Cardiovascular referred for surgical treatment 6. Some

Cardiovascular disease is the most
important cause of death among men and women all over the world 1. Coronary endarterectomy (CE) combined
with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over 40 years ago was practiced in
patients with coronary artery atherosclerosis 2. Multiple factors involved in the pathophysiology of
atherosclerosis 3. Gender is one
of them that have a correlation with the development of atherosclerosis and
clinical outcomes of patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD) 4. Women present with less obstructive
epicardial stenosis, diffuse atherosclerosis and microvascular dysfunction 5. Because of different in clinical
presentation, women have delay in diagnosis so; they more often
referred for surgical treatment 6.

Some obvious differences in
outcomes after surgery between men and women have attracted considerable
attention 6. It has been
reported that female gender is an independent predictor for early 7 and late mortality after CABG 8, 9. Also evidence showed that
short-term mortality rate is higher in women 10.

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It has been demonstrated that
women had a higher in-hospital mortality rate after CABG than men 3, 11. Because they have a higher-risk factors
like age, small body size, small coronary arteries, more co-morbidity, and more
advanced disease than do their male counterparts 6. Previous papers discussing absolute long-term survival
have shown opposing results, where most of them show equal long-term survival 12, while other studies report worse
long-term survival in women 13.
In contrast, female long-term absolute survival is also reported to be better
than male 14-16. Significant
controversy exists in the literature over the effect of gender on CABG. The
focus of previous investigations has been primarily on in-hospital
complications and mortality 5–10 or long term survival and symptoms
in patients undergoing CABG 6,9,11,12. CE as an adjunct technique
for CABG may affect the outcomes and survival of patients with CAD. The role of
gender in the selection of the most effective method remains a matter of
debate. The Previous study comparing the effect of gender in CABG, but there is
not any information on the effect of gender on long and short term outcomes
following off pump coronary endarterectomy. Therefore, we aimed to examine
gender difference in long and short term outcomes following off pump coronary