Apartheid is an African word that means separation or apartness. But in government Apartheid was a policy that denied black and other non-European South Africans many opportunities and basic freedoms that was set up by British colonies and two Boer republics in 1910. The policies of Apartheid were that the population was divided into 4 groups which were the whites, people of mixed race, blacks, and those of Asian origin. It segregated everything into white and nonwhites like restaurant, train cars, schools, and other public places.
In 1961 Apartheid officially ended when South Africa left the Commonwealth. Nelson Mandela was a brave man that was born in Transkei, South Africa on July 18, 1918. And his father Henry Mandela was Chief of the Tembu Tribe. He went to college at the University College of Fort Hare and also the University of Witwatersrand and qualified in law in 1942. After college he joined the African National Congress or ANC which was a non-violent civil rights organization in 1944. And during one of there protests he was arrested because he spoke out against the government in 1948.
Then he went to trial for treason throughout 1956-1961 and was acquitted in 1961. He was in jail for 27 years before they let him out on February11, 1990. When he got out he decided to run for President and he won the election. Even though the whites put him in jail for nothing he never wanted to take revenge on them he just wanted to help people and that is what he has been doing sense he won that election in 1991. And for his great achievements he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003.