Alphabet. The Japanese writing system
is very complicated. It uses three basic writing systems: kanji (Chinese
characters), hiragana (or “flat alphabet”, which consists of 48
characters, each of which denotes a single moore, and is used to record particles,
suffixes, after the root parts of the word, phonetic tips for kanji (furigans),as
well as preschool literature) and katakana (or “scarlet alphabet”
used today it is mainly for the recording of borrowed words of European origin,
foreign languages, own names (country, names, etc.) and terms, the equivalents
of which are not in Japanese). Modern Japanese also uses Latin in advertising
for company names and neologisms, such as a DVD.
modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters (each
having an uppercase and a lowercase form) – exactly the same letters that are
found in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Traditionally, Japanese write
or print from top to bottom and from right to left. So the book begins
“from the last page”. Modern Japanese can be written or printed on
the page in the same way as the English language. Despite these differences,
Japanese learners of English are rarely special difficulties with the English
form of writing. Latin font (and English in particular) meets most of the
Japanese in their everyday life from an early age. They also widely use
“romaji” (representation of the entire Japanese system of letters in Latin,
for example, to enter words using a computer keyboard or to help non-native
speakers to learn Japanese). But despite such a close relationship, the
differences between language systems remain more than significant.
Dictionary structure. A large
number of English words are used in Japanese language. This can help some
learners of the language learn English more quickly vocabulary A large amount
of borrowing is also a positive factor. There is a Gairaigo (???) that is Japanese for
“loan word” or “borrowed word”, and indicates a
transliteration (or “transvocalization”) into Japanese. In
particular, the word usually refers to a Japanese word of foreign origin that
was not borrowed in ancient times from Old or Middle Chinese, but in modern
times, primarily from English or from other European languages. These are
primarily written in the katakana phonetic script. Most, but not all, modern gairaigo
are derived from English, particularly in the post-World War II era (after
1945). Words are taken from English for concepts that do not exist in Japanese,
but also for other reasons, such as a preference for English terms or fashionability
– many gairaigo have Japanese synonyms.
The English words that are borrowed into Japanese include many of the
most useful English words, including high-frequency vocabulary and academic
vocabulary. Thus gairaigo may constitute a useful built-in lexicon
for Japanese learners of English.
Gairaigo have been
observed to aid a Japanese child’s learning of ESL vocabulary. With
adults, gairaigo assist in English-word aural recognition and
pronunciation, spelling, listening comprehension, retention of spoken and
written English, and recognition and recall at especially higher levels of
vocabulary. Moreover, in their written production, students of Japanese prefer
using English words that have become gairaigo to those that have
Some gairaigo words have been
reborrowed into their original source languages, particularly in the jargon of
fans of Japanese entertainment. For example, anime (???) is gairaigo derived from the English word for “animation”,
but has been reborrowed by English with the meaning of “Japanese
animation”. Similarly, puroresu (????) derives from “professional wrestling”, and has been adopted
by English-speaking wrestling fans as a term for the style of pro wrestling
performed in Japan. Kosupure (????), or cosplay, was formed from the English words “costume
play”, referring to dressing in costumes such as those of anime, manga, or
videogame characters, and is now used with enthusiasm in English and other
languages (also using Western cartoon realms).
Noun suffixes. There are several name
suffixes added after the Japanese names
-San is a
common suffix that is added after the name. It’s a term of courtesy. This
suffix you can compare with ms. or Mr. in English, but it is gender-neutral and
does not distinguish marital status. -San can never be used after its own name.
-Sama is a
more respectful form of the suffix -san. Often you can hear it in the words
okayaku-sama honorable visitor / visitor, or kami-sama (appeal to god).
-Chan is a
diminutive form from -san. Usually it is used after the names of relatives children,
or younger family members. It also fits after the names of pets.
-Kun is a
casual suffix. It is used to level, in random situations.
this suffix is ??often used in relation to boys. In office situations with the
help of this suffix, the higher rank are addressed to subordinates.
difficulties for Japanese learners of English exist not only on the basis of most
linguistic features, but also due to differences in cultures. Communication of
two people in Japan has a strong influence on such aspects as age, gender and
position in society. The Japanese as a rule, do not show excessive
self-confidence and seek to avoid inconvenience for yourself and your
There are many
other small variations between Japanese and English that can prevent the normal
reproduction of English. An example is the system pronouns Relative pronouns do
not exist in Japanese, and personal / possessive pronouns are used differently in
two languages. The result is the following errors: new in school teacher (= the
teacher who is new to the school) or He took off the glasses and brushed hair.
Metaphors. Metaphor is an expression
that transmits a sign of one subject or phenomenon for a description of
another. To some extent, we can say that the metaphor violates our notion about
semantic laws to convey an idea or to describe a phenomenon clearly. Metaphors
can be found in all genres and styles, in texts of different directions, as
well in written and spoken language. By origin, metaphors can be called
“alive”, which occupy such a place in the language- sources that can
be translated verbatim. Unfortunately, this does not work in all cases since metaphors
often have a certain subtlety of sound that is not transmitted properly manner
in verbatim translation.
