no 1: Differentiate between somatic and germline mutation? Give at least two
examples of each?
Germ line mutation
The mutations which take place in the somatic
cells are called the somatic mutations.
mutations which take place in the cells that produce gametes are called
These mutations cannot pass from the parents to
These mutations can pass from parents to offspring.
it can pass from one generation to another generation.
These mutations occur during the type of cell
division which is called the mitosis.
mutations occur during the meiosis which is also a type of cell division.
When changes occur in the DNA of the somatic cells
then the somatic mutations occur. For example these occur in the cells of
eyes skin and liver etc.
When the changes occur in the DNA of the
germ cells then the germ line mutation occurs. These exist in the oogonia in
females and spermatogonia in female.
When this mutation occur the amount of cells which
have mutated gene depends on the stage of cell division.
this mutation, During the embryo stage all cells have effects of germ line
Example: Coat’s disease occurs due to this type of
Cancer disease also developed due to
porphyria and sickle cell anemia are the examples of germline mutation.
no2: Write a note on spontaneous and induced mutations?
are those mutations which develop duo to the natural changes in the DNA. The
origin of this type of mutation is unknown. These mutations take place duo to
the action of certain mutagenic agents which are present in the environment.
These are cause due to mutagenic chemicals. Those chemicals can be Cosmic rays.
They can be heat, radioactive compounds and naturally occurring base analogs.
Induced mutations are those mutations which are
artificially produced in the DNA of the living organisms. These are produced by
revealing the organisms to strange environment such as radiation and physical
conditions. For example, temperature.
There are certain agents which induced artificial
mutations in the organisms are called mutagens
or mutagenic agents. These can be
physical agents like X-rays, UV rays, alpha, beta and gamma rays.
There are some chemical agents like mustard gas
ethylene amine, colchicines and ethyl -methyl sulphonate.These chemicals are
used to produce mutations in the organisms or cells.
In addition to these chemicals there are certain
bases analogous. These are similar to the normal nucleotides or the normal
bases. DNA polymerases cannot distinguish between the normal base and base
analogs. These base analogs can be included into newly synthesized DNA