, the more Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ that was broken down. The 120 and 180 2nd clip intervals were face-to-face. The sum of KMnOa‚„ titrant used did non diminish, but increased. This is because the reaction reached equilibrium. The 360 2nd clip interval used an sum of KMnOa‚„ that suggests there was more Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ in the beaker than was ab initio at that place. This is impossible so disregard that informations. The Ha‚‚SOa‚„ is an acid. It was added to the beakers to denature the enzymes. When enzymes become denatured, they can non work decently ( if they function at all ) .

Figure Seven: Sum of Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ Used

When the concentration of a substrate is greater than the concentration of an enzyme, so a lessening in the concentration of the substrate will non impact the interactions of the enzyme and substrate. This lone applies to a short period of clip at the beginning of the enzyme ‘s activity. The initial rate is the incline of the graph of the enzyme ‘s activity during the early part of the reaction. As the reaction gets longer, the rate that the substrate and enzyme interact at lessenings.

The hypothesis was partly right. During the 10, 30, 60, and 90 2nd clip intervals, the KMnOa‚„ titrant used decreased. The lessening in the sum of KMnOa‚„ that was needed shows that there was less Ha‚‚Oa‚‚ in the beaker. The 120 and 180 2nd clip intervals were face-to-face. The sum of KMnOa‚„ titrant used did non diminish, but increased. This is because the reaction reached equilibrium. Equilibrium is the point in the reaction where the concentration of a substrate is equal to the concentration of the products.a?·

Citations:

Worthington, . Enzyme Concentration. Worthington Biochemical Corporation, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/enzymeConc.html & gt ; .

Worthington, . Substrate Concentration. Worthington Biochemical Corporation, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/substrateConc.html & gt ; .

Worthington, . Inhibitors. Worthington Biochemical Corporation, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/inhibitors.html & gt ; .

College Board. AP Bio Lab Manual. USA: The College Board, 2001. Print.

Worthington, . Temperature Effects. Worthington Biochemical Corporation, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/tempEffects.html & gt ; .

Worthington, . Effectss of PH. Worthington Biochemical Corporation, 2010. Web. 7 Nov. 2010. & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/effectspH.html & gt ; .

Campbell, Neil A. , and Jane B. Reece. “ Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism. ” AP EDITION BIOLOGY Seventh Edition. Eds. Beth Wilbur, Deborah Gale, and Pat Burner. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, Inc. , 2005. 145. Print.