Lexical metaphors can be
conventionally called half “alive”, half “dead”. They are
considered metaphors, but so firmly rooted in the language that they lost
theirs novelty and freshness. They are called lexical, since they have become
full linguistic components of the linguistic repertoire of all native speakers.
Here are some examples lexical metaphors in japanese language and peculiarities
of their translation: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?.
( Neko no temo karitai hodo
Such is busy, ready to even
borrow cat paws (sub-order translation) –
“I am very busy”
(have my hands full).
(Kamisama ni deatte kara ashi
After a meeting with God, I
washed my legs (sublime translation) – “After discovering a religion, he
broke off with a criminal past (chose the right way (“followed the right way”)).
Since many metaphors do not
have an analogue in the language of translation, verbatim translation rarely is
a good choice. In the translation, much depends on the goals pursued translator:
either the choice of an exact translation approach, close to the source, or the
purpose – functional translation.
Each time they encounter
cultures, interact and borrow something one at a time. So it happens in English
and Japanese. Every language borrowed in the other In the case of English,
there is a long list of borrowings. Some of them do not have any direct English
equivalent and describe the inalienable Japanese concepts. Others came from Japanese
through Chinese language Here are some examples from different ages:
sake – rice wine; Shohun – until 1867 the ruler in Japan; soybeans – beans;
ginkgo – from Chinese ‘silver apricot’; tree; kan – japanese alphabet the main
components of which are hiragana and katakana; koi – the local name of the
ordinary carp in japan Samurai is a member of the military caste of the
Japanese feudal system.
banzai – ten thousand years; a challenge that glorified the emperor in the
battle; bushido – in the feudal Japan, the samurai code;
Japanese Settsu-fuku pronunciation, harakiri.
bonsai – a Japanese potted plant or small tree, deliberately dwarfed; karate – ‘Empty
hand’; Japanese martial arts system; origami – (from ori ‘bend’ + kami ‘paper’)
– Japanese art bends paper in the form of bizarre figures.
The group of British
borrowings in Japanese is more significant. As a result of the economic,
political and cultural influence of Britain and the United States and the
emergence English as an international multilingual language absorbs borrowed
from English the language of the word, especially during the twentieth century.
The Japanese language contains thousands of such borrowings, many of which are
in universal use. Almost all borrowed words are now written in Japan in the
phonetic alphabet of katakana. Existence of a special phonetic font for
recording foreign words provides an opportunity to absorb any foreign word into
the Japanese linguistic system, even on a temporary basis. Borrowed words that
are part of the everyday Japanese language are opened to the additional
linguistic changes that are described below.
Phonological changes. The Japanese
sound system is based on almost 100 stores. In addition to clean vowels (a, i,
u, e and o), as well as the sound ‘n’, all the rest are loud and consonant. Borrowings
adapt to this system. Consonant clusters in English (except for those beginning
with ‘n’) are broken loud, as in the word tekunosutoresu (technostress), and
the English borrowings ending in a consonant, with the exception of ‘n’, are
finally added loud, as in the word beddo (bed). Some vowels that do not exist
in Japanese are replaced the nearest equivalent; For example, ‘th’ is usually represented by ‘s’ or
‘z’. Examples phonological changes in English consonants are shown in the table below:
Sound Change English Japanese
Ti – chi ticket chiketto
ji – di radio rajio
th – s thrill suriru
si – shi taxi takushi
zi – ji limousine rimujin
fo – ho headphone heddohon
v – b van ban
However, the most significant
in the development of modern Japanese language has become general and official
(1980s) the introduction of new syllables created specifically to allow the
pronunciation of foreign words origin as close as possible to their original sound.
Most of these words became spread only over the past few years and therefore
especially influences writing and pronunciation of words that appeared in the
language recently. Some are rarely used. Examples borrowed words containing
these warehouses are listed in the table below (the items are marked).
New combinations of words
There are many unique
combinations of English words. These neologisms are known in Japanese language like wasei eigo (english that became
one + piece
open + car
paper + test
order + stop
high + sense
good taste in
cheek + dance
Many words borrowed from the
basic English vocabulary are observed only in composites phrases, their respective Japanese word is used to represent an independent
meaning words Examples are parts of the word derived from English words man, woman,
boy, girl, baby car, home, air, tree, sun, food, etc. Examples of words that unite these
basic components: sarariman (salary for me), kyariauman (career woman), boyfriend, elevator girl, baby bed = cot, eukon (air conditioner), featuring
tsurii (Christmas tree), sangooru (sunglasses) and fuato fudo (fast food). The borrowed word fudo, for
example, is never used in itself in its main meaning – food.
Semantic changes. Borrowed
words inevitably become specific to the culture values. It would be difficult
to find a borrowed word that would preserve the same meaning or context use, as
well as the word of original origin. Even such a direct borrowing, for example,
konpyutaa (computer) has a different context because computers in Japan have bilingual
romaji/katakana keyboard and operating system in Japanese.